Published on December 30, 2007
Bridges to Literacy:Connecting Research to the ClassroomJudi Dodson firstname.lastname@example.org : Bridges to Literacy: Connecting Research to the Classroom Judi Dodson email@example.com Slide2: Connecting Research to the Classroom Judi Dodson firstname.lastname@example.org Bridges to Literacy Big Ideas: Big Ideas Closing the achievement gap by addressing focused goal setting, instruction and assessment. Evidence-based activities, using simple materials, that align with DIBELS measures and are designed to increase student achievement. Language Link Activities: Language Link Activities The activities are based on: Strategies and activities which are powerful and efficient Strategies which supply ample opportunities for repeated practice which lead to mastery and automaticity Strategies that are aligned with DIBELS assessments which are highly predictive for reading success. Poor readers at the end of first grade…: Poor readers at the end of first grade… Are at very significant risk for long term academic difficulty. 88% probability of being a poor reader in fourth grade if a poor reader in the first grade. 87% probability of remaining an average reader in fourth grade, if an average reader in the first grade. (Juel, 1988) Are likely to require intensive instructional support. Juel, C. Learning to Read and Write: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 4. 437-447. How can we change reading outcomes?: How can we change reading outcomes? Act with a sense of URGENCY Focus instruction on the Five Essential Components for all students Target interventions on specific instructional needs Areas of the Brain: Areas of the Brain Four Processing Systems: Four Processing Systems Page 24 writing output speech output reading input speech sound system letter memory Phonemic Awareness Fluency Phonics Concept & Information; Sentence Context; Text Structure Vocabulary The Four Part Processor: The Four Part Processor Activities work best that involve more than one of the 4-part processors simultaneously. Activities work best when they are engaging and require reflection on language and thinking Working Memory and Automaticity: Working Memory and Automaticity Processing Task Processing Task Less Fluent Reader More Fluent Reader Working Memory Colorado Reading First DIBELS Benchmark Scores and Instructional Focus: DIBELS Benchmark Scores and Instructional Focus Dark blue (#’s) = benchmark period; checkerboard = period of intensive instruction; arrows = ongoing instruction; stripes = rapid automatic naming indicator Good, Kaminski Effective Intervention Design : Effective Intervention Design What instructional needs will be targeted? How much? How frequently? When? What will the makeup of students be? How many? Which ones? Research Findings to Guide Instruction for Achievement: Research Findings to Guide Instruction for Achievement Instruction must be more focused, explicit and systematic Include word identification strategies and reading fluency practice with connected text Provide ample opportunities for guided practice, appropriate levels of scaffolding and responsive feedback Teach with small teacher/student ratios Teach intensively Double dose, if possible Barbara Foorman (University of Texas) and Joe Torgesen (University of Florida) 2001 Language Link Lesson Plan Basic Design: Language Link Lesson Plan Basic Design State Goal and Set Purpose Brief review (Warm-up) and practice of previously learned concepts MODEL: Introduction or review of new concept (I Do) GUIDED PRACTICE (We Do) Reading and spelling words with new concept Writing words and sentences Reading text with targeted concepts INDEPENDENT PRACTICE (You Do) Return To Purpose Language Link ActivitiesDeveloping Word Consciousness in the 5 Components: Language Link Activities Developing Word Consciousness in the 5 Components Language Link Activities: Phonemic Awareness Instruction : Language Link Activities: Phonemic Awareness Instruction Activities that Reinforce Phonemic Awareness Skills What Does Research Tell Us?: What Does Research Tell Us? 20-30% Do not link sounds and letter symbols easily 7-10% Substantial Difficulty Adams, ’90; Blachman, ’94; Torgesen,et.al, ‘94 Slide18: The two best school-entry predictors of how well children will learn to read during the first two years of instruction are a student’s abilities in phonemic awareness and letter knowledge. L. Ehri: National Reading Panel, 2000 Early Predictors Stages of Phonological Awareness Development: Stages of Phonological Awareness Development DIBELS and Phonemic Awareness Instruction: DIBELS and Phonemic Awareness Instruction Initial Sound Fluency Phonemic Segmentation Fluency Strategies to Increase Phoneme Segmentation: Strategies to Increase Phoneme Segmentation Sound Tapping Sound Counting Activities Oral Word Play Slide22: Activity: Sound Tapping 1-22 Slide23: Activity: Sound Boxes Slide24: Partner and trade off being student and teacher. Create a list of 5 to 10 words. Play the game: Tap it, Map it and Zap it. /f/ /l/ /a/ Activity: Sound Counting Tap it, Map it and Zap it! /g/ Slide25: Koosh Ball Games Silent Ball Sentence Segmentation Same Sound Start Rhyming Initial – Final Game Multi-syllabic Word Games Activity: Oral Word Play Games Adapted from Games and Activities for Readers and Spellers by Coultas & Whitney (Sopris West) Slide26: Alphabet Arc by Neuhaus Center: email@example.com; www.alphabetletter.com Alphabet Mat / Arc Slide27: Children must be fluent and accurate at naming the letters and saying them in order. Knowledge of letter names is a robust predictor of 1st grade reading success. Naming letters helps to recall and recognize them Builds letter-sound connection and word consciousness. Develop links to reading and spelling. Alphabet Mat / Arc The Reflective Practitioner: The Reflective Practitioner How will I know if my phonemic awareness instruction is working? Measure improvement in DIBELS initial sound fluency, phoneme segmentation fluency and informal phonemic awareness activities as progress monitoring measures. Oral Language is the Heart of Literacy Instruction: Oral Language is the Heart of Literacy Instruction Who: The classroom teacher When: All day – Every Day How: Focus on activities that develop speaking, listening and conversational skills. Create opportunities for purposeful talk Model the use of rich and interesting language Language Link Activities:Oral Language Instruction: Language Link Activities: Oral Language Instruction The Value of “Talking Classrooms”: The Value of “Talking Classrooms” “The most important aspect to evaluate in child care settings for very young children is the amount of talk actually going on, moment by moment, between children and their caregivers.” Betty Hart and Todd Risley We can use this as a basis to begin thinking about the importance of conversation in the classroom for school-age children. A Language-Centered Classroom: A Language-Centered Classroom Engage children in extended conversations Encourage children to tell and retell stories and events Discuss a wide range of topics and word meanings Use new and unusual words Ask open-ended questions Encourage language play Explore and experiment with language Name and describe objects in the classroom Ask and answer wh- and how questions Hear good models of language use Discuss topics of interest Teachers Children Activity: The 30 Second Conversation: Activity: The 30 Second Conversation Make time for authentic conversation Activity: Recipe for a 600 Book Kid: Activity: Recipe for a 600 Book Kid Recipe for a 600 Book Kid Based on the work of Steven Stahl Recipe for a 600 Book Kid: Recipe for a 600 Book Kid Cooking Time: 0ne Year Ingredients for a 600 book kid: One Teacher One Class Good Books Method: Read 3 books a day, every day and you will wash your children in words and create a 600 book kid! Activity: Random Words of Kindness: Activity: Random Words of Kindness Random Words of Kindness Affirmations, Affirmations!!! Teacher to Student Affirmations Student to Student Affirmations The Reflective Practitioner: The Reflective Practitioner How will I know if my oral language instruction is working? Count the number of words a child is using. Listen and record how many times a child volunteers to speak in the classroom or responds to being called. Measure the words used in DIBELS retell fluency and word use fluency. Language Links Activities: Phonics Instruction: Language Links Activities: Phonics Instruction Activities that Reinforce Alphabetic Knowledge DIBELS and Phonics Instruction: DIBELS and Phonics Instruction Letter Naming Fluency Nonsense Word Fluency Oral Reading Fluency Building Word Consciousness: Ongoing review and practice of sounds and letters Word building activities Phoneme/Grapheme mapping Speed Drills with phonics concepts Building Word Consciousness Word Building Activities: Word Building: Word building with the tracking mat or magnetic letters Word Building Folder Activity Word Building through Word Graphing Word Building Activities Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping: Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping LETRS-Module 7 (Sopris West) p ee sh ng i s o t s p Builds on the students PA knowledge to create a solid foundation for mapping that sound knowledge to print. Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping builds the bridge from sounds to spelling. Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping: Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping LETRS-Module 7: Sopris West ai r b Se ee ch a t s m Builds on the students PA knowledge to create a solid foundation for mapping that sound knowledge to print. Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping builds the bridge from sounds to spelling. n p Slide44: Word Building gives a student the opportunity to practice making words using movable letters. Word building stresses the core phonological deficit of blending and segmenting and adds practice in the skill of manipulation of sounds. This activity strengthens the phonological processor. Activity: Word Building mat mop cat top fat tip fad lip mad slip map sip Activity: Physical Phonics: Activity: Physical Phonics Activity: Physical Phonics: Activity: Physical Phonics Students are given cards and stand in front of room Students at seats have white boards Students write words on white boards Students at front of room build words Students at seats compare and decide if the word is spelled correctly Can be done with graphemes or morphemes Activity: Word Graphing: Activity: Word Graphing Teachers graph words with sticky notes, adding words for regular and cumulative review of concepts learned: sad bat pat /a/ /i/ sit kiss mix Flexible Use of Word Graphing: Flexible Use of Word Graphing Whole Class: Word Graphing can be done as a whole class activity with the class creating a ‘living word wall’ that changes as students add words they find in text. Guided Small Group: done as a small group activity with the teacher giving each student a paper with a line down the middle. The students write ‘a’ and ‘i’ at the top. They tap the sounds in each word and decide which column the word belongs in. Then they write the word in the appropriate column. Flexible Use of Word Graphing: Flexible Use of Word Graphing Independent Partner Activity: students share a set of word cards which contain words they sort, based on the targeted concept. They then they write the words into their word work notebooks. They can choose 3 words to use in sentences Orally sharing with their partner Record the sentences in word work notebook Try to use more than one word in a sentence - using words in relationship to each other. Activity: Language LinksBuilding Word Consciousness: Activity: Language Links Building Word Consciousness Going From One Syllable Words to Two Syllable Words: Going From One Syllable Words to Two Syllable Words Teaching a Strategy: Chunking the word allows students to begin to understand that longer words are made up of smaller, manageable chunks or syllables Divide between the 2 middle consonants mag net + Start with the Closed Syllable Type magnet Going From One Syllable Words to Two Syllable Words: Going From One Syllable Words to Two Syllable Words Some examples of two syllable, closed syllable words: magnet publish traffic problem mascot mitten trumpet napkin hotdog tablet frantic droplet Activity: Simple Syllable Stomp: Activity: Simple Syllable Stomp Count the number of syllables in a word. Put a sticky note down for each syllable you hear. Write the spelling on each sticky note. Use words that play fair in terms of what you have already taught. fan tas tic Adapted from Linda Farrell Emphasize Multi-syllabic Reading in Instruction: Emphasize Multi-syllabic Reading in Instruction Add the Magic-e Syllable: ex plode + delete manhole misplace pothole pancake mistake Slide55: Choose prefixes, suffixes and/or base. Make one change at a time to create new words. Write each syllable on an separate index card. Activity: Syllable Tracking RE FORM ING RE FORM ED IN FORM ED The Reflective Practioner: The Reflective Practioner How will I know when my phonics instruction is increasing skills? Progress monitoring with DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency and informal phonics measures. Increased accuracy in reading high frequency words and during oral reading. Fluency Activities: Fluency Activities Activities that Reinforce Fluency DIBELS and Fluency Instruction: DIBELS and Fluency Instruction All DIBELS measures are tied to fluency instruction at the sound, letter, word, oral language and connected text levels. Double Deficit Hypothesis: Double Deficit Hypothesis Deficit in phonemic awareness Deficit in automatic retrieval of sounds and words, called rapid automatic naming Maryanne Wolf Slide60: Activity: Rapid Automatic Naming Why is Fluency So Important?: Why is Fluency So Important? Who needs more practice?: Who needs more practice? 