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Published on April 7, 2008

Author: Noemie

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SOIL EROSION, IT`S CAUSES AND CONSERVATION MEASUTRES: AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THEIR IMPACTS:  SOIL EROSION, IT`S CAUSES AND CONSERVATION MEASUTRES: AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THEIR IMPACTS BY Krishna Deo Prasad Sahu Under supervision of Mr. Shashi Paul, IFS Introduction :  Introduction To meet the basic needs, human needs natural resources Land is the prime support for production of biomass Soil erosion is universally recognized as a serious to man's well being Water and wind are the two major agents of soil erosion but fundamental causes in “ECONOMIC” Almost every part of the country is susceptible to soil erosion. Table no. 1 Annual soil loss estimation from erosion in India:  Table no. 1 Annual soil loss estimation from erosion in India OBJECTIVES:  OBJECTIVES 1.To study causes and types of soil erosion 2.To study the direct and indirect effects of soil erosion on socio-economic wellbeing 3.To study the soil erosion measures and its impact on biomass production. 4.To analyse the provisions of NAP-2000 and NFP-1988 having bearing on soil conservation. METHODOLOGY:  METHODOLOGY Secondary data have been used. Study of text books and literatures. 1. Soil and Water Conservation Research in India- V.V.Dhruva Narayan. 2.Watershed Management:Guidelines for Indian conditions-E.M.Tideman. 3.Soil Conservation- An International Study. FAO. Rome 4.Erosion its Causes and Cure-Sir Harold Grover. 5.Indias Forest Policies:Analysis and Appraisal.- L.K.Jha 6.NAP-2000: Min.of Agr.GOI,New Delhi Objective-1. To study causes and types of soil erosion:  Objective-1. To study causes and types of soil erosion Causes of soil erosion Historical causes of soil erosion – human settlements in plains – shifted to forest area Shifting cultivation Fields on steep slopes Faulty methods of cultivation – big land holders – tenant agriculture Table no. 2 Runoff and soil loss under various covers:  Table no. 2 Runoff and soil loss under various covers Slide9:  5. Grazing: Cattle pop. beyond CC 6. Lopping – results in crown reduction 7. Development activities- Post independent phenomenon Road construction,. Railway line Mining activities Hydro electric projects Type of soil erosion :  Type of soil erosion Basic processes Source area – detachment and transport Sink area – transported and deposited A. Soil erosion by water action 1. Sheet / intra-rill erosion – removes of thin uniform soil layer 2. Rill erosion – numerous small channels 3. Gully erosion- larger upland channel 4. Stream channel erosion- cause by stream flow 5. Mass erosion- enmass movement of soil B. Erosion by wind action Loose, dry, fine divided soil Smooth surface with sparse or no vegetation Large area Strong wind velocity (>16 km/ha) Saltation -0.05 to 0.5 mm Surface creep 0.5 t 2 mm Suspension < 0.05 mm Objective-2. Effect of soil erosion on socio-economic well-being :  Objective-2. Effect of soil erosion on socio-economic well-being Direct and indirect benefits of soil erosion higher temperature and lower rainfall vegetation influences micro-climate Shortage of timber and fuel Shortage of fodder and deterioration of cattle health. Loss of soil and fertility of arable fields-16.35 t/ha Slide12:  5.Destruction of land in the plant Silting up of reservoirs Rising of river bed Silting up of the cabals Silting up of sea cost Deterioration of drinking water quality Eutrophication of water bodies 6. Floods 7. Damages to communication networks 8. Shortage of water – desert developments 9. Landslides and avalanches 10. Fall in sub-soil water level Slide13:  11. Decline in biomass productivity 12. A lower standard of living - reduction in arable area - low yield due to low productivity - food availability decreases - low availability of animal products - nutritional insecurity - forest important employment agency in forest area - plan-allocation for soil conservation- social welfare affected Objective -3. Soil conservation measures and it’s impacts on biomass production :  Objective -3. Soil conservation measures and it’s impacts on biomass production Land is the primary support for production of biomass including agriculture as well as forest based for consumption of living human being. The cure for soil erosion Conservation of vegetation Reduction of animal population to carrying capacity Improved methods of cultivations need based engineering structures Two broad divisions of soil conservations Land management –mechanical measures Crop management- biological measures Emphasis on biological measures Because it’s effective on long term besides producing biomass for consumptions Soil conservation measures :  Soil conservation measures Agricultural land – capability class I,II,III & IV For non-agricultural land :  For non-agricultural land 1.Mechanical measures Contour cultivation: Table no. 3. Effect of contour cultivation on runoff and soil loss:  1.Mechanical measures Contour cultivation: Table no. 3. Effect of contour cultivation on