Kb contoh klaster-31

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Information about Kb contoh klaster-31

Published on March 10, 2014

Author: budikawi

Source: slideshare.net

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org 2 34 5 1 D Wieke Irawati Kodri fe_bandung@yahoo.com

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org California Wine Portuguese Footwear Scotland’s Food & Drink Life Science Super-Cluster North Carolina Communications Italian Leather Fashion Castellon Spain Tile North West textile and clothing Finnish Forest Cambridge Bloodstock      

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Equadorian Shrimp Farming Costa Rica Information Technology Norwegian Maritime Swiss Construction Houston Oil and Gas Bulgarian Ketchup South Africa Tourism North Carolina Biotech Boston Life-Science Thailand Automotive      

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Typical forestry, timber and furniture value chain Wichita Plastics The Information Technology Cluster Thailand Tourism London Financial Service Wichita Aerospace Vehicles and Defence Chiang Mai Innovation System and its Clusters The Walt Disney Company Electronics in New York’s Southern Tier Tsubame-Sanjo Cluster      

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org The Australian wine industry cluster Pittsburgh Production Technology The Cairns (Australian) Tourism cluster Indian Movie Cluster (Bollywood‖) Atlanta Transportation & Logistic cluster Atlanta Financial Services Louisiana Entertainment Cluster Montana’s Creative Enterprise Cluster Montana’s Tourism and Culture Cluster Montana’s Food Processing Cluster      

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Agriculture & Food Processing The Guyana Eco-Tourism Cluster Thai Palm Oil Sector Map Natural Resource Clusters Atlanta Information Technology Cluster Kenya’s Cut Flower Cluster Mongolia Mining Service The Construction, Housing, and Real Estate (CHRE) cluster Uganda Fishing Cluster Digital content value chain      

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Durham Energy Industry Cluster Fishery Cluster Gudupahi Orissa Canada Electricity Cluster The Ontario Mineral Industry Cluster power generation and transmission cluster Oregon Tourism & Hospitality Cluster Vietnam Fish Based Eco-Industry Cluster      

Pendidikan, Riset, & Organisasi Perdagangan (e.g. Wine Institute, UC Davis, Culinary Institutes) Petani anggur Sources: California Wine Institute, Internet search, California State Legislature. Based on research by MBA 1997 students R. Alexander, R. Arney, N. Black, E. Frost, and A. Shivananda. Pengolahan Minuman Anggur Grapestock Pupuk, Pestisida, Herbisida Peralatan panen anggur Teknologi Irigasi Perlengkapan pembuatan anggur Barrels Label Botol Tutup botol dan gabus Public Relations and Periklanan Penerbitan Khusus (e.g., Wine Spectator, Trade Journal) Klaster Pangan Klaster PariwisataKlaster Pertanian California Badan Pemerintah (e.g., Select Committee on Wine Production and Economy)  The California Wine Cluster

Farms Banking & Finance Insurance Machinery & Appliances Construction Security Energy (electric util, fuel) Technical Assistance Transportation & Shipping Hatcheries Processing Export Fishing Fertilizers Packaging Food Processing Freezing Retail  The Ecuadorian Shrimp Farming Cluster 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Shipping Fisheries and fishing equipment Maritime equipment suppliers Offshore Exploration And Oil Production Maritime Service Ship Owners Ship Brokers and Agents Banking and Finance Maritime Lawyers Underwriters and maritime Insurance Maritime R&D Maritime Consultants Fixed Platform Pipelines Processing equipment Shipyards Boat builders Ship equipment Maritime Authorities Classification Societies Maritime Education • Norway has 0,1% of the world’s population, represents 1,0% of the world’s economy, yet account for 10% of the world seaborn transportation  The Norwegian Maritime Cluster

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Leather belts Leather clothing Leather handbags Leather gloves Athletic footwear Synthetic footwear Leather footwear Hiking boots Ski boots Après-Ski boots Footwear machinery Processed leather lasts Design Service Injection molding machinery Molds models Tanning equipment tanneries Leather-working machineries Plastic-working equipment Footwear CAD systems Specialized machine- tools Woodworking equipment Textile fashion cluster  Mapping The Italian Leather Fashion Cluster 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Leather footwear manufacturer Leather belts Leather clothing Leather handbags Leather gloves Textile and fashion cluster Cluster Institutions (APPICAPS, APIC, CTC) Universities and R&D Institutions Footwear machinery Processed leather Shoe design Marketing and Distribution Branding Machinery Suppliers Leather cluster Local software developers International distributors International brands Government  Portuguese Cluster Footwear 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Electronic assembly Other electronic components (e.g. circuit board) Passive electronic components (e.g. inductors, transistors) Semiconductor production Computer software (e.g. artinsoft) Venture Capital firms Specialized Packaging (e.g. plastic, corrugated material) Specialized Chemical Specialized academic and training institutions (e.g. Intituto Technolôgico de Costa Rica, Instituto Nacional de Aprendizaje) State Government Agencies (e.g. Export and Investment promotion agencies: Cinde and Procomer)  The Costa Rica Information Technology Cluster 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Electronic computers Computer Terminals Storage devices Computers peripherals Calculating/ accounting machines Telephone & telegraph apparatus Communic ations Equipment Radio & TV communica tion equip. Magnetic and optical recording media Printed circuit boards Electrical industrial apparatus Prepackage software Computer programming service Computer Integrated Systems Design Commercial physical research Non commercial Research Orgs. Computer maintenance and repair Computer facilities management Data processing and preparation Computer related services Information retrieval services Computer rental and leasing Electronic components Semiconduct or and related devices Plating and polishing Electronic coils & transformers Electronic connectors Electronic resistors Electron tubes Analytical instruments Measuring and controlling devicesOptical instruments and lensesInstruments to measure electricity  The Information Technology Cluster

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Visitors Attractions Holiday resorts/ beaches Retail/restaur ant/market Game parks / recreational facilities / wildlife Cultural village Sports event Public event Historical places Business congresses Suppliers Direct indirect Transportation (airline, cruise ship, railways, coaches) Tour operators Travel agents guides Accommodations Hotels, B&B, Guesthouses, Timeshare construction s F&B services Financial services insurance Car hires Medical services Individuals, families, tour groups, study groups, sport teams, patience, delegations, politicians, business people domestic international UK, Germany, US, France, Asia, Africa Offshoredistributionsystem Onshoredistributionsystem Touroperators,consolidators,wholesaler,information Tourism organization down  South Africa Tourism Cluster Map

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org National government SATOUR DEAT provincial government local government Hard Infrastructure Roads Int’l airport Telecommunications utilities Soft Infrastructure Communities Universities, Training Institutes, Schools, Police & securities Industries Associations Bank & Financial EconomicFoundation Cape Town Johannesburg Durban Sun City Etc. Tourism organization upSouth Africa Tourism Cluster Map

