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Information about july15

Published on November 26, 2007

Author: Boyce

Source: authorstream.com

Art in Society:  Art in Society Venus of Willendorf Aboriginal Art Van Gogh’s Cypresses What is Art?:  What is Art? Art is very difficult to define, but it generally refers to the manifestations of human creativity through which people express themselves in dance, music, song, painting, sculpture, pottery, cloth, story telling, verse, prose, drama, and comedy. At least 28,000 years old This photo, taken in Berlin, Germany, illustrates art within art. In the background, the experimental artist Christo has wrapped the Reichstag. Another man has wrapped himself and is now posing in front. Body Decoration and Adornment:  Body Decoration and Adornment Perhaps one of the oldest forms of art Ranges from permanent (tatoos, piercings, scars, change in skeleton) to temporary (paint, objects, clothing) Aesthetic and social - can represent rank, sex, occupation, identity, religion Drawing attention Females - makeup, earrings, necklace, belt, clothing Males - beards, tatoos, clothing Change in status (usually puberty) Variation in Art:  Variation in Art Visual Art mirroring environment differential use of natural materials relationship between art and culture repetition, space, symmetry, enclosure Music song style varies with cultural complexity importance of a regular rhythm Folklore urban legends (www.urbanlegends.com or www.snopes.com) North Carolina ghost stories Art in Other Cultures:  Art in Other Cultures “Civilized” and “Primitive” Art timelessness ethnocentrism communal works tourist art Culture Contact with Europeans (Australia) with other groups (Native Americans) scholars Art and Religion:  Art and Religion Definitions of both art and religion focus on the more than ordinary aspects of each with regard to how they are different from the ordinary and profane/secular. A lot of Western and non-Western art has been created in association with religion, but it is important to remember that not all non-Western art has ritual or religious importance. Art and religion both have formal (museums and churches, temples) and informal (parks, homes, and regular gathering places) venues of expression. State-level societies have permanent structures for religion and art. Nonstate-level societies lack permanent structures for religion and art. Language and Communication:  Language and Communication Proto-Indo-European Linguistic Family Tree Introduction:  Introduction Language is our primary means of communication. Language is transmitted through learning, as part of enculturation. Language is based on arbitrary, learned associations between words and the things they represent. Only humans have the linguistic capacity to discuss the past and future in addition to the present. Language serves to convey all the complex, elaborate behavior that constitutes our culture. Anthropologists study language in its social and cultural context. Communication:  Communication We communicate by agreeing to call an object, movement, or abstract concept by a common name in our spoken language. Other forms of communication: Direct: facial expression, body stance, gesture, tone of voice Indirect: writing, algebra, music, painting, signs Non-linguistic communication Nonhuman Communication:  Nonhuman Communication Systems of communication are not unique to humans. Animals communicate through sounds, odors, or body movements. Some animal communication systems are symbolic, which means that even when the referent is not present, the communication has meaning. Example: Vervet monkeys in Africa Closed versus open communication systems Call Systems:  Call Systems Call systems consist of a limited number of sounds that are produced in response to specific stimuli (e.g. food or danger) Calls cannot be combined to produce new calls. Calls are reflexive in that they are automatic responses to specific stimuli. Although primates use call systems, their vocal tract is not suitable for speech. Apes, such as these Congo chimpanzees, use call systems to communicate in the wild Call Systems:  Call Systems Contrasts between human language and a primate call system: Sign Language:  Sign Language A few nonhuman primates have been able to learn to use American Sign Language (ASL). Washoe, a chimpanzee, eventually acquired a vocabulary of over 100 ASL signs. Koko, a gorilla, regularly uses 400 ASL signs and has used 700 at least once. Sherman and Austin--both chimps--were trained on computer keyboards. Sherman and Austin began communicating with each other via computers. Kanzi, another chimp, has come closest to having a primitive English grammar. Sign Language:  Sign Language These nonhuman primates have displayed some “human-like” capacities with ASL. Joking and lying Cultural transmission: they have tried to teach ASL to other animals Productivity: they have combined two or more signs to create a new expressions Displacement: the ability to talk about things that are not present The Origin of Language:  The Origin of Language The human capacity for language developed over hundreds of thousands of years, as call systems were transformed into language. Language is a uniquely effective vehicle for learning that enables humans to adapt more rapidly to new stimuli than other primates. First real language usage probably began 100,000 years ago with early Homo sapiens, or as late as 40,000 years ago. Language center in the human brain increased. The Origin of Language:  The Origin of Language By studying creoles and children’s acquisition of language, we can try to reconstruct how humans first learned language. Creoles pidgin - simplified version of a language, generally lacking prepositions and auxiliary verbs creole - incorporates vocabulary from two languages but has a grammar that differs from the new and native languages Children’s Acquisition of Language a child can learn any language, any grammar children around the world learn to speak at the same general age children’s speech patterns are the same in different languages “errors” children make are consistent with creoles Descriptive or Structural Linguistics:  Descriptive or Structural Linguistics In human language, meaningful