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Published on November 28, 2007

Author: Alohomora

Source: authorstream.com

KERR BLACK HOLES:  KERR BLACK HOLES Generalized BH description includes spin Later researchers use it to predict new effects!! Two crucial surfaces inner surface = horizon: smaller than nonrot. hole of same mass outer surface = “static limit” Angular momentum of a black hole “Kerr parameter” (Roy Kerr 1963) No spin: Schwarzschild hole maximal (or extreme) Kerr hole STRUCTURE OF A KERR BH:  STRUCTURE OF A KERR BH Horizon smaller in max. Kerr limit Static limit at equator, touches horizon at poles Gas can orbit closer to horizon without plunging in Higher energy efficiency: Schwarzschild: Extreme Kerr: THE ERGOSPHERE:  THE ERGOSPHERE Region between horizon and static limit Nothing can remain stationary in the ergosphere Must rotate in direction of BH spin because BH spin “drags space” along with it aka: “dragging of inertial frames” “Lense-Thirring effect” Why “ERGOSPHERE”?:  Why “ERGOSPHERE”? “ERGO” = ENERGY All the spin energy of a black hole resides outside the horizon!! it can all be extracted (… in theory) For maximal Kerr hole with mass M: Two famous energy extraction schemes: Penrose Process: particle splitting inside the ergosphere Blandford-Znajek Process: BH spin twists magnetic field SPIN ENERGY = 29% of UNIQUENESS OF KERR’S SOLUTION:  UNIQUENESS OF KERR’S SOLUTION Kerr’s solution describes all black holes without electric charge More generally, No-hair theorem: All traces of the matter that formed a BH disappear except for: “BLACK HOLES HAVE NO HAIR” MASS ANGULAR MOMENTUM CHARGE HOW DOES ALL THE “HAIR” DISAPPEAR?:  HOW DOES ALL THE “HAIR” DISAPPEAR? AREA THEOREM (Hawking 1970):  AREA THEOREM (Hawking 1970) The area of a black hole’s event horizon can stay the same or increase, but can never decrease Area increases when: mass increases spin decreases You can extract spin energy of a BH but cannot add spin energy without also adding mass Deep connection to thermodynamics horizon area ~ entropy Theorem is true for classical GR, can be violated at quantum level WHAT IS ENTROPY?:  WHAT IS ENTROPY? Entropy = measure of disorder Example: entropy of a gas you see the overall properties (density, pressure, etc.), but don’t know the exact location , energy, etc., of each atom ENTROPY = logarithm of the number of diffferent ways you can relocate the atoms and redistribute their energies WITHOUT changing the overall properties of the gas 2nd law of thermodynamics: The entropy of a self-contained system never decreases BLACK-HOLE THERMODYNAMICS:  BLACK-HOLE THERMODYNAMICS Area theorem “looks like” 2nd law of thermo. could BH horizon area really represent entropy? (Beckenstein 1972) Law for addition of mass, ang.mom., etc. to BH “looks like” 1st law of thermodynamics if: This turns out to be more than “just an analogy” HORIZON AREA ~ ENTROPY GRAV. ACCEL. AT HORIZON ~ TEMPERATURE (Bardeen, Carter, Hawking 1972) (Hawking 1974) BLACK HOLES EVAPORATE:  BLACK HOLES EVAPORATE If black holes really have a finite temperature, they must radiate Hawking calculates by working out quantum effects in a curved (non-quantum) space Finds that black holes must radiate according to “black body” law same form of radiation as any warm opaque body Where does BH entropy come from? No. of different ways of throwing stuff together to make the same BH HOW DOES THE HAWKING EFFECT WORK?:  HOW DOES THE HAWKING EFFECT WORK? “VACUUM FLUCTUATIONS” Creation of “virtual pairs” of particles Tidal forces pull them apart Makes some of them real One falls in, one flies away Black hole evaporates In the very short time that virtual pairs can exist... HOW FAST DO BHs EVAPORATE?:  HOW FAST DO BHs EVAPORATE? BH temperature inversely proportional to mass For 1 solar mass BH: 60 billionths of a degree Kelvin For BH temp. to exceed cosmic background radiation (3° K): < 20 billionths of a solar mass (<0.007 Earths) Evaporation time proportional to (mass)3 For 1 solar mass BH: To evaporate in age of Universe (~ 15 billion yr): need BH mass < 100 million tons (< cu. km of dirt) (size ~ atomic nucleus, temp. ~ 200 billion degrees) At final stage (trillions of °K) BH explodes

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