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Pharmaceutical products Research organizations Research triangle institute, Duke University Medical Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill Training institutions Duke University, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill Cluster Organization North Carolina Biotech Center, Center for Entrepreneurial Development Consumer Health and Beauty Products Biological Goods Specialized Packaging Specialized containers Instruments and equipment Medical Devices distribution Specialized chemicals Specialized services Banking, accounting, legal Specialized risk capital VC firms, angel networks Among national leaders (1-5) Competitive (6-20) Position established (21-40) Less Developed (41+)   Competitive Position of the Biotech / Pharma Cluster Research Triangle Economic Area 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Tomatoproducing farmers Packaging manufacturers Advertising Agencies Forwarders Companies for trading in seeds, fertilizations, pesticides Ketchupproducers Transporters/Cariers Concentrate manufacturers Source: Bulgarian Competitiveness Beyond 2000 J.E. Austin Associates   The ketchup cluster in the Stara Zagora Region, Bulgaria 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Oilfield services / Engineering and Contracting Firms Equipment suppliers (e.g. oilfield chemicals, Drilling Rigs, Drill Tools) Specialized Technology Services (e.g. Drilling Consultants, reservoir services, Laboratory analysis) Subcontractors (e.g. Surveying, Mud Logging, Maintenance Services) Business Services (e.g. MIS Services, Technology Licenses, Risk Management) Specialized Institutions (e.g. Academic Institutions, Training Centers, Industry Associations) Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Development Oil and Natural Gas Completion and Production Oil transport- ations Oil Trading Oil Refining Oil Distribut- ion Oil Wholesale Marketing Oil Retail Marketing Gas Gathering Gas processing Gas Trading Gas Transmis- sion Gas Distribut- ion Gas Marketing Upstream Downstream  The Houston Oil and Gas Cluster

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Accountants, legal service TB stallions ex Aus, GB, Ireland, US, Australia, NZ Broodmares NZ Aus Veterinary Services Fertilizer Suppliers Soil analysis Fencing contractors building Water Supply Technology Waikato agricultural cluster (dairying, horticulture) New Zealand Equine research ( , Univ) Totall Board Racing Industry; Board New Zealand Thoroughbred Breedery Association Thoroughbred studs Apprentice Training Equine Certificate Training New Zealand Port Grain and Feed Merchants Accountants, legal service Bloodstock Agents Insurance Services Horse Transporters (Road, Air) Cambridge Jockey Club Pre-training establishments Trainer Yearling preparation New Zealand Equestrian Federation Sport horse cluster (Everting) New Zealand Racing Conference New Zealand partners & Association New Zealand Trainer Association  The Cambridge Bloodstock Cluster

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Computer equipment Communicat ion equipment Communicat ion services Software & computer service Research institution MCNC, North Carolina State University, Center for Advanced Computing and Communication Training institution Univ. North Carolina – Chapel Hill, North Carolina State University Cluster Organizations North Carolina Electronics and Information Technology Association Metal processing Specialized inputs Electronics and opticals components Related services Electronics parts Office machines Specialized services Banking, Accounting, Legal Specialized Risk Capital VC Firms, Angel Networks Distribution Related equipment Analytical instrument, measuring device Among national leader (1-5) Competitive (6-20) Position established (21-40) Less Developed (41+)  Competitive Position Communication Cluster, Research Triangle Economic Area 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org forestry sawmills Furniture manufacturers buyers consumers recycling machinery waterseeds Extension services machinery Logistics, quality advice Foreign wholesale Foreign retailDomestic retail Domestic wholesale machinery design chemicals Paint, adhesives, upholstery etc Typical forestry, timber and furniture value chain 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org universities colleges Training providers Farmers Auction Marts Abattoirs Red Meats Snacks Food Brokers Multiple retailers consumers Poultry Fish Dairy Vegetables cereals Bakery & confectionery Non-alcoholic Drinks Beer Whisky Value-added ingredients Gourmet Foods Ready Meals Prepared Meat & fish Equipment suppliers packaging Transport and distribution legislation Marketing design Market intelligent Industry bodies Specialist consultants Basic processing Value Added processing Rendering/ By products Imported commodities/ Raw Materials Research institutes e.g SABRIs Upgrading & innovative institutions Infrastructure / service Wholesalers distributors Int market agents/ distributors discounters Independent/ specialty retailers Food service Further processing outwith Scotland Overseas market customers End users Fish market Fishing industry Fish farming Breeding Co’s feed Specialist Growers No presence weak medium strong Key driver Critical linkage - strong Critical linkage - medium Critical linkage - weak Scotland’s Food & Drink Cluster 1999 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Chemical intermediates Manmade Fibre manufacturers Apparel Yarn spinners Commission yarn dyers Apparel fabric weavers Apparel fabric knitters Yarn dyers Garment (CMT) manufacturers Knitwear manufacturers Footwear manufacturers Multiple retailers Independent retailers Consumers Wholesalers END USERS Natural fibre growers Technical yarn spinners Interior textile yarn spinners Automotive/ aerospace components Carpet tufters Carpet weavers Furnishing fabric weavers Home textile weavers Wall coverings manufacturersPaper manufacturers Furniture manufacturers Nonwovens (durable) Nonwovens (non durable) Coaters and finishers Technical fabric weavers Range of Industrial/ contract end users Construction/ building supplies Medical supplies manufacturers Protective clothing manufacturers Apparel accessories Garment finishers Trade associations Journalists/ info providers Textile engineers Universities Testing organisations Printers Dyers & printers OtherTechnical fabric knitters Nonwovens (carpets) Resin manufacturers No presence Weak Medium Strong KEY Garment importers Software & hardware suppliers Textile machinery manufacturers Banks/venture capitalists Agents/merchantsSpecialist consultantsTransport and logistics suppliers Packaging materials Merchant Converters  North West’s Textile and Clothing Cluster 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Technical fabric knitters Technical fabric weavers Technical yarn spinners Nonwovens (durable) Nonwovens (non durable) Nonwovens (carpets) Natural fibre growers Manmade fibre manufacturers Chemical intermediates Interior textile yarn spinners Commision yarn dyers Apparel yarn spinners Yarn dyers Apparel fabric weavers Paper manufacturers resin manufacturers Home textile weavers Furnishing fabric weavers carpet weavers Wall coverings manufacturers Dyers & printers Furniture manufacturers Coaters and finishers Garment (CMT) manufacturers knitwear manufacturers Footwear manufacturers Garment finishers Garment importer wholesalers Apparel fabric knitters printers Apparel accessories carpet tufters North West’s Textile and clothing cluster next 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Transport & logistics suppliers Software & hardware suppliers Textile machinery manufacturers Packaging materials Merchant converters Agents / merchants Specialist consultants Banks / venture capitalists other Constr./ build. supplies Autmtive/aero space comp Medical supp manufacturers Protective clothing manuf Range of industrial / contract end user Multiple retailers independent retailers consumers No presence weak medium strong Key Trade associations Journalist/ info providers Textile engineers universitie s Testing organization End Users North West’s Textile and clothing cluster previous 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Mechanical forestry products Plywood, fibreboard paperboard paper pulp  The Finnish Forest Cluster

