KENNEDY

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Published on January 17, 2008

Author: Bianca

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DOE Geothermal Program Briefing:  DOE Geothermal Program Briefing March 16, 2004 Earth Sciences Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Mack Kennedy Geothermal Energy Program Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory:  Geothermal Energy Program Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Mission: Develop and integrate state of the art scientific methods to enhance/engineer geothermal systems and assist industry in finding, characterizing, and producing geothermal fields. Research Strengths Reservoir Engineering Geophysics (Seismic, EM, MT, Remote Sensing) Isotope Geochemistry Rock Mechanics Geology Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory:  Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Programmatic Goals Addressed by LBNL’s Geothermal Program Geothermal Resource Enhancement/Engineering Mechanical, thermal and chemical evolution of natural and induced fractures (MEQ’s). Geophysical/geochemical methods to identify resource expansion potential. Geometry and scale of fluid-matrix interaction Advanced numerical modeling – system behavior under different management plans. Advance Fundamental Knowledge of Geothermal Systems Relationships between regional geology, tectonics, hydrology and formation of geothermal systems. Reduce drilling costs – improved well-siting Optimize Resource Management Geochemical/geomechanical effects of injection. Resource response to fluid production and injection Technology Integration Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory:  Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Collaborations Industry: Calpine; Caithness; GeothermEx; Unocal; Shell; Exxon-Mobil; CalEnergy; EMI; EPDC, Japan Government: USGS; LLNL; SNL; INEEL Academic: EGI, Univ. of Utah; Univ. of Nevada, Reno; UC Berkeley; Stanford; New Mexico Tech.; Ohio State Univ.; Southern Methodist Univ. Accomplishments Publications in Refereed Journals (2001 – Present) -- 40 Conference Abstracts/Presentations (2001 – Present) -- 41 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory:  Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Research Programs Core Research ($357K) Detection and Mapping ($223K) Enhanced Geothermal Systems ($300K) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory:  Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Core Research Projects Geothermal Reservoir Dynamics ($180K, K. Pruess) Isotope and Geochemical Studies ($150K, M. Kennedy) Model Development and Detection of Soil Gas CO2 Emissions ($27K, C. Oldenburg, J. Lewicki) Core Research:  Core Research Geothermal Reservoir Dynamics Objective: Understand coupled processes of fluid flow, heat transfer, and rock-fluid interactions (chemical, mechanical) in geothermal systems Develop, demonstrate, and publicly release TOUGHREACT code for reactive chemical transport Develop tracer testing approaches that can determine heat transfer area in EGS systems Geothermal Reservoir Dynamics:  Geothermal Reservoir Dynamics Relation to Program Goals Improved reservoir management e.g. accurate and better constrained reservoir models for targeted water injection Operation of injection-production systems minimize detrimental effects (scaling, formation plugging) realize beneficial effects (abatement of deleterious chemical constituents, improved energy recovery). Characterize heat transfer properties - EGS Effects of Fracture Spacing on BTC’s for injected tracers in vapor-dominated systems Tracer BTC’s for different diffusivities and sorption strengths in liquid-dominated system – sorption enhances weak diffusivity tails. Core Research:  Core Research Isotope and Geochemical Studies Objective: Baseline isotope and geochemical data sets related to exploration and reservoir characterization. Basin and Range 3He/4He Map Dixie Valley Integration Report Soil Gas CO2 Emissions Objective: Use coupled subsurface-surface layer modeling to predict expected locations and strength of maximum surface gas concentrations from a sub-surface source. Model Development Detection Strategies Isotope and Geochemical Studies:  Isotope and Geochemical Studies Relation to Program Goals Improved understanding of geothermal systems in relationship to regional geology, tectonics, heat flow, and hydrology. Expand geothermal resource base. Develop new geochemical methods that identify potential for resource expansion. Helium isotopes: unequivocal evidence for magma (mantle) derived fluids - indication of heat source and the role mantle melting plays in the formation of a crustal geothermal system. Many models of regional high heat flow anomalies in the B&R are explained by large scale underplating of mantle derived melts. Helium isotopes can provide constraints for these models. Isotope and Geochemical Studies:  Isotope and Geochemical Studies Helium Isotope Trends in the Basin and Range The positive 3He/4He “spikes” are associated with major range front faults, with large displacement, and identify zones of enhanced fluid flow along the fault zones. Helium Isotopes and Tectano-Magamtic Models >6 Ra >0.7-2.4 Ra 0.1 – 0.7 Ra 0.5-1.5 Ra Dixie Valley Helium Abundances and Isotopic Compositions: Evidence for a Single Deep Fluid:  Dixie Valley Helium Abundances and Isotopic Compositions: Evidence for a Single Deep Fluid System must have at least two fluids: Young groundwater: F(4He) < 10; R/Ra < 0.4 Fluid indistinguishable from geothermal production fluids: F(4He) > 150-200; R/Ra > 0.8 High ratios associated with Range Front Fault – High permeability flow paths Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory:  Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Detection and Mapping Remote Sensing of Localized Strain ($32K, D. Vasco) 3-D Magnetotelluric Imaging ($67K, M. Hoversten) Electromagnetic Imaging Methods ($0K, K.H. Lee) Seismic Imaging ($50K, E. Majer) Field Case Studies: Review International EGS Studies ($74K, M. Lippmann) Remote Sensing of Localized Strain:  Remote Sensing of Localized Strain Program Goals: Use satellite-based estimates of strain to identify potential geothermal resources Understand the coupled physical processes associated with strain localization Objectives: Develop techniques and software for identifying geothermal targets Apply the methods to regions in the western US The colors superimposed upon the reflection image, represent phase shifts between reflections from August 1992 to April 1996. