Published on March 12, 2014
Development and Evaluation of Key Competences
Basic skills (and their indicators) for ESO I. Linguistic communication. – Listen – Exhibit – Discuss – Read and write – Understand texts – Identify Ideas – Differentiate posts – Select objectives or purposes of the communication actions. – Doing it in a foreign language.
II. • MATHEMATICAL COMPETENCE • 1. Use numbers, measurements, symbols, geometric elements and relate them to reality. • 2. Apply calculations algorithms to identify the validity of some arguments. • 3. Find certainty through reasoning
III. • KNOWLEDGE AND INTERACTION WITH THE PHYSICAL WORLD. • 1. Accurate perception of the physical space in which life and human activity develop. • 2. Solve problems involving objects and their position. • 3. Be aware of the influence of people in space. • 4. Observing reality critically and analyze information and advertising messages. • 5. Arguing the consequences of different lifestyles. • 6. Propose relevant issues, ask questions and identify the knowledge available to answer them. • 7. Have ability to manage technical solutions to meet the needs of everyday life.
IV. • DATA PROCESSING AND DIGITAL COMPETENCE • 1. Search, select, process information using techniques and strategies to access it as the source and the medium used. • 2. Mastering specific languages. • 3. Convert information into knowledge through the organization to understand in previous and integrate knowledge schemes. • 4. Use information technology and communication in their dual role of transmitting information and knowledge generators.
V. • SOCIAL AND CIVIC COMPETENCE. • 1. Awareness of the existence of different perspectives to analyze reality. • 2. Turn to multicausal and systems analysis to examine social and historical issues and talk to collectively improve the understanding of reality. • 3. Understand the features of modern societies, demonstrating understanding of the contribution of different cultures. • 4. It implies knowing that conflicts of values and interests are part of the living. • 5. Be aware that not all personal position is ethical if it is not based on respect for shared values and principles (such as enclosing Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
VI. • CULTURAL AND ARTISTIC COMPETENCE • 1. Understand and appreciate the cultural event in general and art in particular. • 2. Perceive and understand different realities and products of world art and culture. • 3. Initiative, imagination and creativity to express through artistic codes. • 4. An awareness of the importance of the initiatives and contributions of others. • 5. Relate the evolution of thought with aesthetic trends, tastes and fashions. • 6. Value freedom of expression and the importance of intercultural dialogue.
VII. • LEARNING TO LEARN. • 1. Awareness of one's own skills and strategies to develop them. • 2. Curiosity to pose questions and handle various possible answers. • 3. Ability to get information and transform it into knowledge. • 4. Consider achievable short, medium and long term.
VIII. • AUTONOMY AND PERSONAL INITIATIVE. • 1. Ability to set goals, plan and carry out projects. • 2. Find solutions and implement them. • 3. Being able to relate the difficulty of the goal with the capabilities, desires and projects. • 4. Having social skills such as assertiveness, flexibility, and teamwork. • 5. Leadership.
Competences and NVQs Margaret Thatcher (1925) Margaret Thatcher, during his term in office, developed a policy, as written in history as 'Thatcherism', based on the extrem application of the liberal- conservative principles, which, largely dismantled the welfare state achieved by previous governments. He left unemployed a large number of workers with no qualifications or a qualification that could lead them to aspire to a job. An Englishwoman who wrote history by being the first woman to hold the post of Prime Minister of Great Britain (1979-1990).
What are NVQ's? • What are NVQs? • National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are work-related, competence-based qualifications. They reflect the skills and knowledge needed to do a job effectively, and show that a candidate is competent in the area of work the NVQ represents. • NVQs are based on national occupational standards. These standards are statements of performance that describe what competent people in a particular occupation as expected to be able to do. They cover all the main aspects of an occupation, including current best practice, the ability to adapt to future requirements and the knowledge and understanding that underpin competent performance. • They are drawn from the study and analysis of the posts.
