Kathopanishad

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Information about Kathopanishad
Spiritual-Inspirational

Published on September 22, 2018

Author: anandsrao

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KATHOpanishad: KATHOpanishad Why is it Called KathoPanishad?: Why is it Called KathoPanishad ? Part of the Kata Shaaka (branch) of Krishna Yajur Veda Name of a sage called ‘Kata’ Invocation: Invocation saha nāvavatu | saha nau bhunaktu | saha vīryaṃ karavāvahai |  tejasvināvadhītamastu mā vidviṣāvahai oṃ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ || Let Him protect us both. May He bless us with bliss of knowledge. Let us exert together. May what we study be well studied. May we not hate (quarrel with) each other. Om. Peace! Peace !! Peace !!! Valli - 1: Valli - 1 THE STORY OF VAJASRAVASA Nachiketas Thinking: Nachiketas Thinking Son of Vajasravasa (Gautama) sacrifices all his wealth (1.1). His son Nachiketas questions the merit of giving away cows that have drunk water for the last time, cows that have eaten grass for the last time, and cows that have given milk for the last time (1.3). Nachiketas Thinking: Nachiketas Thinking Given that he is the ‘material’ possession of his Father he asks “To whom will you give me” In his anger, his Father replies “To the Lord of Death or Yama” (1.4) WAITING FOR YAMA (LORD OF DEATH): WAITING FOR YAMA (LORD OF DEATH) Nachiketas goes to the Lord of Death and waits there for three days without food or water waiting for Yama. Granting of Three Boons: Granting of Three Boons Hopes and expectations, fruits of company with good men, merits of sweet and friendly discourses, beneficial results of sacred sacrifices, charitable deeds and pious gifts, sons and cattle – all these are destroyed in the case of an ignorant man, in whose house a Brahmana guest stays without taking food (1.8) Yama said: “O Brahmana thou, a venerable guest has dwelt in my house three nights without eating. Therefore, choose now three boons, in return” (1.9) FIRST TWO BOONS: FIRST TWO BOONS As the first of the three boons, I choose Gautama, my father, be pacified, be kind and free from anger towards me, and that he may recognize me and greet e, when I am sent away by thee. (1.10) As the second of the three boons, I seek the Karma that is to be done by a mortal in the world, so that, as a result of its reactions he would come to gain the pleasures of the heaven (1.13) The Third Boon: The Third Boon There is that doubt. “When a man is dead” some say ‘He exists’ and some say ‘He Does not.’ This I should like to know, being taught by thee. This is the third boon, that I ask. (1.20) STEADFAST on his quest: STEADFAST on his quest Ephemeral these; O! Death, these tend to decay, the fire ( vigour ) of all the senses in man. Even the longest life is indeed short. Let thine alone be the chariots, the dance and the music (1.26) “O Death! Tell us that in which men have this doubt, and which is about the great passing beyond (i.e., supreme life after death). Nachiketas does not choose any other boon but that of which the knowledge is hidden (1.29) Slide15: DAMA Control of sense organs SHRADDHA Faith SHAMA Control of mind TITIKSHA Forbearance SAMADHANA Focused on Self-Inquiry UPARAMA Abidance of the mind and senses VIVEKA VAIRAGYA MUMUK SHUTVAM SATKA SAMPATTI Discrimination Dispassion Burning desire For freedom Discipline SADHANA Catustaya (Qualifications of a SEEKER) Valli - 2: Valli - 2 PREYAS & SHREYAS SHREYAS (Path of Good) & PREYAS (PATH of PLEASANT): SHREYAS (Path of Good) & PREYAS (PATH of PLEASANT) There are two paths – one is good (path of righteousness) and the other is pleasant (path of convenience) These two having different objectives chain (bind) a man. Blessed is he who, between these two, chooses the good alone, but he who chooses what is pleasant, loses the true end (goal). (V2.1) SNOWDEN: SNOWDEN What is the path of the good ( Shreyas ) and what is the path of the pleasant ( Preyas )? Situation 1: Situation 1 Your close friend, who is a Director in a company, boasts how he made a ‘killing’ using insider information, when they acquired another company. What will you do? Keep quiet or report to the authorities Situation 1I: Situation 1I Your colleague from a different department wants you to send him the latest information on sales that will help them plan better. There are no internal restrictions to sharing, but your boss does not want you to share any information with the other department due to his personal feud with the boss of the other department. What will you do? Send the information, obey your boss, or complain to your boss’s superior. Shreyas Preyas: Shreyas Preyas Path oF GOOD or RIGHTEOUSNESS Chosen by ones with discrimination ( Viveka ) Tough in the beginning – eternal happiness in the end