runoff and soil loss Source: Tejwani et al, 1975 2.Biological measures – in Agricultural land:  2.Biological measures – in Agricultural land The first step in erosion control is the control of splash – resulting from raindrop impact Vegetation interception rain water Measures 1.Choice of crops - Erosion permitting - Erosion controlling 2. Use of cover crops. Table no.4. Canopy development and soil splash under different legumes at Vasad ( avg. of 4 yrs):  2. Use of cover crops. Table no.4. Canopy development and soil splash under different legumes at Vasad ( avg. of 4 yrs) Source: Rajesh Rajora. p-211 3. Root factor - root as soil binding factors Table no. 5. Runoff and soil loss as influenced by grasses on 9% slope on silty clay-loam (avg. of 3 yrs):  3. Root factor - root as soil binding factors Table no. 5. Runoff and soil loss as influenced by grasses on 9% slope on silty clay-loam (avg. of 3 yrs) Source: Rajesh Rajora. p-211 Table no 6. Runoff and soil loss ( avg. of two replications) in relation to different tillage systems :  Table no 6. Runoff and soil loss ( avg. of two replications) in relation to different tillage systems Source: Rajesh Rajora. p-211 4. Land preparation - Pre-sowing and post-harvesting cultivation influences intake rate of water, obstruction to surface flow and rate of soil erosion - Deep ploughing or chiseling - Minimum tillage Table no.7. Effect of crop management o the soil and water losses from maize :  Table no.7. Effect of crop management o the soil and water losses from maize Source : Hudson. 1957 5. Sowing time -sowing time and correct seed rate are back bone of crop sowing -adjusted that at the time of peak precipitation period there is enough ground cover 6. Crop management - Best land management – is the most interesting and productive use of which the land is capable of without causing any degradation 7. Mix cropping Table no. 8. Effect of mixed cropping on yield of wheat and gram (avg. of 4 yrs):  7. Mix cropping Table no. 8. Effect of mixed cropping on yield of wheat and gram (avg. of 4 yrs) Source: Dhruva Narayana. p-195 Table no.9. Yield of wheat (kg/ha) as influenced by mulching :  Table no.9. Yield of wheat (kg/ha) as influenced by mulching Source: Singh and Bhusan, 1978 9. Mulching – spreading stubble, trash or any of vegetation Soil conservation measures in forest area:  Soil conservation measures in forest area Land capable class- V, VI, VII & VIII Limitations: slope, erosion, stoniness, rockiness, shallow soil, wetness, flood, climate, etc. Use: pasture, forest, wildlife and 74.85 m. ha forest land – 26% soil erosion 56.50 m. ha wasteland – no contribution to GNP and they are source of max. runoff and sediments. Conservation forestry - perennial vegetation- grasses or trees - wasteland rehabilitation - forest conservation -tree species for different ACZs Table no. 10. Growth performance of tropical pine in Doon valley (1974-82):  Table no. 10. Growth performance of tropical pine in Doon valley (1974-82) Source: Puri and Joshi , 1983 Table no.11. Performance of Acacia Spp. In ravine land (vasad) (1968-78):  Table no.11. Performance of Acacia Spp. In ravine land (vasad) (1968-78) Source: Pradhan and Vasava, 1978 Table no.12. Air –dry yield (kg/ha) of different perennial grasses in Yamuna ravines area:  Table no.12. Air –dry yield (kg/ha) of different perennial grasses in Yamuna ravines area NT- Not tried Source: Singh and Puri, 1975 2. Grassland development - stabilization , consolidation and protection and production from soil conservation structure like terrace , check dams, waste weirs, spillways, etc. Table no. 13. Performance of different citrus fruits trees on the class V-VII lands ( ravines) in Doon valley :  Table no. 13. Performance of different citrus fruits trees on the class V-VII lands ( ravines) in Doon valley 3. Horticultural - soil and water conservation - alternative source of employment - fodder and fuel- lops and slops Table no. 14.Estimated yield and income from different ber varieties (plantation in 1975-76):  Table no. 14.Estimated yield and income from different ber varieties (plantation in 1975-76) Source: Bhusan et al; 1981 Objective -4. Provisions of NFP-1988 and NFA-2000: soil and water conservation :  Objective -4. Provisions of NFP-1988 and NFA-2000: soil and water conservation Need similar kind of recourses, so there is very often competition, for the resources. But there is mutual relationship. So, attract the attention of policy maker National Forest Policy 1988:  National Forest Policy 1988 1976, 42nd amendment act State to concurrent list 7th fundamental duty for all citizens National Commission on Agriculture,1976 Diversion of Forest land only in inevitable cases and on the distinct condition of adopting compensatory measure in the shape of new plantation and proper maintenance in a suitable part of the forest Adoption of agri-silvicultural and other suitable methods were recommended Comprehensive inter departmental coordination.Agriculture forestry,Animal husbandry. Rural development, Ministry of Tribal affairs NAP 2000 –seeks to achieve sustainability:  NAP 2000 –seeks to achieve