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Machine clothing, core Timber processing Chemical additives Wood chips Fibre structure seeding Stock preparation Tree breeding Specialty inputs The Finnish Forest Cluster all

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Diesel, petrol, gas engine Electrical motors Hydraulic systems Engines, gears, chassis Tires, tubes Special toolkits Safety cloths Maintenance, repair Out/indoor equip. (utilities) Forwarders, trucks Harvesters, tractors Belts, feeders Filtering systems grinding mills turbines Papers /boards machinery Sawmill machinery Fibre processing Logging machinery Forestry equip. (utilities) equipment The Finnish Forest Cluster all

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Waste Management Marketing Research Institute Forest Management Consulting, Engineering Logistics Safety / Maintenance Education, Training Tourism Private Organization Governmental Institution Road maintenance Security / Safety related Industry Env. Protection Organizations Forest Mgt Organizations Polytechnics, College Universities Fire Protection Systems Associated services The Finnish Forest Cluster all

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Mechanical forestry products Plywood, fibreboard paperboard paper pulp Governmenta l policies, laws International acts National acts Foreign, national investment The Finnish Forest Cluster all

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Transport industry recycling Power supply Chemical industry biotechnology Process automation communication Wood fuel Water, windmills Nuclear power Gas, oil, brown coal pigmentation Hardware + Software SAT, GPS Systems Radios, mobile Truck, train, ship, air cargo refineries labs IT Solution eApplications Network Servicing Communication equipment Related + supporting industry The Finnish Forest Cluster all

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Construction Industry wholesalers Printing and publishing packaging Architecture in/outdoors graphics News press Books, cards art furniture housing Pharma, others foodstuff Handicraft, tourism Sport halls, pub. centers Pub./priv. houses Sauna, recreation Isolation industry Windows, doors Parquet, flooring customers The Finnish Forest Cluster all

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Related services (architecture, engineering, planning, management, real estate, financing) Building construction & Civil Engineering Installation & Completion Private & public demand suppliers Professional associations / education institutes / state agencies OECD Innovative Cluster  The Swiss Construction Cluster

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Manufacturers •Floor tiles •Wall Tiles Distributors Direct Sales Construction Independent Retail Chains TILELAYING • Machinery manufacturers • Colors and glazing materials • Design • Specials craft • Atomizers • Services RawMaterials Institutions • I.T.C/AICE • ALICER • Fundacion Universidad – Emprosa • I.P.C Supporting Associations • ASCER • ANFFECC • ASEBEC • Asociacion Espanola the tecnicos ceramicos Training •ASCER •I.T.C •Universidad Jaume I •Escuela de Artes y Oficios •Institutos de Castellion (n *2 y Onda) Trade fairs •CEVISAMA Conferences •QUALISER Specialized press Public Administration From: What is a Cluster (2002) www.competitiveness.com TRANSPORTATION  The Castellon Spain Tiles Cluster

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Biological Products Pharma- ceutical Products Research Organizations Health and Beauty Products Educational Institutions Cluster Organizations Surgical Instruments and Supplies Medical Equipments Dental Instruments and Supplies Diagnostics Substances Ophthalmic Goods Containers Local Health Providers Specialized Services Banking, Accounting, Legal Specialized Risk Capital VC Firms, Angel Networks Patent Owners and Lessors  The Boston Life-Science Cluster

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org steel plastics Rubber&Tires Electronics Glass Leather&Fabric Machinery Tools Mold&Die Jig&Fixture Motor- Cycles Passenger Cars Pickup Trucks Component and Module Makers (1st tier) Engines, DriveTrains,Steering, Suspension, Brake Wheel, Tire, Bodyworks, Interiors, Electronics and Electrical Systems Parts (2nd & 3rd tiers) Stamping, Plastics, Rubber, Machining, Casting, Forging, Function, Electrical, Trimming Government Education and Technical Institution Associations Distribution Finance Testing Specialized Consultants Services Assemblers Globally Competitive Regionally Competitive Nationally Significant Nationally Insignificant  The Thai Automotive Cluster

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Food Souvenirs Construction and building material Shopping Entertainment Restaurants Domestic transportation International transportation Tour Operator Tour Agency Hotels PR & Media Financial Services Education and Training Institute • The International Hotel and Tourism Industry Management School (I-TIM) • Dusit Thani College • . . . Government Agencies • Ministry of Tourism and Sports • Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT) • Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment • Ministry of Commerce • . . . Core activities Suppliers Service Providers  Thai Tourism Cluster

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Life Sciences Super-Cluster Local Health service Pharmaceuticals & Biotechnology Education & Knowledge Creation Medical Devices Life-Science Super-Cluster Medical & Dental instruments Surgical appliances & supplies Dental equipment & supplies Surgical & medical instruments Biopharmaceutical products Medicinal chemicals & botanicals Pharmaceutical preparations Containers Plastics bottles Diagnostic Substances Diagnostic substance Medical Equipment X-rays apparatus & tubes Electro- medical equipment Ophthalmic goods Ophthalmics goods Research Non- commercial research organizations Commercial physical & biological research Biological Products Biological products except diagnostic Patent owners & lessors Patent owners & lessors Health & Beauty Consumer product Perfumes, cosmetics, other toilet prep. Health Provider Hospitals Color backgrounds represent cluster in life science; dotted rectangles represent sub-clusters in life sciences; circles represent industries in life sciences Note: Cluster mapping Project, Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business SchoolSource: Legend: cluster Sub-cluster industries 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Commodities/ Futures Investment Banking Commercial/ Retail Banking Sales/Trading Real Estate Insurance Ventura Capital/Private Equity Secondary Market Asset Management Corporate Treasury Pension Individual Investors Debt Capital Markets Equity Capital Markets Universities Bank of England FSA/Regulatory Bodies Stock Exchange Accounting Services Legal Services Management Consultancy Telecom/IT Services UK Financial Services Cluster Source: Research by HBS Students G. Juhn, R. Kumar, S. Lachmi-Niwas, J. Swearengin, and E. Wan-Mu Wang, 2003  London Financial Service

