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Published on November 15, 2007

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Cosmic Rays from Gamma Ray Bursts Chuck Dermer (NRL) Colloquium, U. Kansas 15 November 2004 dermer@gamma.nrl.navy.mil Armen Atoyan (UdeM) Jeremy Holmes (TJHSST, NRL, FIT) Stuart Wick (NRL, SMU) :  Cosmic Rays from Gamma Ray Bursts Chuck Dermer (NRL) Colloquium, U. Kansas 15 November 2004 dermer@gamma.nrl.navy.mil Armen Atoyan (UdeM) Jeremy Holmes (TJHSST, NRL, FIT) Stuart Wick (NRL, SMU) Cosmic Rays and Gamma Ray Bursts Origin of Cosmic Rays: A Complete Model High-Energy Neutrinos from GRBs: Test of GRB/Cosmic Ray model Evidence for Cosmic Ray Acceleration in GRBs: GRB 941017 Cosmic Rays from GRBs in the Galaxy Discovery of Cosmic Rays:  Discovery of Cosmic Rays 1934: Baade and Zwicky: SN explosions are sources of cosmic rays 1938: T. H. Johnson: Ionization rate increased from E to W (positively charged sources of ionization – protons?) 1949: Enrico Fermi: Cosmic rays accelerated by collisions with moving magnetic fields 1977: Cosmic rays accelerated by supernova remnant shocks 1900: C. T. R. Wilson: atmospheric ionization (terrestrial?) 1912: Victor Hess: altitude dependence of ionization (gamma rays?) 1928: J. Clay: latitude dependence of ionization (electrons?) Discovery of Gamma-Ray Bursts:  Discovery of Gamma-Ray Bursts Discovery reported in 1973 from 1967-1973 Vela data Cosmic g-ray flashes Shock break-out from SNe (Colgate 1968) Over 100 models at the time of BATSE/CGRO (1991) Klebesadel, Strong, & Olson (1973) 1. Cosmic Rays and Gamma Ray Bursts: Two Unsolved Problems in Astronomy:  Progress in the solution of one astronomical mystery – Gamma Ray Bursts – is leading to the solution of the mystery of Cosmic Ray Origin 1. Cosmic Rays and Gamma Ray Bursts: Two Unsolved Problems in Astronomy GRBs Cosmological Origin Star-Forming Galaxies/ Highly Beamed/SN emissions Rare Type of Supernova Cosmic Rays Supernova Origin Hypothesis Lack of Observational Confirmation/ Origin of High-Energy Cosmic Rays Cosmic Rays:  Cosmic Rays The most energetic particles in the universe Sources of Light elements Li, Be, B Galactic radio emission Galactic gamma-ray emission Galactic pressure Galactic cloud heating Terrestrial 14C Genetic mutations Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays:  Predicted cutoff above 1020 eV due to p + g  p0,p+ interactions with Cosmic Microwave Background radiation Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays What and where are the sources of Cosmic Rays? Multiple sources or single source type? (Greisen, Zatsepin, Kuzmin, or GZK effect) AGASA observations show no cutoff (disagrees with HiRes observations) Argument for the Supernova Origin of Cosmic Rays: Power:  Argument for the Supernova Origin of Cosmic Rays: Power Local energy density of CR uCR  1 eV cm-3  10-12 ergs cm-3 Cosmic ray power requirements LCR  uCRVgal/tesc  51040 ergs s-1 Galactic volume Vgal  (15 kpc)2200 pc  41066 cm3 Cosmic ray escape time from galaxy tesc  L/rc  10 gm-cm-2 / (mp 1 cm-3 c)  6106 yr (information from 10Be used to determine mean density  smaller r and larger Vgal) Galactic SN luminosity: 1 SN/ 30 yrs  ~1051 ergs in injection energy  LSN  1042 ergs/s Knee Ankle GeV/nucleon Second Knee Argument for the Supernova Origin of Cosmic Rays: Acceleration :  Argument for the Supernova Origin of Cosmic Rays: Acceleration Particle acceleration at astrophysical shocks First order Fermi Shock acceleration Power-law particle energy spectrum with number index  2 (strong shocks) Maximum particle energy BISM  3 mGauss. What is R? Particle acceleration suppressed when Emax near knee energy Proton Larmor