They refer to a sector • National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are vocational awards in England & Wales (In Scotland they are known as Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ)) that are achieved through assessment and training. They are practical qualifications based on being able to do a job. There are five levels of NVQ, ranging from Level 1, which focuses on basic work activities, to Level 5 for senior management. • Level 1 • Competence that involves the application of knowledge in the performance of a range of varied work activities, most of which are routine and predictable. • Level 2 • Competence that involves the application of knowledge in a significant range of varied work activities, performed in a variety of contexts. Some of these activities are complex or non-routine and there is some individual responsibility or autonomy. Collaboration with others, perhaps through membership of a work group or team, is often a requirement. • Level 3 • Competence that involves the application of knowledge in a broad range of varied work activities performed in a wide variety of contexts, most of which are complex and non-routine. There is considerable responsibility and autonomy and control or guidance of others is often required. • Level 4 • Competence that involves the application of knowledge in a broad range of complex, technical or professional work activities performed in a variety of contexts and with a substantial degree of personal responsibility and autonomy. Responsibility for the work of others and the allocation of resources is often present. • Level 5 • Competence that involves the application of a range of fundamental principles across a wide and often unpredictable variety of contexts. Very substantial personal autonomy and often significant responsibility for the work of others and for the allocation of substantial resources features strongly, as do personal accountabilities for analysis, diagnosis, design, planning, execution and evaluation
• What makes some people more successful than others in performing a job? • An article published in 1973 by Professor of Harvard University, David C. McClelland, entitled "Testing for Competence rather than for intelligence" introduced the concept of competition and revolutionized the evaluation criteria. • The theory was proven by practice in a successful experience for selecting members of the diplomatic corps of the United States. After that, the skills management started to become an unavoidable reference for the management of Human Resources in companies. José Manuel Abascal José Luis González
Studies about behaviour • Richard Boyatzis (1982) defines labor competency as an underlying characteristic of a person which can be a cause, a trait, a skill, an aspect of their self-image or social role, or a body of knowledge which, he or she uses. • This definition shows the competition as a mixture of several things (motivation, personality traits, skills, knowledge, etc..) But we only see evidence of those things in the way the person behaves. In other words, we must see the person acting, performing, doing, interacting and so display their competence David Mc Clelland father of the theory Richard Boyatzis first model the Leader. Lyle Spencer first dictionary competencies Daniel Goleman popularized the concept
Motivation We act because an external incentive encourages us to fill a need – An appetite, the presence of food drives us to eat When this impulse is learned we are referring to motivation or "reason" – A child who has been successful at moderately challenging situations, need to develop a greater achievement than those who have not been able to find pleasure in such situations The best studied and reasons that justify most of our behaviors are: ACHIEVEMENT, AFFILIATION and POWER
Motivation and Job Profiles L A P L A P L A P Executive Pilot Missionary
Values What we consider "good" While the reasons are unconscious. Values are conscious or partly conscious. They are part of our socialization process. We refer to what each considers "good": serving others, social position, wealth, ..., being a doctor. Guide our conduct.
Environment Knowledge Skills Values How behaviour is produced Competence Reason
Relationship between motivation and competences. The achievement motive is the origin of behaviors related to: – Results Orientation. – Initiative. – Finding Information. – Concern for order and quality. The power motive is the source of conduct related to: – Influence. – Building relationships. – Organizational knowledge (or Political Consciousness). The enrolled motive is the origin of behaviors related to: – Interpersonal sensitivity. – Customer orientation. – Commitment to the organization.
Other competences. Managerial nature, have a mixed component of motivation: o Leadership. o People Management. o Development of people. o Harnessing Diversity. o Teamwork (although not strictly management also has a mixed component) Related personality traits: o flexibility o self-control Cognitive type: o Analytical Thinking. o Conceptual thinking. o Technical knowledge.
How to develop the competences. Leaning on the strenghs and resources everyone has: Finding the basic motivation and working on the competences related to that competence. Finding competences with a similar origin. When there is an orientation towards a result it will easier to develope an initiative or concern abput order and quality. When it is easy to create different relationships to develop a task, it will be easier to develope the influence.. Searching for similar behaviour to change its meaning. If someone is sensitive, talking about his/her personality, it can be set out specific goals so that that behaviour cold be lead towards specific actions to fostering the orientation to a result developing achievement motive. DEVELOPING TALENT.
To develop the motivation of Achievement: Bookmark short-term objectives. Establish indicators to know that it has been achieved. Difficult but achievable. Done individually. Offer help but intervene. Fostering Information Search, and Initiative Conscious Order and Quality, as this helps to get the results. Teaching techniques of problem analysis and cost-benefit analysis. Provide positive and honest feedack (indicating that it is always "from my point of view")
To develop affiliative motivation: Encourage empathy (if you were him or her what would you do?). Introduce each other to improve mutual understanding. Contents recreational group activities. Done individually. Teaching listening and interpreting reasons and emotions. Enhance support among people. Schedule activities collaboratively. Provide positive and honest feedback (indicating that it is always "from my point of view")
To develop the motivation of Power: Understanding power relations or influence as something natural. Ask and listen for what the interests and desires of other people, so this will serve to help our plans. Search the partnership rather than subordination. Teaching communication skills: learn to say "no"; assertiveness. Use language and dialogue to convince (never force or threat). Practicing influential class presentation. Know signs of identity that serve to persuade (slogans, banners, songs, iconography). Provide positive and honest feedback (indicating that it is always "from my point of view")
Fears Are inhibitors. The best studied are the Fear of Failure and Fear of Rejection. We have brought with them: If you do not pass go do not vacation with your siblings If you do "it" I'm not going to want. Fear is an obstacle to the initiative, creativity.