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Related Equipment Electronics Parts Metallic Parts Instruments Semiconductors and Computers Communications Equipment Research (MAR) Distribution Software and Computer Services Specialized Services (Banking, Accounting, Legal) Specialized Risk Capital VC Firms, Angel Networks (WTV)  Missiles and Space Defense Equipment Defense Aircraft Commercial Aircraft General Aviation Aircraft Training Institutions WSU, MAMTC Cluster Organizations GAMA, WMA, AJAA, KTEC Among national leaders Position Established Less Developed Source: Cluster Mapping Project, Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business School Wichita Aerospace Vehicles and Defence Cluster 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Process Equipment Organic Chemicals Petroleum Materials Alkalies and Chlorine Related Materials Basic Chemicals Related Plastics Product Distribution Specialized Services (Banking, Accounting, Legal) Specialized Risk Capital VC Firms, Angel Networks Coatings Plastic Materials Plastic Products Training Institutions WSU, MAMTC, WATC Pitsburg State University Cluster Organizations SPE, SME Among national leaders Position Established Less Developed Raw Materials Source: Cluster Mapping Project, Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business School Interviews, Clusters of Innovation Initiative Regional Wichita Plastics Cluster

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Electronics in New York’s Southern Tier Printed circuit boards Electron tubes resistors capacitors Semi- conductors Coils/transfor mers connectorscomponents customers Machinery & equipment utilities Manufacturing functions Base materials & Manufactured inputs Professionals services Technical services Education & Training Note: *The thickness of the arrows approximates the intensity of relationships  

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Health, Food and Beverage products - Food processing industry - Frozen food industry - Food and beverage industry - Pharmaceutical and Chemical Industry - Organic and Green Farming Tourism IndustryTextile and garment Industry Tourism Supporting Industry Transportation and Customs Plastic Industry Packaging Industry Farming Machinery Industry Metal Industry Jewelry and ornament Industry Education Institutes Research Institutes Other Manufacturing and Science based Industry Financial Institutes and Public Administration Royal Projects Tourist Police Source: P. Chairatana, R. Vorrakitpokartorn, Cluster and Regional Innovation System of Chiang Mai/Lampoon Twin City , 2003 Chiang Mai / Lampoon Twin City Innovation System and its Clusters 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Structure of the Tsubame-Sanjo Cluster forging Metal pressing Metal Welding Engraving Metal molding Plastic Molding Polishing Steel Metal galvanising Metal heat treatment Metalworking and processing forging Polishing Trade association Manufacturers Silverware Manufacturers Houseware Trade association Local Wholesalers Wholesaler association Prefecture Technical Center Manufacturers Handtools Local Wholesalers Wholesaler association Trade association Tsubame’s Cluster Sanjo’s Cluster 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org   Animated Feature Films Traveling Shows Multi- media Producti ons Broad- way Product- ions Broad- way Theatre Family Motion Pictures Motion Picture Distri- bution Touch- stone Holywood Pictures Miramax Television Program- ming Disney Channel Theme Parks Disney Records Consum er Product Youth Books and Educa- tional Materials Direct Market- ing Retail Stores Sports Team Cruise Line Resort Hotels Mickey’s Kitchen* Time Sharing Real Estate Develop ment Holy- wood Records Hyperion Book Discover maga- zine Television Stations Adult Publishing / News- papers Radio Stations Television network Adult Cable Channels Aqcuired Through Cap Cities / ABC Merger Note: * Discontinued The Walt Disney Company  

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Indian Movie Cluster (―Bollywood‖) FILM FINANCIAL SERVICE CLUSTER TEXTILE CLUSTER Distribution TRANSPORT CLUSTER Cinema management Retail Outlets Satellite Broadcasting Cable Operations Animation Special Effects Electronics Equipment Film Equipment Lighting Sound Labs Film Processing Film Editing ITCLUSTER Writers Directors Actors Singers Makeup Artist Hairdressing Food Service Transportation Location Scouts Sound Stages Set Design Props Costuming Producers casting On Set Services Set Construction Music Television PublishingTOURISM CLUSTER Source: Research by Harvard student team (Vivake Bhalla, Prasad Bhamre, Vanessa Liu, Kellie McKnechie, Rahul Mehendale) 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  The Australian wine industry cluster Grape Growers Wineries Suppliers: Products Services Authorities Government Regulations Export License Funding Policy Direction Taxation Organizations R & D Governance Marketing Policy Direction Distributors Agents Wholesalers Local Restaurants Retailers Consumers: Domestic & International Upstream Downstream Source: Adopted from the Victorian Wine Cluster [Sellitto & Martin, 2001, p.3] and the structure of the U.S Wine Industry [Gebauer & Ginsburg, 2001, 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  The Cairns (Australian) Tourism cluster Restaurants Hotels Attractions and Activities e.g. Theme parks, casinos, sports Airlines, Cruises Ships Public Relations & Market Research Services Food Suppliers Property Services Maintenance Services Travel Agents Tour Operators Local Transportation Souvenirs, Duty Free Banks, Foreign Exchange Local retails, health care and other services Government agencies e.g. Australian Tourism Commission, Great Barrier Reef Authority Educational Institutions e.g. James Cook University, Cairns College of TAFE Industry Groups e.g. Queensland Tourism Industry Council servicesSources: HBS student team (A. West, J. Hayden, P. Tynan, C. McConnell). Microeconomics of Competitiveness, Spring 2003. 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org The Atlanta Transportation and Logistics Cluster  Passenger Transportation Transportation Arrangement Handling and Storage Government Policy and Regulatory Environment Specialized Services (Consulting, Banking, Legal) Financial Services Computer Services and Equipment Communications Services and Equipment Airports Bus Terminals Ship Building Air Transportation Bus Transportation Marine Transportation Traning and Research Institutions Georgia Tech, Georgia State Community College Cluster Organizations Georgia Trucking Association Among National Leader (1-5) Competitive (6-20) Position Established (21-40) Less developed (41-) Source: Clusters of Innovation Initiative Regional Survey; Cluster Mapping Project, Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business School and in-person Interviews 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Atlanta Information Technology Cluster  Other Electronic Components Instruments Communications Services Software Peripherals Electronic Components and Assemblies Computers Source: Clusters of Innovation Initiative Report: Council on Competitiveness, Harvard Institute on Strategy & Competitiveness, Cluster Mapping Project , U. S. County Business Pattern Data; ontheFRONTIER interviews Distribution Related Services Parts Communications Equipment Universities and Training Institutions Georgia Tech, Emory Community Colleges Cluster Organizations Technology Alliance of GA; Georgia Research Alliance Among National Leaders (1–5) Competitive (6–20) Position Established (21–40) Less Developed (41+) Research Organizations Georgia Research Alliance, Georgia Tech Institutes, GCATT Specialized Risk Capital VC firms, Angel Networks Specialized Services (Banking, Accounting, Legal,) Government Policy and Regulatory Environment GRA, Yamacraw, ICAPP