Viveka , Vairagya, Satka Sampatti , Mumukshuttvam lead you to Shreyas Binds you (virtuous cycle of dharma) PATH OF PLEASANT OR CONVENIENCE Chosen by ones who lack discrimination ( Viveka ) Sweet in the beginning – poison in the end Lust, Greed, and Anger attract you to Preyas Binds you (vicious cycle of materialism) Slide23: The intelligent Atman is not born, nor does He die. He did not spring from anything, and nothing sprang from him. This unborn, eternal, everlasting, ancient, is not slain even when the body is destroyed (V2.18) Slide24: If the slayer thinks “I slay” and if the slain thinks, “I am slain”, then both of them do not know well. This slays not nor is This slain (V2.19) Moving…Yet UNMoving: Moving…Yet UNMoving Near… yet Far…: Near… yet Far… Slide27: Sitting he travels far; lying he goes everywhere, who else, therefore, save myself, is able to comprehend the God, who rejoices and rejoices not (V2.21) Who cannot ATTAIN Brahman?: Who cannot ATTAIN Brahman? But he who has not turned away from bad conduct, whose senses are not subdued, whose mind is not concentrated, whose mind is not pacified, can never obtain this Atman by knowledge (V2.24) Valli - 3: Valli - 3 Chariot Slide31: Chariot = Body Slide32: Master = Atman Chariot = Body Slide33: Master = Atman Charioteer=Intellect Chariot = Body Slide34: Horses = Senses Master = Atman Charioteer=Intellect Chariot = Body Slide35: Horses = Senses Reins = Mind Master=Atman Charioteer=Intellect Chariot = Body Slide36: Horses = Senses Reins = Mind Master=Atman Charioteer=Intellect Chariot = Body What is the Practical Value of this Analogy?: What is the Practical Value of this Analogy? One who is always of unrestrained mind and devoid of right understanding, his sense-organs become uncontrollable like the vicious horses of a charioteer (V3.5) But he who has the right understanding, and has a mind always controlled, his senses are always controllable as the good horses of the charioteer (V3.6) Slide38: Arise, awake; having reached the great (teachers) learn (realize that Atman). Like the sharp edge of a razor is that path, difficult to cross and hard to tread – thus say the wise (V3.14) How do we walk the Path of the RAZOR’S EDGE?: How do we walk the Path of the RAZOR’S EDGE? Let the wise sink his speech into the mind, the mind into the intellect, and the intellect into the Great Atman and the Great Atman into the Peaceful Atman (V3.13) Turning Senses Inward: Turning Senses Inward Sofa is seen through the mirror (mind illumines the sense objects) Open window is reflecting the light on the mirror (intellect is controlling the amount of light reflected on the mirror) Sun is the true source of light passing through the intellect (atman is the force that enlivens the intellect, the mind, and the sense objects) Slide42: VIRAT PURUSHA HIRANYAGARBHA ISHWARA Subtle Body Gross Body Causal Body Waking Dream Deep Sleep A U M Macrocosmic ( Paramatma ) & Microcosmic ( Jivatma ) Valli - 4: Valli - 4 Call for Inner Vision & Attainment of Unity Tentacles of Desire & Turning Your Vision Inwards : Tentacles of Desire & Turning Your Vision Inwards “Desire promoted” means normal vision is turned outward thirsting to acquire, striving to possess and hoping to enjoy. But the wise turns his vision inward and experiences the eternal essence in the bewildering finitude (V4.1-2) Slide46: Raga (attachment) Bhaya (Fear) Krodha (Anger) LEISURE TIME ON AN AVERAGE DAY: LEISURE TIME ON AN AVERAGE DAY Slide48: That Atman by which man cognizes form, taste, smell, sounds, and the sexual joys,… what is there unknowable to that Atman in this world? This is verily that. V4.3 SELF IS THE PRINCIPLE OF KNOWLEDGE: SELF IS THE PRINCIPLE OF KNOWLEDGE That Atman by which man cognizes form, taste, smell, sounds, and the sexual joys,… what is there unknowable to that Atman in this world? This is verily that. V4.3 The Self is the ear of the ear, The eye of the eye, the mind of the mind, The word of words, and the life of life. Rising above the senses and the mind And renouncing separate existence, The wise realize the deathless Self – Kenopanishad V2 Beyond Waking, Dream, and DEEP SLEEP: Beyond Waking, Dream, and DEEP SLEEP He, by whom the end of dream as well as waking is perceived – that all pervading Great Self – I AM. Knowing this the wise grieves not. (V4.4) Slide51: Rupert Spira Slide53: VIRAT PURUSHA HIRANYAGARBHA ISHWARA Subtle Body Gross Body Causal Body Waking Dream Deep Sleep A U M Macrocosmic ( Paramatma ) & Microcosmic ( Jivatma ) Purusha – The size of a Thumb?: Purusha – The size of a Thumb? The person ( Purusha ) of the size of a thumb, resides in the middle of the body. Lord of the past and the future, and henceforward (after knowing him) fears no more (V4.12) The person of the size of a thumb, is like flame without smoke, Lord