10th Percentile Reader 90th Percentile Reader Curriculum-Based Norms for Oral Reading Fluency (J. Hasbrouck & G. Tindal, 1992): Curriculum-Based Norms for Oral Reading Fluency (J. Hasbrouck & G. Tindal, 1992) Sequence of Fluency Instruction: Sequence of Fluency Instruction Sounds Letters Words Phrases Sentences Text Reading Comprehension Without the Building Blocks…: Without the Building Blocks… Word Level: Speed Drills : Word Level: Speed Drills One minute drills Sight word drill lists (5-6 irregular words) Regular patterned word lists Count and record # of words read successfully Chart data Goal: Read words efficiently Building Sight Word Practice: Building Sight Word Practice Practice high frequency words to work toward automaticity New words: because, friend, play Ongoing practice words: there, where, said Read the words Speed drill with key words Activity: Sight Word Drill: Activity: Sight Word Drill ) 5-68 Additional Examples of Patterned Word Lists: Additional Examples of Patterned Word Lists pane pan cape cap pane pan pale pal cape cap pane pan pale pal cape cap pane pan pale pal cop hot job rob bob cop hop hot cop bob rob hot job cop hop rob job cop hot bob Read this aloud: Read this aloud It isn’t as if the words are difficult to identify or understand, but the spaces make you pause between words, which means your reading is less fluent. Prosody:Punctuation is the Frame: Prosody: Punctuation is the Frame Inflection Smoothness Voice Rhythm . ; , Who Said Punctuation’s Not Important?: Who Said Punctuation’s Not Important? Dear John, I want a man who knows what love is all about. You are generous, kind, thoughtful. People who are not like you admit to being useless and inferior. You have ruined me for other men. I yearn for you. I have no feelings whatsoever when we’re apart. I can be forever happy. Will you let me be yours? ---- Sheila Dear John,: Dear John, I want a man who knows what love is. All about you are generous, kind, thoughtful people who are not like you. Admit to being useless and inferior. You have ruined me. For other men, I yearn. For you, I have no feelings whatsoever. When we’re apart, I can be forever happy. Will you let me be? Yours, Sheila Alphabetic Prosody: Alphabetic Prosody Read the Alphabet: A b c, d! e! f, g. H? I? j, k, l, m! Activity: Alphabetic Prodsody: Activity: Alphabetic Prodsody 1. Write the alphabet. 2. Punctuate the letters with various punctuations that you have taught. ? / ! / . / 3. Exchange cards with a partner and read the alphabet to each other with the appropriate expression. Activity: Phrase Reading: Activity: Phrase Reading Builds a bridge between word-by-word reading and connected reading Phrases carry meaning which leads to increased reading comprehension Increases prosody Activity: Phrase-cued Reading: Activity: Phrase-cued Reading The cat ran after the rat. The happy baby jumped on the bed. The white dog took a walk with the man. The Reflective Practitioner: The Reflective Practitioner How will I know if my fluency instruction is working: Measure growth in DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency. Measure growth in reading individual words and phrases. Vocabulary Activities: Vocabulary Activities Activities that Develop Vocabulary Developing Word Consciousness: Developing Word Consciousness The more we know about a word, the more easily and fluently we will be able to read it. The Importance of Starting Out Right:: The Importance of Starting Out Right: Decoding ability, word identification, comprehension and the rate of reading growth in 1st graders predicted 11th graders’ reading habits, independently of intelligence. Cunningham and Stanovich (1998) How We Learn Words : How We Learn Words We develop word consciousness by: Becoming aware of the word’s sounds and morphemes Becoming aware of the word’s origins Becoming aware of the word’s usage and multiple meanings What Does It Mean to Know A Word?: What Does It Mean to Know A Word? Levels of Word Knowledge: Unknown: never heard it, can’t use or define Know: recognize but don’t use the word Own: use the word with confidence, can define it for someone else How Well Do You Know These Words?: How Well Do You Know These Words? digerati frantic cheramoya hallux bogey vacuous pellucid borborygmus polysemous dubious Choosing Words to Teach:Words that are Just Right!: Choosing Words to Teach: Words that are Just Right! Language Link Activities: Vocabulary Instruction: Language Link Activities: Vocabulary Instruction Word Wizard Word Consciousness Word Networks: Word Networks Word Networks: Word Networks Word Graphing: Word Graphing Reinforces alphabetic, grammatical, orthographic or vocabulary concepts Becomes a living word wall Apply word wizard concepts to word work Graph continues to change as students discover more words to fit the pattern Use sticky notes to develop the word wall Students can keep a print version in a word work notebook or folder Word Graphing with Prefixes and Suffixes:: Word Graphing with Prefixes and Suffixes: Teachers graph words with sticky notes: prefix =re suffix = ing Activity: Word Graphing: Activity: Word Graphing .Work with a partner Choose a base word i.e. play .Add prefixes and/or suffixes Choose a phonics concept i.e. /oi/oy/ Graph words Choose a grammar concept i.e. nouns, and adjectives Graph words Beginning and Ending Game:: Beginning and Ending Game: A koosh ball game that reinforces fluency with the ability to use morphemes: Repeat - repeating Replay – replayed Beginning and Ending Game:: Beginning and Ending Game: Pre ation Inter ity Re