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Competitive Position of the Atlanta Financial Services Cluster Metro Area, 1999  Banking Securities Services Insurance Products Real Estate Investment Tangible Asset Investment Leasing Professional Services Printing Services Information Providers Computer and Communication Services Related Services Training Institutions Georgia Tech, Emory, Community College Source: Clusters of Innovation Initiative, Regional Survey Data, Cluster Mapping Project, Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business School and In-person Interviews Cluster Organizations Chambers, ABA-Atlanta Research Organizations Specialized Services (Public Relations, Accounting, Legal) Government Policy and Regulatory Environment Among National Leaders (1-5) Competitive (6-20) Position Established (21-40) Less Developed (41+) 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Pittsburgh Production Technology Cluster Note: Blast furnaces comprise almost half of the production technology cluster Source: Harvard Cluster Mapping Project at Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, HBS, U. S. County Business Pattern Data; C of C Interviews Among National Leaders (1-5) Competitive (6-20) Position Established (21-40) Less Developed (41+) Metal Work Machine Tools Process Equipment Production Machinery Process Equipment Subsystems Process Equipment Components Other Machinery Transportation Equipment Parts Material Handling Specialized Services Banking, Accounting, Legal, Environmental, SPIRC Specialized Risk Capital Bank, PIDA, SBA Lenders Cluster Organizations Advanced Manufacturing Network Training Institutions Pitt technical Institute, ITT Tech Institute, Dean Institute of Tech, Bidwell Research Industrial Research of Manufacturing, CMU-EPRI Materials Production, Center for Iron, Steel Making Research, Materials Research Science and Eng. Center Metal Processing Specialized Inputs Casting and Forging and Other Products Vehicles and Heavy Stamping Related Machinery Consumer Equipment Construction Machinery Related Equipment (Blast Furnace and Steel Mills) 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Louisiana Entertainment Cluster Public Broadcasting Commercial Radio Commercial TV Commercial Cable Webcasting (emerging) Development Pre-Production Graphics / Animation Production / technicians Post-Production (multimedia) Distribution (LA, The Web) Media Publication Cajun food, film, music, literature, art, eco-tourism, cultural tourism Recording Cos., Record Labels Sound Stages Legal Intellectual Property Venues / promotion Future: HDTV Digital Other music programs (talent) Acadiana Open Channel (radio) Unions Int’l Alliance of Studio Techs / SAG AF of Musicians UNO Film School & Media Arts Prog. SEU - Hammond NOVAC New Orleans Video Access Center Film Commission LA Music Comm NCRT Source: Economic Competitiveness Group Film TV Features Commercials Music Talent & Reputation Music Videos SupplierFirmsBroadcasting (relatedIndustry) SupplierFirms Related industry Foundations 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Montana’s Creative Enterprise Cluster Suppliers Materials Packaging Framing Tools Services Agents Studios Public relations Non-profits Equipment Markets Coops Galleries Shops E-commerce Outsourcing Foundries Publishers Photo service Printers Social Infrastructure: Associations, Non-profits, Collaboratives, Guilds, Networks Labor Pool: Prof, Skilled Support, Administration Sources of skills & knowledge Schools, colleges/Univ, workshops Other benefits Impacts on Education Attraction/amenities Incorporate in products Core Enterprises I. Artists, crafts, writers, performers (Individuals) 5,835 II.Arts, crafts, media, entertainment, publishers (Firms) 104 III.Designers, decorators, architects, advertising, etc. (Creative services) 527 Source:Stuart Rosenfeld, 2004 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Montana’s Tourism and Culture Cluster Examples of Associations and Nonprofits Made in Montana; Montana Cultural Advocacy; Montana Public TV Association; MT Art Galleries Assoc.; WTC Artists Network Museums Association of Montana; MT Innkeepers Association; MT Tribal Tourism Alliance Billings Cultural Partners; MT Outfitters & Guides Association; Campground Owners Association Promotional Activities Cultural corridors Lewis & Clark Trail Made in Montana Travel Montana Skills, knowledge, and education Culinary arts, food service, hotel mgmt, transportation, sports health, advertising, retailing, SUPERHOST 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Montana’s Tourism and Culture Cluster Events Workshops and classes Sporting events Business conferences Festivals & fairs Theater performances Rodeos, cattle drives Cultural Tourism Art workshops Museums (31) Cultural corridors Lewis & Clark trail Historic sites Elderhostels Eco-tourism & recreation Farm/ranch stays Federal & State Parks Hunting and fishing Rafting, snowmobiling Hiking, skiing Mountain climbing Nature walks Equipment and software Vending machines Software Computers Suppliers Food and drink Furniture Bed & bath products Services Ad agencies Public relations Web designers, IT Printers Coop Extension World Trade Center Security services Retail sales Sporting goods stores Specialty clothing Antiques Galleries Boutiques Outdoors stores Hospitality Services Hotels/motels B&Bs (201) Restaurants Campgrounds (479) Lodges Casinos Transportation Travel agents Car rentals (38) Parking Fuel Guide services (484) Typical Expenditures MT Products Sports equipment (35) Art & crafts Microbreweries (20) Outdoor products 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Montana’s Food Processing Cluster Social Infrastructure Regional Grower Cooperatives (Great Grains, Bushel 42, Malt Barley Growers Assoc.), Regional and County Economic Development Associations, Native American Development Corporations, Montana Agricultural Business Assoc., Montana Meat Packers Assoc., Montana Food Distributors Assoc., MT Assoc. of Cooperatives Sources of Skills, Knowledge, Technology ―Research Triangle‖ State and Federal Ag Centers Vocational Schools Community and technical colleges, universities Equipment producers Consultants, advisors Associations, industry certifications Labor Pool New entrants Management Engineers Skilled workers Entrepreneurs Life science cluster Tourism cluster 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Montana’s Food Processing Cluster Meat Packing Plants (56 firms) Malt Beverages (14 firms) Sausage/Prepared Meats Canned Fruits and Vegetables Food Preparations, NEC (7 firms each) Raw Materials Farmers Ranchers Intermediate operations Milling Operations Packers/Distributors Primary Processors Equipment Packaging Equipment Cooking Equipment Processing (finished goods) Suppliers Maintenance/Cleaning Cooking Utensils Safety/Sanitary Supplies Transportation Trucking Railroad lines Freight Companies Air express Export Forwarding Export Outlets World Trade Center Intern’l Trade shows Foreign licensing Domestic Markets Retail outlets Distributors Internet Sales Trade shows Tourism/Direct Sales Technical, Advisory Services Marketing Specialists Architects, Plant Engineers Accountants, Law Firms Food Engineers/Biochemists Cooperative extension  Bottled Drinks (13 Soft firms)