Environment Knowledge Skills "Unconscious space" Values Reason
Multiple intelligences and talents
Basic skills (and their indicators) for ESO I. Linguistic communication. 1. listen 2. exhibit 3. discuss 4. Read and write 5. understand texts 6. identify Ideas 7. differentiate posts 8. Select objectives or purposes of the communication actions. 9. Doing it in a foreign language. Resources: Use listening techniques: Repeat oral history. Make a summary of an intervention. Organize exhibitions: Beginning, middle, end. Who, What, When, Where, Why. Logical deduction. Reading and writing: Correct use of grammar in all subjects. Text comments. Types of communication: Recreational, informative, formative, persuasive. The interesting and important Using Technology
II. MATHEMATICS COMPETITION. 1. Use numbers, measurements, symbols, geometric elements and relate to reality. 2. Apply calculations algorithms to identify the validity of some arguments. 3. Search the knowledge through reasoning. Resources: Use analogies. Graphical representation of formulas. Number games. Using Technology: Creating collaborated networks. Relate mathematics: With poetry. With music. With other sciences. Use mathematics to argue: Statistical data. Rules (as Pareto) Symmetry rules, etc.. Prosecuting some statements: "The limits of logic can only be found from the logic"
III. KNOWLEDGE AND INTERACTION WITH THE PHYSICAL WORLD. 1. Accurate perception of the physical space in which life and human activity develop. 2. Solve problems involving objects and their position. 3. Be aware of the influence of people in space. 4. Observing reality critically and analyze information and advertising messages. 5. Arguing the consequences of different lifestyles. 6. Pose relevant issues, ask questions and identify the knowledge available to answer them. 7. Have ability to manage technical solutions to meet the needs of everyday life. Resources: Create fictitious ecosystems. Computer Games. Analysis of "systemic problems) The origin of things "video" Analysis of advertising: Relate to the subject class. What is a problem? What is a relevant problem? Life and Technology: From the ferris wheel and windmills In the digital era
IV. DATA PROCESSING AND DIGITAL COMPETITION. 1. Search, select, process information using techniques and strategies to access it as the source and the medium used. 2. Mastering specific languages. 3. Convert information into knowledge through the organization to understand in previous ye integrate knowledge schemes. 4. Use information technology and communication in their dual role of transmitting information and knowledge generators. Resources: Important vs interesting. Sources of information: Reliability of sources. Language, dialect, slang, codes. The language of art class Relevance of information Consequences of such information Using technologies. Creating collaborative groups
V. CITIZEN SOCIAL COMPETENCE. 1. Awareness of the existence of different perspectives to analyze reality. 2. Resorting to multicausal and systems analysis to prosecute and social and historical issues and dialogue to collectively improve the understanding of reality. 3. Understand the features of modern societies, demonstrating understanding of the contribution of different cultures. 4. Knowing that conflicts of values and interests are part of the living. 5. Be aware that not all personal position is ethical if it is not based on respect for shared values and principles (such as enclosing Universal Declaration of Human Rights) Resources: How would this be in the s XII? How will this in Nigeria? How can this be in China? Patterns of behavior: Stereotypes and prejudices. Harnessing Diversity. What are the values and ethics? Related to the subject class.