radius: rL  3 pc /BmG at E =3 1015 eV (knee) Prediction to Confirm Supernova Origin of Cosmic Rays :  Prediction to Confirm Supernova Origin of Cosmic Rays po gamma-ray bump near 70 MeV at SNRs, as seen in the diffuse galactic g-radiation (Ginzburg and Syravotskii 1964; Hayakawa 1969) Evidence for nonthermal electron acceleration in SN 1006 (Strong, Moskalenko, & Reimer 2000) However…Weak Observational Evidence for Hadronic CR Component in Galactic Supernova Remnants:  Unidentified EGRET sources not firmly associated with SNRs and do not display strong p0 features; some appear to be associated with pulsars However…Weak Observational Evidence for Hadronic CR Component in Galactic Supernova Remnants 100 MeV - TeV g Rays not detected at expected levels :  spp 30 mb 100 MeV - TeV g Rays not detected at expected levels Cassiopeia A; VLA Radio Image Aharonian et al. (2001) Upper limits on TeV fluxes from Whipple observations of SNRs (Buckley et al. 1997) Cas A Spectrum of Diffuse Galactic g–Ray Background Harder than Expected from Locally Observed Cosmic Rays:  (Hunter et al. 1997) Spectrum of Diffuse Galactic g–Ray Background Harder than Expected from Locally Observed Cosmic Rays Origin, Composition, and Spectrum of Cosmic Rays above Knee of the Cosmic Ray Spectrum unexplained:  Nonrelativistic first-order shock-Fermi mechanism is incapable of accelerating particles to the ankle (~1019 eV) of the cosmic ray spectrum v0 = b0c is initial speed of supernova remnant shell; ~10,000 km/s Obtain higher maximum particle energies for supernova remnants with faster initial speeds What are speeds of supernova ejecta? Origin, Composition, and Spectrum of Cosmic Rays above Knee of the Cosmic Ray Spectrum unexplained Lagage and Cesarsky (1979) Different Types of Supernovae:  White Dwarf Detonation Supernova Ia: b0 = v0/c  0.02-0.1 Core Collapse Supernova Supernova II: b0  0.005-0.05 Supernova Ib: b0  0.03-0.1 (no H) Supernova Ic: b0  0.05-0.5 (no H, He) Collapse to neutron star GRBs: b0  1, G0  100-1000 Collapse to black hole? Different Types of Supernovae Type I: no H lines in spectra, Type II: H lines Burrows (2000) GRB 990123:  GRB 990123 Gamma Ray Bursts: Basic Facts (Long Duration GRBs) :  Gamma Ray Bursts: Basic Facts (Long Duration GRBs) Redshift Distribution: 0.1055 (GRB 031203) < z < 4.5 Mean Redshift at z  1 dL  2·1028 cm Fluence and Energy: Typical Fluences: 10-6 - 10-4 ergs cm-2 Eg  1051 - 1054 ergs X-Ray, optical and Radio Afterglows Kouveliotou et al. (1993) Sample of Different GRB Light Curves Duration Distribution Redshift Distribution GRB-Supernova Connection:  GRB 980425/SN 1998bw (Type Ic SN) z = 0.0085 (~36 Mpc) Peak SN luminosity ~ 1.6x1043 ergs s-1 GRB 030329 GRB-Supernova Connection What are the Sources of Gamma Ray Bursts?:  Gamma Ray Burst puzzle is far from solved What are the Sources of Gamma Ray Bursts? (Long Duration) GRBs Linked to Massive Stars Collapsar Model Direct collapse to Black Hole SN 1998bw/GRB 980425 X-ray Lines and Features in 5-6 GRBs Supernova-Like Reddened Excesses in ~7 Optical Afterglows Supranova Model Two-step collapse to Black Hole Standard Energy Reservoir Result ? Fireball/Blast Wave Model for GRBs:  Fireball/Blast Wave Model for GRBs Observations: Large energy releases, large powers, short time variability, tgg Explanation: Deposit energy E in compact region to form pair fireball Result: Fireball adiabatically expands and reaches coasting velocity determined by baryon-loading Mb Coasting (initial) Lorentz factor: G0 = E/Mbc2 Capture particle from surroundings: Directed kinetic energy  internal energy Bulk of swept-up energy in hadrons (if surrounding medium is not pair-dominated) Meszaros and