of the past and the future. He alone is even today, and will be verily tomorrow. This is verily That (V4.13) Slide55: Just as water, rained on (high) mountain-ridges, runs down the rocks scattering on all sides, so does he, who beholds the attributes as different, runs after them only (at all times) V4.14 Valli - 5: Valli - 5 The Soul after Death Owner of the City with Eleven Gates: Owner of the City with Eleven Gates This body of eleven gates is indeed of the unborn even minded Self. Having meditated upon this (the seeker) grieves not and the liberated one is ever liberated indeed. This is verily That. (V5.1) What happens to the soul after death?: What happens to the soul after death? Some souls enter the womb to have a body, others go to the plants, just according to their work and according to their knowledge. (V5.7) How shall I know if I have Attained Moksha?: How shall I know if I have Attained Moksha? They (the sages) perceive, that indescribable highest bliss as “This is That”. How shall I know That? Does it shine (of Itself) or does it shine by another light. (V5.14) Vedic AraTI: Vedic AraTI Na tatra suryo bhati na candra-tarakam nema vidyuto bhanti kuto'yam agnih tam eva bhantam anubhati sarvam tasya bhasa sarvam idam vibhati (V5.15) The Eternal Light: The Eternal Light The sun does not shine there, nor does the moon, nor do the stars, nor the lightnings and much less this fire. When He shines, everything shines after him; by His light, all these shine. (V5.15) Valli - 6: Valli - 6 The Theory of Karma and Rebirth The Asvattha Tree: The Asvattha Tree This is the ancient Asvattha -tree whose roots are above and branches (spread) below. That is verily the Pure, that is Brahman, and that is also called the Immortal. In that rest all the worlds, and none can transcend It. Verily this is That. (V6.1) AshvattHa Tree: AshvattHa Tree śhrī-bhagavān uvācha ūrdhva-mūlam adhaḥ-śhākham aśhvatthaṁ prāhur avyayam chhandānsi yasya parṇāni yas taṁ veda sa veda-vit (Gita 15-1) They speak of an eternal  aśhvatth  tree with its roots above and branches below. Its leaves are the Vedic hymns, and one who knows the secret of this tree is the knower of the Vedas. KATHOPANISHAD: KATHOPANISHAD summary Slide67: Invocation Let Him protect us both. May He bless us with bliss of knowledge. Let us exert together. May what we study be well studied. May we not hate (quarrel with) each other. Katho-panishad The Pursuit of Knowledge and Yoga Reveals that the essence of Man is the eternal Brahman and the only way to achieve self-realization is through meditation and introspection.. Story of Vajasravasa Describes the story of Nachiketas and his conversation with the Lord of Death, Yama, who reveals to him what happens to the soul after death and how to attain liberation from the bondage of life and death. The Theory of Karma and Rebirth Concludes by reiterating the theory of Karma and Rebirth and highlighting that self-realization, here and now, is the only way to break the cycle. Analogy of the Ashvatha tree is used to urge us to attach ourselves to the root of the tree, the Brahman, and cut our bondage with sense objects. The Soul After Death Declares that the soul is reborn again and again based on its Karma and Knowledge. The only way to break from this cycle is through self-realization. The Nature of Atman and its Importance Explains what is Atman, its nature, and how it can be known. It declares that Atman within each one of us is the same as the eternal, undifferentiated, consciousness principle Brahman. The Parable of the Chariot Relates the Self, the intellect, mind, the senses, and the body to the Chariot in order to emphasize the need for self-control and discrimination. Valli-1 Valli-2 Valli-3 Valli-4 Valli-5 Valli-6 Invocation Slide68: Know the Ātman as the master within the chariot, and the body verily, as the chariot; know the buddhi (intelligence) as the charioteer, and the manas (insipient mind), verily, as the reins (3-3) The sense-organs, they say, are the horses, and the roads for them are the sense-objects. The wise call Him (the Atman) the enjoyer or experiencer (when He is) united with the body, senses, and mind (3-4). ātmānaṃ rathinaṃ viddhi śarīraṃ rathameva tu |  buddhiṃ tu sārathiṃ viddhi manaḥ pragrahameva ca || 3-3 || indriyāṇi hayānāhurviṣayāṃ steṣu gocarān |  ātmendriyamanoyuktaṃ bhoktetyāhurmanīṣiṇaḥ || 3-4 || na tatra sūryo bhāti na candratārakaṃ nemā vidyuto bhānti kuto'yamagniḥ | tameva bhāntamanubhāti sarvaṃ tasya bhāsā sarvamidaṃ vibhāti || 5-15 || The sun does not shine there, nor does the moon, nor do the stars, nor the lightnings and much less this fire. When He shines, everything shines after him; by His light, all these shine (5-15). KATOPANISHAD – Verses to Contemplate UPON

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