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Natural Resource Clusters Kazakhstan Oil & Gas Equipment  Kazakh Institute of O&G Parsons Fluor Daniels Kazgiproneftetrans NIPI Neftegaz Munaigrafika Plastics Metal sheets Components lubricants gases Manufacturing labour engineering Rail & roads Aktau & Atyrau Ports Labour Infrastructure IT software capital Mach & equipment Technology Raw Materials R&D / Design INPUTS Government Ministry of Energy & mineral resources Kazcontact KazMunaiGaz Ministry of Environment Associations Kazakhstan Petroleum Association Association of equipment & Service Provider for Subsoils Operations Industry Academia Gidropribor Research Inst KIMEP University Kazakh-British Technical University Politinicheski University Consulting/Training Southern Alberta Inst of Tech Central Asia Svcs Group Related & Supporting Industries Intrnational Organizations World Bank OSCE Byelkamit ERC Holdings FMC Munai Systems Gidromash Orion Imstalkon Kazakhstan Engineering Keppel Kazakhstan Montash Engineering Ordabasy Armature plant Petropavlosk Heavy Machine-Building Plant Ust-Kamenogorsk Zenit Ziksto Testing Mashsertika Kranenergo Transportation & Logistics Oil Companies PRODUCTION Strong relationship Weak relationship Well developed component Poorly developed component CMAR & JE Austin Interviews and Analysis

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Agriculture Production INPUT / SUPPLY Direct  Agriculture & Food Processing Human Resources: 1. Kazakh National Agriculture University (A lmaty) 2. Kazakh Agriculture Institute (Astana) 3. Almaty Technological University 4. Taraz State University Industrial & Public Associations: 1. National Association Kazakh Farmers‖ 2. Country Party of Kazakhstan 3. Dairy Producers Union 4. Food Producers Union Governmental Agencies: 1. Ministry of Agriculture 2. Ministry of Industry & Trade 3. Standardization & Certification Committee Phisical Infrastructure: 1. Roads 2. Railway roads 3. Port in Aktau 4. Grain elevators 5. Warehouse 1. Land renders & owners 2. Labor forces 3. Agriculture Machinery Producers 4. Petrol Companies 5. Water distribution Organization 6. Seeds producers 7. Fertilizers producers & retailers Indirect 1. Construction 2. Financial Services 3. Warehouse Service 4. Transportation Services Exporters Wholesalers Retailers Distributors Fruits Vegetables Milk Meat INPUT / SUPPLY Direct 1. Labor forces 2. Food Processing Technology Producers 3. Food Packaging Producers 4. Electricity Indirect 1. Construction 2. Financial Services 3. Warehouse Service 4. Transportation Services/ logistics Food Processing & Packaging Meat Milk Juices Fruit / vegetables 5. Water distributor 6. R&D Institutes

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Agriculture & Food Processing Food Processing & Packaging Meat Milk Juices Fruit / vegetables

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Thai Palm Oil Sector Map Palm seed Palm Nursery (~170) Importers (4) Seed Producers (3) Surat Thani OPRC Crushing Mill’s Plantation (<10) Plantation Company (~40-50) Farmers (~67,000) Ramp/Broker (~1,500) Co-op (~20) Big (~32) Crushing Mill’s ≥45 tons FFB /hour Small (~21) Crushing Mill’s <45 tons FFB /hour Renewable Energy (biogas, biomass, etc) Supporting Industries EGAT Palm Seed Palm Nursery Plantation FFB Broker Crushing Mill CPO Broker Processing/ Trader Processing/ Distributor Refinery (12) Exporter Soap Company Logistic/Broker (<5) Exporter Domestic Consumption Domestic Food Industry Food Industry Chemical Industry Institutions OAE OIE Surat Thani OPRC Cooperative Federation etc Associations Thai Palm Oil Crushing Mill Asociation, Thai Refineries Association, Etc. Key Universities PSU (surat Thani & Songkla) KMITL, KU, CU, TU, etc. Equipment Lab Services R&D Chemical Fertilizer Consulting Services R&D Equipment Lab Services R&D Chemical Fertilizer Harvesting Services Equipment Transportation Equipment Lab Services Machine Equipment Transportation Port Service Tank Farm Packaging Equipment R&D Chemicals Stock Service Transportation Custom Service Warehouse Deep Seaport Shipping Route 1.2 million seeds/year 4 million seeds/year 4 million seeds/year FFB FFB -> CPO CPO -> edible oil

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Kenya’s Cut Flower Cluster Flower Farming Post-harvest handling; Transport to Market Horticultural Crops Development Authority (HCDA) Government Export Policies targetting Horticulture Government policy for revitalizing agriculture; National Export Strategy; Export Promotion Council (EPC) Non-Governmental Organizations The Rural Enterprise Agri-Business Promotion Project (Usaid, Care, IFAD) Horticultural Handling Produce Facilities Project (JBIC) Trade & Industry Associations Kenya Flower Council (KFC) Fresh Produce Exportrs Association of Kenya (FPEAK) Regional Growers Associations e.g. North & South Kinangoo ; Lake Naivasha, etc Research Institutions: Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) International Center for Insect and Phisiology and Ecology (ICIPE) Public Universities with post graduate degrees in horticulture University of Nairobi, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology Quality & Standards EUREGAP Standard (UK and Dutch Supermarkets) Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Services (KEPHIS) Government Agency, NGOs and Industry Associations Education, Research & Quality Standards Organizations plantstock Greenhouse; Shading Structures Irrigation Technology Pre-cooling Technology Fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides Post-harvest cooling technology Grading/ packaging sheds Packaging & labeling materials Refrigerated trucks Freight forwarders Clearing & forwarding agents Air carriers (commercials & charters) Agricultural cluster Horticultural cluster (fruits & vegetables) Tourism Cluster Sources: Student Team Research Kusi Homberger , Nick Ndiritu, Lalo Ponche-Brito, Melesse Tashu, and Tijan Watts, Microeconomics of Competitiveness Course 2007

 The Guyana Eco-tourism Cluster Eco-resorts Hotels Government agencies Travel agents Tour operators Transportations, airlines, boats Indigenous community Equipment suppliers Beverages company Line operator Public relations and advertising mechanics Marketing specialists Handicrafts cluster Agriculture cluster Construction cluster Educational, research & Trade Organizations (e.g. Univ. Of Guyana Hospitality Program) Industry associations (e.g. Tourism & Hospitality Association of Guyana)