Rees, Paczynski, Piran… Leptonic emission processes: 1. Nonthermal synchrotron 2. Compton scattering Blast wave formation and deceleration Blast Wave Model for GRBs:  GLAST Swift Opt MeV 10 GeV G0 = 600 Forward shock only Blast Wave Model for GRBs TeV Radio 2. Complete Solution to the Problem of CR Origin:  2. Complete Solution to the Problem of CR Origin Cosmic Rays below ≈ 1014 eV from SNe that collapse to neutron stars Cosmic Rays above ≈ 1014 eV from SNe that collapse to black holes CRs between knee and second knee from GRBs in Galaxy CRs at higher energy from extragalactic/ cosmological origin (Wick et al. 2004) Diffusion of Cosmic Rays due to Pitch Angle Scattering:  Larmor Radius: Mean free path l for deflection by p/2: Diffusion of Cosmic Rays due to Pitch Angle Scattering Cosmic rays diffuse through stochastic gyro-resonant pitch-angle scattering with MHD wave turbulence. Fits to KASCADE Data through the Knee of the Cosmic Ray Spectrum:  Fits to KASCADE Data through the Knee of the Cosmic Ray Spectrum GRB occurred ~2x105 years ago at a distance of ~500 pc Likelihood of event Anisotropy Energy-loss Mean Free Path of UHECR Protons on CMBR Photons:  Energy-loss Mean Free Path of UHECR Protons on CMBR Photons Energy Losses Photopair Photopion Expansion z = 0 Effects of Star Formation Rate on UHECR Spectrum:  Effects of Star Formation Rate on UHECR Spectrum Assume luminosity density of GRBs follows SFR history of universe Best Fit to High Energy Cosmic Ray Data:  Best Fit to High Energy Cosmic Ray Data Inject -2.2 spectrum (relativistic shock acceleration index) Better fit with upper SFR “Second knee” at transition between galactic and extragalactic components Fits to KASCADE and HiRes data imply local luminosity density of GRBs Requires large baryon load: fb ~ 50-200 Fits to AGASA Data:  Fits to AGASA Data Fit highest energy points with hard injection spectrum Requires other sources for lower energy cosmic rays GRB model implies AGASA results not valid If correct, points to new physics Will be resolved with Auger 3. Neutrinos from GRBs:  3. Neutrinos from GRBs Standard Fireball/Blast Wave Model Leptonic emission processes: 1. Nonthermal synchrotron 2. Compton scattering Hadronic emission processes: 1. Photopion production 2. Cascade radiation Slide30:  neutrino muon Cherenkov light cone Detector interaction Infrequently, a cosmic neutrino interacts with an ice or water nucleus In the crash a muon (or electron, or tau) is produced The muon radiates blue light in its wake Optical sensors capture (and map) the light (courtesy F. Halzen) Proton Injection and Cooling Spectra:  Proton Injection and Cooling Spectra Escaping neutron distribution Injected proton distribution Cooled proton distribution Nonthermal Baryon Loading Factor fb = 30 GRB synchrotron fluence Forms neutral beam of neutrons, g rays, and neutrinos Neutrino Detection from GRBs only with Large Baryon-Loading:  Neutrino Detection from GRBs only with Large Baryon-Loading (~2/yr) Nonthermal Baryon Loading Factor fb = 20 4. Evidence for Cosmic Rays in GRBs: The Case of GRB 941017:  4. Evidence for Cosmic Rays in GRBs: The Case of GRB 941017 Analyzed 26 BATSE/TASC GRBs GRB 941017: 11th highest fluence GRB in BATSE catalog Anomalous g-ray component now seen in 2 other GRBs González et al., Nature (2003) t90 = 77 s GRB 941017 Light Curves GRB 941017 t90 = 200 s Slide35:  Hard (-1 photon spectral index) spectrum during delayed phase Typical hard-to-soft evolution of GRBs Hard component observed both with BATSE and TASC −18 s – 14 s 14 s – 47 s 47 s – 80 s 80 s – 113 s 113 s – 211 s 100 MeV 1 MeV Fluence, including hard g-ray component, is > 6.5 10-4 ergs cm-2 Neutral Beam Model for