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reflections Dixie Valley region. Remote Sensing of Localized Strain:  Remote Sensing of Localized Strain Scope: Understanding factors associated with imaging long term regional strain Understand relationship between long term regional strain and the emplacement of geothermal systems Organization and Personnel: Don Vasco (LBNL) – Software development, field application Bill Foxall (LLNL) - InSAR imaging, interpretation Charles Wicks (USGS) – InSAR data reduction and processing Geoff Blewitt and Mark Coolbaugh, University of Nevada, Reno Remote Sensing of Localized Strain:  Remote Sensing of Localized Strain Accomplishments: 2003-Use of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture (InSAR) data at Dixie Valley 2003/2004-Acquisition and utilization of point scatterer (PS) data for long term imaging of local strain. Characterization of seasonal changes at the mm level Planned for 2004-Coupled modeling of strain localization associated with the evolution of a geothermal system Knowledge Gaps: Detailed (high-resolution) knowledge of regional strain-May be provided by InSAR data Factors influencing long term strain monitoring and the utility of PS methods for long term monitoring How strain propagates to the surface, the role of faults in strain localization-Addressed by coupled modeling The Role of Industry Collaboration: Application of strain imaging methods on a larger scale Identification of promising regions for study Seismic Imaging:  Seismic Imaging Program Goals Develop state-of-the-art seismic imaging techniques for geothermal resource exploration and EGS Program Objectives Determine signatures of faults and fracture zones for reinterpreting existing 2-D seismic data sets Determine how 3-D seismic surveys can be optimized for pre-defined targets based on 2-D results Program Structure LBNL’s Center for Computational Seismology by Roland Gritto and Ernest Majer Accomplishments Faults/Fracture zones can be identified with exisiting 2-D seismic data Distinct footprints of blind faults and fracture zones can be used to optimize 3-D seismic surveys in geothermal areas Knowledge Gaps Need to better understand the kinematics and dynamics of seismic wave propagation in geothermal areas Industry collaboration provides the required physical parameters and geometries of EGS for FD modeling Rye Patch P-wave time snapshots reveals energy attenuation, reflection and refraction by vertical fault. Seismogram Section Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory:  Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Enhanced Geothermal Systems MEQ Monitoring at The Geysers ($200K, E. Majer) Geochemical Study of the Effect of Fluid Injection at The Geysers ($100K, M. Kennedy) Development of Fluid Injection Strategies for Optimizing Steam Production at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California (CEC-PIER Proposal, Submitted, M. Kennedy) Slide19:  Program Goals Provide data to improve the overall understanding of the relation between reservoir manipulation and microseimicity for the EGS program Objectives Identify parameters critical to controlling MEQ activity during EGS activities Threshold of seismicity Injection versus production Mitigate and optimize production and injection activities Scope and participants Extend exiting array to area of future enhanced injection Gather baseline data and monitor during injection Analyze and integrate data with injection, production and geochemical data Joint project by Calpine( M. Stark) and LBNL (E. Majer, M. Kennedy) MEQ Monitoring and Analysis at The Geysers Planned MEQ array Aidlin Field, Northwest Geysers MEQ Monitoring and Analysis at The Geysers:  MEQ Monitoring and Analysis at The Geysers Accomplishments/Plans Geochemical baseline study completed, ready for monitoring phase Funded Feb 04, initial stations in place at Aidlin March 10 Complete Array extension by mid- April Initial injection in April , main injection commence in Fall of 2004 Data analysis and monitoring extend through FY 2006 FY 04 products Background seismicity and analysis WRT rest of The Geysers White paper on impact of MEQ’s on EGS Knowledge Gaps How injection and production interrelate to cause MEQ activity Stress distribution Geologic model Reservoir pressure and temperatures changes Geochemical responses related to MEQ’s and reservoir and fluid-matrix interaction Mitigation of deleterious chemical species (high gas, HCl) Industry will play a key role in providing data, sites and implementing mitigation strategies Future Objectives:  Future Objectives Close the Knowledge Gaps – Well coordinated integrated collaborative projects involving Industry, National Laboratories, Universities, and the USGS Resource Expansion High resolution remote (surface) fracture and fluid mapping Couple mechanical properties, regional and local stress to stimulated fracture geometries and permeability MEQ activity, spatial distribution with respect to pre-existing fracture networks, improved hydraulic properties of the reservoir and differentiation between induced and natural seismicity Geometry, scale and surface area of fluid-rock exchange – thermal and chemical Advanced modeling techniques for coupling geophysics, geochemistry, reservoir properties to maximize resource productivity and minimize societal impact. Exploration Reassessment of geothermal potential Improved understanding of geothermal systems – Basin and Range Large Scale Numerical Simulation Test Facility Testable model of an enhanced/engineered geothermal system – can one be devised that mimics a field site? Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory:  Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Industry Collaboration Provide access to data and field sites for EGS research and development Strong commitment to the EGS concept Industry consortium to pool resources and information?

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