ed Pro ing Per form al Trans er Mal able In s De Walkabout Words:: Walkabout Words: An active word categorization activity This can be used to reinforce thematic vocabulary development This can be used to reinforce vocabulary and orthographic patterns Give out word cards and ask students to find a group Sight, sun, moon, transport, airplane, flight, light, sky, night, jet, cloud, bright The Vocabulary Wheel:: The Vocabulary Wheel: A graphic organizer that helps students deepen their word ownership by combining an original target word, changing the form of the word, making a picture of the word and using the word in a sentence. The Vocabulary Wheel:: The Vocabulary Wheel: The Vocabulary Wheel:: The Vocabulary Wheel: High Frequency Words:: High Frequency Words: Getting basic words understood and read automatically can help form a solid foundation for vocabulary and comprehension. Sight Word Drill: Sight Word Drill ) Word Wizard Sight Words: Word Wizard Sight Words Speed Drills Word Graphing Sentence Dictation with coded sight words Sight word badges Daily sight word dictation Prizes for finding sight words in or out of class Turning turtle words into jets Sentence creation with sight words Outlaw words go to jail Sight word bingo The Reflective Practioner: The Reflective Practioner How will I know when my phonics instruction is increasing skills? Progress monitoring with DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency and informal phonics measures. Increased accuracy in reading high frequency words and during oral reading. Language Link Activities: Comprehension Instruction: Language Link Activities: Comprehension Instruction Activities that Develop Better Reading Comprehension DIBELS and Comprehension Instruction: DIBELS and Comprehension Instruction Oral Reading Fluency and Retell Fluency Word Use Fluency Factors impacting comprehension: Factors impacting comprehension Density of ideas Level of vocabulary Length of sentences Organization Illustration, titles and graphics Appeal of writing Activating Background Knowledge: Activating Background Knowledge The context processor is what is used for storing background knowledge. Activating the context processor helps children make meaning of text. When background is limited teachers need to build the necessary background to help children activate knowledge and construct meaning. Read Nonfiction to Develop Background Knowledge: Read Nonfiction to Develop Background Knowledge Nonfiction can help develop vocabulary and concepts about the world. Nonfiction can help bridge the gap for children with less background knowledge that aids in academic learning. Concept Maps: Concept Maps Concept maps help students to organize ideas and concepts generated from reading. They help students organize, sequence, categorize, etc. Living Concept Maps: Living Concept Maps K*W*L Chart: K*W*L Chart Stimulate Metalinguistic Thinking: Stimulate Metalinguistic Thinking Activities that help to stimulate metalinguistic thinking aid in language development and comprehension. Compare and Contrast: Compare and Contrast Making comparisons and thinking about relationships within the reading and/or between the reading and the student’s life can deepen understanding. Organizers Drawing Compare and Contrast: Compare and Contrast Questioning the Author: Questioning the Author As students read they keep track of questions they might have for the author. Questions can be shared with a peer as students compare and contrast their responses to the text. Questions may be formulated before, during and after reading. Questions may be written on sticky notes as students read, and formalized later. What Do You Think?: What Do You Think? Opinions Deepen Connection to Text Students generate their own opinions about what they have read. What I believe…: What I believe… I believe the girl will feel better if she can talk to her mother about her problem. Here’s what it looks like: The Reflective Practioner: The Reflective Practioner How will I know when my comprehension instruction is working? Progress monitor with DIBELS oral reading and retell and word use fluency and other measures. Observe oral and written responses to comprehension activities such as: reading responses, retells, opinions and concept maps. Look for increased detail and depth of thinkng that the student is able to share about reading. Each child by name and by need: Each child by name and by need All but a small number of children can learn to read. There is no magical curriculum or program that is effective for all students. The magic is in the system of supports that matches supports with the specific needs of each child. Slide118: Kindergarteners come to school wanting to learn to read more than anything else! Failure discouragement. Discouragement a lack of motivation. Effective Intervention can make the difference between failure and success!