sounds and sequences are combined without conscious knowledge of the rules of a language. Language rules are those that refer to patterns of speaking that are discoverable in actual speech. Grammar includes the unconscious principles that predict how most people talk. Descriptive (or structural) linguistics tries to discover the rules of phonology--the patterning of sounds; morphology--the patterning of sound sequences to form meaningful units; and syntax--the patterning of phrases and sentences that predict how most speakers of a language talk. Phonology:  Phonology There is a huge number of phones (different sounds) that the human vocal tract can make; each language uses only some of these. Hard to learn a foreign language and the sounds. Phones might take different positions (e.g.: ng sound) Alphabet can represent phones differently Example: Ghoti = Fish (tough, women, position) English has 26 letters but 40 distinct sounds Phoneme = sound or set of sounds that makes a difference in meaning in the language ways of pronouncing sounds: a (ay, ah), the (thee, thu) Morphology:  Morphology Morpheme is the smallest unit of language that has meaning; could be one word, could be a prefix, could be a signifying syllable. Examples: dog (word), indefinite (prefix), boldly (adverb sig) A lexicon consists of words and morphs and their meanings; a dictionary approximates the lexicon of a language. Meanings can depend on order (English, French, or Spanish) or changing morphemes (usually called a declension, as in Latin, Russian, or Greek). Some languages have gendered words (Romance languages, German, Greek, Old English, etc.). Syntax:  Syntax The rules of syntax may be partly learned in school, but most children know many of them as soon as they learn the language. Example: Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking Glass ‘Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe. All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. Which words are adjectives? Verbs? Singular noun? Plural noun? Historical Linguistics:  Historical Linguistics Historical linguistics focuses on how language changes over time. Compare the following works from Old, Middle, and Modern English: Beowulf (Old English) Hwæt! We Gardena in geardagum, þeodcyninga, þrym gefrunon, hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon. Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena þreatum, monegum mægþum, meodosetla ofteah, egsode eorlas. Lo, praise of the prowess of people-kings of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped, we have heard, and what honor the athelings won! Oft Scyld the Scefing from squadroned foes, from many a tribe, the mead-bench tore, awing the earls. Historical Linguistics:  Historical Linguistics The Canterbury Tales (Middle English) This worthy lymytour, this noble Frere, He made alwey a maner louryng chiere Upon the Somonour, but for honestee No vileyns word as yet to hym spak he. This worthy limiter, this noble friar, He turned always a lowering face, and dire, Upon the summoner, but for courtesy No rude and insolent word as yet spoke he. Historical Linguistics:  Historical Linguistics Hamlet (Early Modern English) For who would bear the whips and scorns of time, The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely1, The pangs of despised love, the law's delay, The insolence of office and the spurns That patient merit of the unworthy takes, When he himself might his quietus2 make With a bare bodkin3? Who would fardels4 bear, To grunt and sweat under a weary life, But that the dread of something after death, The undiscover'd country from whose bourn5 No traveller returns, puzzles the will And makes us rather bear those ills we have Than fly to others that we know not of? 1 Haughtiness and contempt 2 Death 3 Dagger 4 Burden 5 Destination Historical Linguistics:  Historical Linguistics Historical linguistics also studies the long-term variation of speech by studying protolanguages and daughter languages. Anthropologists are interested in historical linguistics because cultural features sometimes correlate with the distribution of language families. Linguists can reconstruct changes that have occurred by comparing contemporary languages that are similar; these usually derive from a common, ancestral language. Proto-Indo-European Sino-Tibetan Borrowing Proto-Indo-European :  Proto-Indo-European 50% of the world’s populations speak an Indo-European language Many rules uncovered by Jones and Grimm In Germanic, d of Romance switched to t, as in duo to two The p of Romance switched to f, as in pater to father. Cognates - words that are similar in sound and meaning Sino-Tibetan:  Sino-Tibetan Another major language family, spoken by more than a billion people, is Sino-Tibetan. Linguistic Divergence:  Linguistic Divergence Gradual change Natural boundaries Social boundaries Borrowing Change by force Military means Language and Culture:  Language and Culture Explaining the diversity of language can help explain the interaction between language and other parts of culture. Culture influencing language Berlin and Kay’s color word study “simple” societies will have few color words (white/black) “complex” societies will have numerous color words (red, green, blue, yellow . . . To colors found in a J. Crew catalogue) All languages have a core vocab of about the same size. Language influencing culture Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis suggested that language is a force in its own right and it affects how individuals in a society perceive and conceive of reality. Ethnography of Speaking:  Ethnography of Speaking Sociolinguistics is concerned with the ethnography of speaking--with cultural and subcultural patterns of speech variation in different social contexts. Examples: A non-native speaker might know all the rules of English but is unsure what to say in social situations--is it more proper to talk about the weather, or about personal finances? Social status and speech Higher class tends to have more homogeneous speech Honorifics (in German and in English) Gender differences - will talk about on 7/17 Multilingualism and Codeswitching Interethnic communication - will talk about on 7/17

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