 Mongolia Mining Service

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Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org The Construction, Housing, and Real Estate (CHRE) cluster contains numerous industries and institutions. 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Uganda fishing cluster

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Digital content value chain Australian Government Information Management Office, 2004 

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org The Ontario Mineral Industry Cluster

Durham Energy Industry Cluster

Durham Energy Industry Cluster

Durham Energy Industry Cluster

Durham Energy Industry Cluster

Canada Electricity Cluster

Canada Electricity Cluster

power generation and transmission cluster

Oregon Tourism & Hospitality Cluster



Vietnam Fish Based Eco-Industry Cluster

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Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Diamond

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Massachusetts Governor’s Council on Economic Growth and Technology  South Carolina Council on Competitiveness  Baltic Rim Competitiveness Council  Connecticut’s cluster development initiative (Timeline)  The Australian Wine Cluster (history)  Zamboanga City Seaweed Industry Cluster

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  Thailand  Thai Fashion Clusters  South Africa  Portuguese  Basque  Finnish  Finnish Wireless  Russian  Estonian  Estonian IT Society Initiative  Estonian Telecom/IT  Baltic  Baltic E-Banking  Costa Rica  Costa Rica IT  Argentine  Argentine, Cuyo Wine Cluster  Australia  Australian Wine Industry  Australian Life Science  Kazakhstan  Philippines  Zamboanga City Seaweed Industry Cluster

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org  New Jersey  Pittsburgh  Minnesota’s Medical Device  South Carolina  South Carolina Tourism Business Environment  Hospitality and Tourism Cluster (New Directions)  Massachussetts  Institutions for Collaboration (Selected Massachusetts Organizations in Life Sciences)  Texas  Philanthropy's Impact on the Competitive Context (Advanced Micro Devices)

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org National Business Environment Overview Thailand’s Relative Strengths and Weaknesses +Thailand has a rich wildlife, beautiful locations, and some natural resources +Physical infrastructure, especially roads, is good - Infrastructure in Bangkok is overtaxed - The general skill level of the Thai labor force is low, and educational programs do not match company needs - Communication networks are expensive and weak outside of Bangkok - Inadequate development of financial markets - Low level of domestic technological capacity Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions - Local Thai demand tends to be unsophisticated and does not generally lead international trends + In pick-up trucks, however, Thailand is one of the most developed markets in the world - Most Thai clusters are focused on a few labor-intensive stages of their industries’ value chain - Cluster organizations exist, but tend to be focused solely on lobbying + Inward foreign investment has raised the level of competition - Most companies compete on low input costs and invest little in creating capabilities - Complex, high tariffs and weak antitrust laws impede competition - Government bureaucracy and corruption create significant costs Demand Conditions D

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org The South African Business Environment Selected Observations + Huge endowments of natural resources (ore, gold, diamonds, coal) + Capable financial markets + Strong physical infrastructure - Skill deficits in the workforce - Decreasing spending on R&D Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions - Low sophistication of domestic consumers - Presence of many but unsophisticated suppliers due to history of economic sanctions - Few developed clusters like mining, tourism, and financial services + Increasing openness to international competition + Low corruption - Uncertainty about economic policy context (e.g., BEE) - Slow progress on privatization and other market reforms Demand Conditions D

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Cluster Upgrading The Cuyo Wine Cluster + Good quality grapes available locally + Local suppliers of labels and other materials + Local specialized enology department - Reliance on imported technology (e.g., irrigation systems and pneumatic presses) - Limited venture capital - No research conducted locally Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions + Argentine consumers are receptive to new products - Local customers adapt to foreign tastes and preferences + Locally-based suppliers are relatively sophisticated (e.g., bottles) + National Institute of Viticulture promotes and develops the cluster - Machinery suppliers not locally available + Some new entrants in highquality segments + Investment in winery and agricultural technology - Traditionally, little rivalry among quality producers - Most companies still run as family businesses Demand Conditions D

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Basque Business Environment Recent Changes • Upgrading of the transportation and ICT infrastructure • Strengthening of local financial markets • Investments in universities, new research centers and technology parks • Increasing number of researchers Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions • Exposure to sophisticated demand from new inward FDI, e.g. in automotive • Demand from local companies increasingly selling to international markets • Initiation of cluster efforts in, for example, automotive, aeronautics, machine tool, and knowledge cluster • Upgrading of supporting business services • Increasing levels of inward / outward FDI • Increasing export orientation of companies • Strong increase in private R&D expenditures Demand Conditions D

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Thai Fashion Clusters Business Environment Assessment • Availability of specialized skills in specific activities based on old traditions • Sufficient transportation infrastructure • Lack of competent designers • Lack of adequate domestic research and development institutions Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions • Unsophisticated home demand - Sophisticated demand for traditional Thai designs • Weak linkages between production stages within the clusters • Reliance on imported production machinery • Dependence on foreign designs • High degree of competition, especially among small-and medium sized producers • Competition based on price; subcontracting with foreign companies • Comparatively high tariffs for imported raw materials Demand Conditions D

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org The Microeconomic Business Environment Estonian Telecom/IT Cluster • Good technical training (TTU, IT college, Tartu and technical schools) • Links between operators and universities • High level of FDI in infrastructural build-up • Close position to Finland both geographically and culturally Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions • Demand for Internet banking and other services (Egovernment) • Test market for wireless services (parking, positioning system) • Affection for mobile phones strongly reminiscent of the Nordic region • Emerging Telecom cluster (manufacturers, service providers etc.) • Inward investment: Ericsson, Nokia, Elqotec and others • Three rivals in mobile telecom: EMT, Radiolinja, Q- GSM (Netcom) • Several fixed service providers (since Jan 2001: ET, Uninet, TELE2, and other smaller) • State ownership in Estonian Telecom down to 27% (rest: 49 % Telia and Sonera, 24% publicly traded) Demand Conditions D

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Finnish Wireless Cluster • Substantial public investment in telecommunications-related R&D, with a focus on wireless technology • Significant local venture capital for mobile applications • Finland is becoming an international center for WAP development (e.g., Hewlett Packard, Siemens) Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions • World’s most sophisticated consumers • 70 percent penetration of mobile phones (20 percent of households have abandoned wireline phones) • First country to allocate licenses for 3rd generation wireless networks (3 competitive groups) • Heavy usage of short message services • Finland is a test market for WAP applications • Finland is home to Nokia, the world’s most competitive handset company • There are approximately 3,000 Finnish firms in telecom and IT related products and services • A history of competition in telecommunications services throughout the 20th century • Early to deregulate in telecom related industries • More than 100 local operators • Active local rivalry in wireless communications Demand Conditions D