Anomalous g-rays in GRB 941017:  Neutral Beam Model for Anomalous g-rays in GRB 941017 Highly polarized nonthermal synchrotron radiation GRB jet CR protons G n g e- Escaping neutron beam forming hyper-relativistic electrons/positrons B Neutral Beam Model (Atoyan and Dermer, ApJ, 2003) for blazar jets Two hadronic emission components Hadronic cascade radiation in jet Photomeson Cascade Radiation Fluxes:  Photomeson Cascade Radiation Fluxes C2 S2 C3 S1 Total MeV Photon index between −1.5 and −2 Fits data for GRB 941017 spectrum during prompt phase Photomeson Cascade: Nonthermal Baryon Loading Factor fb = 1 d = 100 emits synchrotron (S1) and Compton (C1) photons emits synchrotron (S2) and Compton (C2) photons, etc. C1 S4 S5 S3 C4 C5 Ftot = 310-4 ergs cm-2 Photon and Neutrino Fluence during Prompt Phase:  Photon and Neutrino Fluence during Prompt Phase Hard g-ray emission component from hadronic cascade radiation inside GRB blast wave with associated outflowing high-energy neutral beam of neutrons, g-rays, and neutrinos Nonthermal Baryon Loading Factor fb = 1 Ftot = 310-4 ergs cm-2 d = 100 Radiation Physics of Neutron/Hyper-relativistic Electron Beam :  Radiation Physics of Neutron/Hyper-relativistic Electron Beam Synchrotron energy-loss rate: Synchrotron energy-loss timescale: Gyration frequency: When wBtsyn << 1, hyper-relativistic electrons When wBtsyn << qj, electrons emit most of their energy within qj 2qj GRB source GRB jet n g n g g g 2g p± p0 e± e± B m± Hyper-relativistic Electron Synchrotron Radiation :  Hyper-relativistic Electron Synchrotron Radiation Mean energy of synchrotron photons emitted by electrons with g = ghrj: 2qj GRB source GRB jet g g e± with g > ghrj e± with g > ghrj B , i.e., a −1 photon spectrum ≈ 200 sec decay timescale external radiation field ( R ≈ 61014 cm, qj ≈ 0.14 for z=1) Fluence ratio  hadronically dominated, and large nm flux Issues: 5. Cosmic Rays from GRBs in the Galaxy:  Numerical simulation model of cosmic ray propagation from jetted GRBs in the Milky Way 5. Cosmic Rays from GRBs in the Galaxy Larmor radius of a particle spiraling in a magnetic field Magnetic Field Model of the Galaxy:  Cosmic rays move in response to a large-scale magnetic field that traces the spiral arm structure of the Galaxy, and to pitch-angle scattering with magnetic turbulence in the Galactic magnetic field. Magnetic Field Model of the Galaxy The typical Galactic magnetic field near Earth is 3-4 mGauss Combined finite difference/Monte Carlo simulation for motion of cosmic ray protons and ions, and protons formed from neutron decay. Disk magnetic field: Alvarez-Muniz, et al. (2000) Cosmic Ray Neutrons:  Cosmic Ray Neutrons Neutrons are also formed in high-energy cosmic ray sources Neutrons decay on time scales of 920g seconds, due to time dilation (about 1 kpc for g=108), and then gyrate in magnetic field Cosmic ray neutrons decay over a pathlength Trajectories of Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy:  Trajectories of Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy Cosmic Rays from GRBs:  Cosmic Rays from GRBs GRB located at 3 kpc from center of the Galaxy GRB emission is jetted with jet opening angle of 0.1 radian Jet is pointed radially outward along Galactic plane Rate of GRBs into Milky-Way--Type (L*) Galaxies:  Rate of GRBs into Milky-Way--Type (L*) Galaxies BATSE obs. imply ~ 2 GRBs/day over the full sky Beaming factor increases that rate by factor ~500 Volume of the universe ~ 4p(4000 Mpc)3 /3 Density of L* galaxies ~ 1/(200-500 Mpc3) Rate per L* galaxy KFT correction factor for clean and dirty fireballs  1 GRB in the Milky Way every 10,000 – 100,000 years Rate of Irradiation Events by GRBs:  Rate of