VI. CULTURAL AND ARTISTIC COMPETENCE 1. Understand and appreciate the cultural event in general and art in particular. 2. Perceive and understand different realities and products of world art and culture. 3. Initiative, imagination and creativity to express through artistic codes. 4. An awareness of the importance of the initiatives and contributions of others. 5. Relate the evolution of thought with aesthetic trends, tastes and fashions. 6. Value freedom of expression and the importance of intercultural dialogue. Resources: Artists and mathematics: Beethoven, Mondrian, Dali. The golden ratio: the number φ The workshop of the craftsman. The dealer and the artist. The street art. Representing the class activity. Cerebral dominance. Technique and creativity. Contributions to class. Using technologies. What did they mean? Freedom of expression: Right to my privacy. Freedom and debauchery. Harnessing Diversity
VII. COMPETNECE FOR LEARNING TO LEARN. 1. Awareness of one's own skills and strategies to develop them. 2. Curiosity to pose questions and handle various possible answers. 3. Ability to get information and transform it into knowledge. 4. Consider achievable short, medium and long term. Resources: Id talent. Identification of social skills Vocation and values. The discovery, novelty: Improved relations with friends. With the couple. With oneself. Sources of information: assessment. Finding information. Achievement orientation. Emotional management. Development of influence.
VIII. AUTONOMY AND PERSONAL INITIATIVE. 1. Ability to set goals, plan and carry out projects. 2. Find solutions and implement them. 3. Being able to relate the difficulty of the goal with the capabilities, desires and projects. 4. Having social skills such as assertiveness, flexibility, and teamwork. 5. Leadership. Resources: Objectives: specific goals: Deadlines, amounts, situations, etc. Design action plans. Problem analysis and decision making. Techniques like: SWOT Gantt chart Causal analysis / cost benefit. Brain Stroming Six Thinking Hats. And others. Assertiveness. Communication: verbal, para-verbal and non-verbal Mission and vision. Using technologies: social networking. "Comunity manager"
We are linguistic beings and language is generative We can never say how things really are: we can only say how we interpret them or consider: We live in worlds of interpretation. This opens possibilities for action which are closed to other interpretations.
ACTS OF LANGUAGES: 1. Statements: the word suits the world, they are descriptions . 2. Statements : the world fits the word: declaration of independence, ‘Innocent, out’, something happens as a result of the statement ! : • Say no; ! Say yes ; ! Statement ignorance , forgiveness , gratitude , love. • To have claims must have prior statements : to say " it's Thursday " must have been declared how they will call the days of the week. • Restlessness, is what pushes them to act , in psychology is called motivation. But do not know why we act so the concern that the action should not pay attention to. 3. Promises: linguistic acts are allowing us to coordinate actions with others. When someone makes a promise to another undertakes to perform any action in the future. It includes two processes: do it and fulfill it. To make a pledge mutual consent of the parties is necessary and this can be reached via requests or tenders (which are at differ because different person who has the concern and who performs the action .
4. Opinions Assertions are supported by an opinion, not a fact. (Juan is ordained vs Juan is 1.80 m) . The key judgment is the future but are based on the past: it is a statement . The judgments speak of those who issued: "Foreigners are dangerous " does not say much for the foreigner, but who says it . People who live outside judgments delegated to other important judgments are at the expense of receiving positive or negative judgments Those seeking judgments as statements , result rigidity, close to learning opportunities. Those who fail to distinguish between informed judgments and unfounded judgments fail to understand why things do not go as they want them. Trials are the root of human suffering. Suffering , unlike the pain (which has a biological origin ) are born on the meaning attributed to the facts that come to mind. The trial of trust is vital to build relationships Respect is the judgment of acceptance of others .
Listen. Communication lies at the hearing. Listening validates the talk. We say what we say and hear what others are listening, telling and hearing are different phenomena Hearing is a biological phenomenon the difference between hearing and listening is that when we hear we generate an interpretive world. When we speak, besides articulating words and say what we say we are generating an action level (convince, delude or bored), which occurs because something was said. How can we increase our ability to listen effectively?:
• NLP (Neuro Linguistic Programming) is based on that we learn through the senses and the memory we have of our actions create an experience that is flattering or repressor when conducting future conduct. • Through the memories and alteration of our senses we can come to making more effective behavior change for the future. • The four ways we use preferably the visual (V), auditory (A) and kinesthetic (C), to which must be added a room that will call olfactory (O), representing the sensations received through the sense of smell and other senses
Physiologies. Conflicting Physiology: reflects a memory of a situation that was not pleasant. Physiology goal: the individual is becoming aware of how to solve your problem and imagine reaching your goal. Physiology resources: those adopted when the ways in which you can achieve the objectives are listed. Physiology commitment: awareness of that problematic behavior which may have a positive side. It allows the individual to reconcile with the behavior evolve it toward the goal. Mixed Physiology: when resources are applied to solve a problem on other problems.
Exact determination problem. What do you see? What do you hear? What do you feel? What is your goal to resolve this situation? What will tell you what you got? NEVER USE THE QUESTION WHY? Trance VACO The customer should be very relaxed, with eyes closed or half closed, to be in a sensory experience through introspection. We leave that situation with a transition state, here and now (what time is Who I am?)