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Finnish Competitiveness Strengths + University/ Industry Research Collaboration (1) + Telephone/Fax Infrastructure Quality (1) + Administrative Burden for Start- Ups (2) + Quality of Scientific Research Institutions (2) Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions Demand Conditions D Challenges - Road Infrastructure Quality (31) - Quality of Math and Science Education (13) - Quality of Management Schools (12) Strengths + Favoritism by Government Officials (1) + Hidden (1) and Open (2) Trade Barrier Liberalization + Extent of Distortive Government Subsidies (2) Strengths + Extent of Product/Process Collaboration (1) + State of Cluster Development (1) + Local Availability of IT (2) and Training Services (2) Challenges - Local Supplier Quality (13) and Quantity (10) Strengths + Laws Relating to IT (1) + Government Procurement of Advanced Products (2) + Buyer Sophistication (2) + Consumer Adoption of Latest Products (3) Challenges - Cooperation in Labor-Employer Relations (11) - Intensity of Local Competition (7) Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Russian Competitiveness Strengths + Railroad Infrastructure Quality (17) + Availability of Scientists and Engineers (31) + Quality of Math & Science Education (32), Scientific Research Institutions (33) Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions Demand Conditions D Challenges - Financial Market Sophistication (69) - Overall Infrastructure Quality (65) - Extent of Bureaucratic Red Tape (64) - Administrative Burden for Start- Ups (64) Strengths Strengths + Local Availability of Machinery (9), Parts (14), and Services (16) Challenges - Local Supplier Quality (61) Strengths Challenges - Intellectual Property Right Protection (73) - Tariff Liberalization (69) - Hidden Trade Barriers (68) - Intensity of Local Competition (67) Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Challenges - Laws Relating to IT (72) - Stringency of Environmental Regulations (58) - Consumer Adoption of Latest Products (58)

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Estonian Competitiveness Strengths + Administrative Burden for Start- Ups (7) + Quality of Math and Science Education (17) + Port Infrastructure Quality (21) + Quality of Scientific Research Institutions (22) Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions Demand Conditions D Challenges - Police Protection of Businesses (51) - Bureaucratic Red Tape (41) - Railroad (41) and Air Transport (40) Infrastructure Quality - Local Equity Market Access (35) Strengths + Extent of Distortive Government Subsidies (10) + Hidden (12) and Open (17) Trade Barrier Liberalization Strengths + Local Availability of IT Services (23) Challenges - State of Cluster Development (63) - Local Availability of Machinery (58) Strengths + Government Procurement of Advanced Products (17) + Laws Relating to IT (21) Challenges - Favoritism by Government Officials (39) - Decentralization of Corporate Activity (37) - Extent of Locally Based Competitors (35) Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Challenges - Presence of Demanding Regulatory Standards (35) - Buyer Sophistication (32)

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Government Policy for Cluster Upgrading Estonian IT Society Initiative • ’Tiger leap’ (Tigrihüpe) Internet project in all public schools (1996) amd now in higher education • Installation of regional fiber network for Internet access (Külate) • Opening of an IT College for applied education (2000) Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions • Promotion of using Egovernment (possibly municipal election in 2002) • Promotion of E-banking • Establishment of an Estonian Informatics Council • Establishment of an Estonian Education and Research Data Communication Network, EENET • Privatization of national telecom operator company • Deregulation of telecom markets • New Telecommunications act (Feb 9, 2000) • Cable Distribution act (1999) • Digital signature and digital ID cards under development Demand Conditions D

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Cluster Integration E-Banking in the Baltic Countries • Pool of young workers with IT skills • No legacy systems deter shift to e- banking • Relatively high Internet penetration in Estonia Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions • Customers are quickly becoming more Internetsavy • Effective legislation in a number of countries on e-banking services • IT/Telecom cluster emerging is across the Baltic Countries • Lack of public access to Internet is a hindrance, especially in Latvia and Lithuania. Also, the prices of PCs remain high • Opening to foreign banks • Scandinavian owners push e- banking development Demand Conditions D Government • Governments, especially in Estonia have developed action plans for Internet use

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Public / Private Cooperation in Cluster Upgrading Minnesota’s Medical Device Cluster • Joint development of vocational technical college curricula with the medical device industry • Minnesota Project Outreach exposes businesses to resources available at university and state government agencies • Active medical technology licensing through University of Minnesota • State-formed Greater Minnesota Corp. to finance applied research, invest in new products, and assist in technology transfer Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions • State sanctioned reimbursement policies to enable easier adoption and reimbursement for innovative products • Aggressive trade associations (Medical Alley Association, High Tech Council) • Effective global marketing of the cluster and of Minnesota as the ―The Great State of Health‖ • Full-time ―Health Care Industry Specialist‖ in the department of Trade and Economic Development Demand Conditions D

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Portuguese Diamond in 2002 • Lack of skilled workforce and management • Low level of scientific and technological infrastructure • Infrastructure still lagging despite some recent improvements Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions • Relatively unsophisticated local consumer and industrial demand • Significant regional clusters • Insufficient linkages within clusters • Lack of strong related and supported industries even in most significant clusters • Administrative barriers to business formation • Lack of local rivalry • Low level of private R&D expenditure Demand Conditions D

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org The Costa Rica Information Technology Cluster • Proximate location to US market • Well educated labor force • Widespread knowledge of English • High computer literacy • Ready supply of engineers and technicians • Flexible immigration policies for executives and technical staff • Open skies airline policy • Modern communications system • Strong local universities • Network of science and technology research centers Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Related and Supporting Industries Factor (Input) Conditions • Universal computer training and internet access in schools • Broad and growing base of local information technology users • Numerous multinationals and local firms with electronics production in Costa Rica • Development of local suppliers • Explicit cluster development program Demand Conditions Indicates government influence D • Open trade and FDI policies that encourage intense local competition • Export Processing Law that supports the IT Cluster through easing the establishment of new operations

Kawi Boedisetio telebiro.bandung0@clubmember.org Institutions for Collaboration Summary of the Business Environment Overview of New JerseyD Strengths • Access to skilled workforce • High quality K–12 education Challenges • University research levels are lagging those found at universities in other leading states • Basic research institutions have insufficient technology transfer programs • Cluster participants noted very limited access to specialized research facilities • Industry perception of limited quality of highly-specialized Phd programs • High cost of labor and cost of living makes recruitment vis-a-vis low-cost states difficult - Housing costs related to high property taxes Strengths • Very strong network of specialized suppliers • Numerous world-class related industries • Experienced IP law firms, and biotech-experienced service firms Strengths • Proximity to competing firms in the industry creates healthy competitive environment Challenges • Industry perception that state government support for R&D is not ample • Perception of less frequent informal interact

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