Irradiation Events by GRBs Fluence referred to Solar energy fluence in one second for significant effects on biology. Using constant-energy reservoir result implies where 105t5 yr is the mean time between galactic GRBs, and the GRB distance is Effects of Cosmic Rays from Galactic GRBs:  Extinction episodes (Dar, Laor & Shaviv 1998) Melott et al. (2004) suggest that a GRB pointed towards Earth produced a lethal flux of high-energy photon and muon radiation flux that destroyed the ozone layer, killed plankton, and led to trilobite extinction in the Ordovician Epoch Effects of Cosmic Rays from Galactic GRBs However, geological evidence points toward two pulses; a prompt extinction and an extended ice age. The prompt neutrons and gamma-rays from a GRB could have produced the prompt extinction. The delayed cosmic rays could have produced the later ice age Flux of Cosmic Rays from GRB Jet Pointed towards the Earth:  Flux of Cosmic Rays from GRB Jet Pointed towards the Earth Fluxes of cosmic ray neutrons, neutron-decay protons, and protons passing near Earth as a function of time for cosmic ray Lorentz factors between 108 and 109. The source of high-energy cosmic rays is located 1000 parsecs from the Earth, with the GRB jet pointed in our direction. As many as three phases of cosmic ray irradiation are found: Prompt neutron (and gamma-ray) flux, Neutron-decay protons, Cosmic ray protons produced at the GRB source. Cosmic Ray Sources in the Inner Galaxy:  Evidence for high-energy (1018 eV) cosmic ray sources towards the Galactic Center Cosmic Ray Sources in the Inner Galaxy Medina-Tanco, Biermann et al. (2004) Duration of a cosmic-ray neutron event from a GRB is short compared to the mean lifetime between GRBs; therefore model predicts no SUGAR excess Summary:  Summary Complete model where Cosmic Rays originate from SNe that collapse to neutron stars in the Galaxy (E<~1014 eV), SNe that collapse to black holes (GRBs) in the Galaxy (1014 eV <~ E <~ 5x1017 eV), Extragalactic SNe that collapse to black holes (GRBs) (E >~ 5x1017 eV) GRB/Cosmic Ray model requires that GRBs are hadronically dominated High-energy neutrino detection from GRBs only if GRBs are hadronically dominated Anomalous hard g-ray emission component in GRB 941017 due to hadronic cascade radiation inside GRB blast wave (during prompt phase) and synchrotron radiation of hyper-relativistic electrons formed by outflowing neutrons (during prompt and extended phase) Observation of GRB 941017 may provide first clear evidence for hadronic acceleration in GRBs and the sites where high-energy cosmic rays originate GRBs in the Milky Way could have produced earlier extinction events Effects of cosmic ray irradiation on Earth not yet fully explored 2005-2015: A Decade of Discovery:  2005-2015: A Decade of Discovery Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, Beppo-SAX: Pioneering X-ray/g-ray space observatories (1991-2002) Chandra X-ray Observatory: NASA Great Observatory High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS): ground-based air Cherenkov telescope at TeV energies INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) ): ESA-NASA hard X-ray/g-ray telescope Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer (NASA MidEx) scheduled for a Wednesday launch! Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS): Ground-based g-ray telescope array Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST: 2007) IceCube: NSF’s South Pole km-scale neutrino telescope Auger High Energy Cosmic Ray Observatory: Argentina Slide53:  Swift Slide54:  HESS Slide55:  IceCube Slide57:  INTEGRAL Slide58:  Chandra Slide59:  Auger

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