sustainability To promote technically sound, economically viable , environmentally viable non degrading and socially acceptable use of countries natural resources to promote sustainable development of agriculture Contain biotic pressure on land Control the indiscriminate diversion of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes The unutilised wastelands will be put to use for agriculture and afforestation Attention to increase cropping intensity through multiple cropping and intercropping NAP 2000 emphasises on Land and Soil resources:  NAP 2000 emphasises on Land and Soil resources Reclamation of degraded and fallow lands as well as problem soils to optimize their productive use Management of Land resources on watershed basis will receive special attention Areas of Jhum cultivation will receive particular attention for their sustainable development Integrated and holistic development of rainfed areas on watershed basis Augmentation of Biomass production through agro and farm forestry with involvement of water Management of grazing land will receive greater attention NAP on Watershed approach:  NAP on Watershed approach A major thrust will be given to development of rainfed and irrigated agriculture on watershed basis with emphasis on horticulture, floriculture, roots and tubers , plantation crops, aromatic and medicinal plants, apiculture and sericulture Regional nurseries, tissue culture laboratories, seed farms will be promoted to support the above NFP’s Sericulture, lac culture, Apiculture, Resin production etc are based on trees of forest Rubber coffee and tea Industries are thriving on the basis of plantation in the forest lands Ginger , turmeric , cardamom etc Jhum cultivation-From national Forest policy(NFP) Perspective:  Jhum cultivation-From national Forest policy(NFP) Perspective In 1983, 6.4 lakhs tribal families increased to 10 lakhs in 2000 1952, NFP advocated for taungya system of cultivation 1988 NFP Horticulture, Agroforestry, Dairy, Piggery and Poultry farming Trade transport and public /private services Measures Allotment of apiece of land permanently or on lease for a long period Tribal Bill 2005 Slide37:  Emphasis on infrastructure development in concerned area Cooperative society by Government Vigilance team consisting of leaders of Jhumias to motivate them to adopt settled cultivation Central assistance for adoption of new agricultural practices Forest Police station to check the Jhum cultivation NAP on Animal Husbandry:  NAP on Animal Husbandry Animal Husbandry and fisheries also generates wealth and employment in agriculture sector Development of animal husbandry, poultry, dairying and aquaculture will recieve high priority Cultivation of fodder crops and fodder trees will be encouraged to meet the feed and fodder requirements and to improve animal nutrition and welfare Incentives for lives stock and fisheries production activities will be brought at par with incentives for crop production Grazing problems in forest area NAP and NFP on Agro- forestry and Social forestry:  NAP and NFP on Agro- forestry and Social forestry NAP – Agro- forestry and social forestry are prime requisites for maintenance of ecological balance and augmentation of biomass production in agricultural systems Nutrient recycling N- Fixation Organic Matter addition Improving drainage NFP – Five F’s Reducing pressure on conventional forest Community Re-establishing trees on farmland for erosion control Reduction of flooding Silt control in streams and reservoirs Slide40:  Farmers will be encouraged to take up agro forestry for higher income generation by evolving technology extension and credit support packages Removing constraints to development of agro and social forestry NFP- Constraints in integrating agriculture and forestry :  NFP- Constraints in integrating agriculture and forestry Legal constraints in harvesting trees grown on public and private lands Farmers have no right to cut trees without going through the lengthy process of obtaining official permits The law is to protect trees but discourage tree growing public or private lands Land ownership problem Cooperative tree growing Land ceiling acts are enforced in many states No marketing infrastructure and uncertainty in remunerative price for the forest based produce Mandate of forest services is normally restricted to the confines of designated forest reserves Slide42:  Lack of infrastructure and manpower for extension of silviculture and agro-forestry techniques Forestry not a priority sector over a long period of time Technical problems like how should these two activities to be integrated , in what proportion, which areas favour each and how is the best mix obtained Selection of species Tree crop competition. Summary and conclusion:  Summary and conclusion Soil erosion is a problem affected on-farm and off-farm land Soil erosion is continuing process, but once mis-management of land set in, tend to be extra-ordinarily persistent Need to break the tradition of poor land management Plan allocation Rs. 176 million –2nd FYP Rs. 82000 million – 10th FYP

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