Determination of objectives. The goal should be in the purview of the client. You must specify those situations in which it was conducted. Should this free of negations and comparisons. You must include a process response (feedback) short term. The definition of the goal must be specific in relation to sensory perceptions involved. The ecology check. Verify that the target set will not cause damage to other behaviors or other circumstances The anchorage. When you are living the peak experience of the goal, anchoring the memory by a gesture, a sound or an image. Check its effectiveness (anchor returns to climax?)
A system, a team, a family is a set of elements: Interconnected At constant exchange of energy They tend to seek balance to be maintained over time. Each supports a voltage, to contribute to that balance. Everyone plays a role for the rest of the system
KEY FEATURES of Systemic vision: • The person is not an isolated element, but part of a system. • The person loses importance in favor of the system. • Each modification or action of an individual, affects the entire system. • The person not only belongs to a system, but to a network of systems. • There is a systemic law that helps systems to grow and evolve
We all belong to a group Group membership is a right that nobody can deny. There is a separate priority order of the hierarchy, which is the length of the group. Group membership allows you to "take" and forces you to give. • Do not give anything if I do not ask. • If you want something ask for it, do not wait for others to find out what you need.
• Etymologically the word comes from the Latin emotionis emotion, meaning "the impulse to induce action." • In psychology is defined as the feeling or perception of the elements and relationships of reality or imagination, which is expressed physically through some physiological function as heart rate or facial reactions, including behavioral reactions. • Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize own and others' feelings, and the ability to handle them.
Emotions Psychophysiological phenomena are representing modes of adaptation to certain environmental stimuli or oneself . Psychologically , emotions alter attention, they rank up certain behaviors guide individual responses and activate relevant associative networks in memory. Physiologically , emotions rapidly organize the responses of different biological systems , including facial expressions , muscles , voice, the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system, in order to establish an optimal internal environment for more effective behavior. Behaviorally , emotions serve to establish our position relative to our environment, and encourage us to certain people , objects, actions , ideas, and keep us from others. Emotions are an operating system to protect the body from outside ( similar to the immune system, which protects us from the attacks that we suffer from inside the body)
Emotional intelligence The first use of the term emotional intelligence is usually attributed to Wayne Payne , quoted in his doctoral thesis : "A study of emotion : Developing emotional intelligence " , 1985. However, the concept of " emotional intelligence" had appeared before in texts Leuner (1966). Greenspan also introduced in 1989 a model of IE , followed by Salovey and Mayer (1990 ) . In 1983 , Howard Gardner, in his theory of multiple intelligences , introduced the idea to include both interpersonal intelligence (the ability to understand the intentions , motivations and desires of other people ) and intrapersonal intelligence (the ability to understand oneself , appreciate the feelings , fears and motivations own ) . For Gardner , indicators of intelligence , such as IQ , does not fully explain cognitive ability. Therefore, although the names given to the concept have varied , there is a common belief that traditional definitions of intelligence does not give a full explanation of its features. Another source of emotional intelligence is Joseph Ledoux , most recently influence, from his book " The Emotional Brain " (1996 ) , which reports its findings about the neural circuits of the brain , teaching us that emotion precedes thought.
Psychologists Gelstalt • The Psychology of Gelstalt born in Germany in the early twentieth century as an alternative to the psychology of introspection and experimental science. • He says that "the whole is more than the sum of its parts" and that psychological phenomenon can not be used by parties as it can lose its identity. Knowledge is acquired, not from isolated data, but by capturing the global object as a whole. The Necker cube and Rubin's vase, Two examples of multistable perception Between 1940 and 1950 he was born a new therapy based on two basic principles: 1. Ability to identify emotional states. 2. Manage them using appropriate techniques.
How to determine what skills a person has. • Watching. The powers are manifested through behavior , behaviors are successful , so , one way to know the skills of someone is watching what you do . • Asking . If you take this possibility, you should bear in mind that people do not know why they do what they do, if we ask they will respond basing on their values, but their behavior is caused by motivation ( unknown people ) . • The critical incident interview is a type of interview focused on behaviors that can identify a person's skills and know their motivation. The basic question is : Tell me three very rewarding for you situations , situations that you consider as personal successes. Indicates what the situation was , who was involved, what you intended to achieve and what you did to get the results you got . The conditions to be met are: to speak in the first person (to know what you did , not other people) and talk in the past.
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