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Published on January 22, 2008

Author: Susett

Source: authorstream.com

Precision Agriculture in Australian Viticulture:  Precision Agriculture in Australian Viticulture James Taylor A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Outline:  Outline Australian Viticulture Precision Viticulture - why? Yield Monitoring Spatial Variability Examples of Variability in Vineyards The Future…. A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Introduction:  Introduction Viticulture began in Australia with the first fleet Today there are >4000 growers cropping ~ 100,000 ha of vineyards in Australia They produced almost 1.2 million tonnes of crushed grapes in 1999 (over double that produced in 1991) A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Export and Domestic sales of Australian Wine 1984-1998:  Export and Domestic sales of Australian Wine 1984-1998 A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Australian Winegrape Production :  Australian Winegrape Production State Tonnage % South Australia 448, 561 52.4 Victoria 208, 406 24.3 New South Wales 174, 468 20.4 Ranked 11th in the World in production Major varieties are Chardonnay, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Why Precision Viticulture?:  Why Precision Viticulture? Horticultural crops often drip irrigated good water management potential Decreased influence of water on growth, yield and quality leads to increase influence of other factors soil nutrients management decisions environmental variables A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Why Precision Viticulture?:  Why Precision Viticulture? Horticultural industries - high profitability - intensively managed - very quality orientated Viticulture all these plus - dominated by large producers - growth industry - highly mechanized A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Why not so far?:  Why not so far? To date research has focused on broadacre cropping - wheat, cotton and sugarcane Horticultural and root crops lagged due to absence of effective yield monitors Diversification of PA into other agricultural industries A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Current Research:  Current Research Yield Monitoring and Sensors Dr Graham Moore - Uni. Of Melbourne Dr Francis Sevila - ENSAM Uni in Montpellier Dr Shrini Upadhyaya - UC Davis Industry - HarvestMaster, AB Electronics Agronomic interpretation NASA - remote sensing to predict quality A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Research Site:  Research Site Richmond Grove Vineyard, Cowra NSW Operated by Orlando-Wyndham ~700 acres of vines including Chardonnay, Semillon, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc Vineyard self contained with own machinery and small laboratory A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Yield Monitoring:  Yield Monitoring A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e G 60K Pull type Grape Harvester http://www.gregoire.com.au Types of Grape Yield Monitors:  Types of Grape Yield Monitors Load cells - conventional horticultural crops, measures delta weigh of crop Ultra-sonic sensor - measures change in height of grapes and interpolates volume A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e How Grape Yield Monitors Work Load Cells:  How Grape Yield Monitors Work Load Cells Off load ramp suspended in a cradle Load cells bear weight of the ramp Weigh bins Change in mass monitored Error source from vibrations A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Load cells How Grape Yield Monitors Work Ultra-sonic sensor:  How Grape Yield Monitors Work Ultra-sonic sensor Sensor Mounted above the off load ramp Height above ramp measured by pulse Change in height leads to a change in pulse time Volume interpolated from height A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Sensors Grapes Yield Monitors - are they reliable?:  Yield Monitors - are they reliable? What sort of accuracy/precision do they give? Where are the error sources and how can they be improved? How does the monitor react under different situations? A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Yield Monitor Performance:  Yield Monitor Performance Ultra-sonic tested Accuracy was between -5.6 and 11.5% Skewed towards over estimation of yield Mean 3.1 Maximum 11.5 Minimum -5.6 A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e -6 0 6 12 -3 3 9 Percentage error Raw yield at Richmond Grove Vineyard Cowra, 1999:  Raw yield at Richmond Grove Vineyard Cowra, 1999 A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e 7 8 9 10 11 Yield (Mgha-1) N 400m Raw Yield Map of Block 25:  Raw Yield Map of Block 25 100 m A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Yield (Mgha-1) 7 10 South 25 Raw Yield Description:  South 25 Raw Yield Description A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Mean 8.8 Std Dev. 3.27 Median 8.7 25% Quantile 6.5 75% Quantile 10.9 Yield (Mgha-1) Yield Variogram for South 25:  Yield Variogram for South 25 5 10 15 20 25 Distance (m) A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Gamma 6 9 8 7 10 Range ~12m Small compared to other crops Noisy data High spatial variability South 25 Kriged Yield Map, Richmond Grove 1999:  South 25 Kriged Yield Map, Richmond Grove 1999 7 8 9 10 11 100 m Yield (Mg/ha) A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e N Kriged Yield Map, 1999:  7 8 9 10 11 Yield (Mgha-1) N 12 Kriged Yield Map, 1999 A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e 400m Spatial Variability and Management Zones:  Spatial Variability and Management Zones Soil ECa Yield indicators - bud, bunch counts An example only Look at one block (D3-4) of grapes relationship between yield, soil ECa, bud and bunch counts A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Apparent Soil Electrolytic Conductivity (ECa):  Real time sensing using Veris 3100 Soil moisture, salt and clay content Apparent Soil Electrolytic Conductivity (ECa) A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Soil ECa Map of Richmond Grove, May 1999:  Soil ECa Map of Richmond Grove, May 1999 A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e 400m Soil ECa Quartiles 25% 50% 75% N Kriged Soil ECa map of D3-4, May 1999:  Kriged Soil ECa map of D3-4, May 1999 A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e N 100m 10 12.5 15 Soil ECa (mSm-1) Variogram for Soil ECa:  Variogram for Soil ECa A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Gamma Distance (m) Bud Counts vs. Yield in Block D3-4:  Bud Counts vs. Yield in Block D3-4 4 6 8 10 12 14 100 150 200 250 A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Yield (Mg/ha) Bud Count Low yield associated with low bud counts High has no association with bud counts Bunch Counts vs. Yield in Block D3-4:  Bunch Counts vs. Yield in Block D3-4 No relationship between yield and bunch 4 6 8 10 12 14 100 140 180 220 Yield (Mg/ha) Bunch Count A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Variograms for Bud and Bunch Counts:  Variograms for Bud and Bunch Counts A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Gamma bunch counts Gamma bud counts Distance (m) Distance (m) 50 200 50 200 100 150 100 150 300 500 700 900 700 500 300 Slide31:  Kriged Yield Map of D3-4, 1999 A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e N 100m 7.5 9 10.5 12 Yield (Mgha-1) Irrigation plan for D3-4:  Irrigation plan for D3-4 100m N A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e 7.5 9 10.5 12 Yield (Mgha-1) Kriged Soil ECa map of D3-4, May 1999:  Kriged Soil ECa map of D3-4, May 1999 A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e N 100m 10 12.5 15 Soil ECa (mSm-1) Potential Management zones based on Soil ECa and Yield map, 1999:  Potential Management zones based on Soil ECa and Yield map, 1999 A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Zone Yield ECa (MG/ha) (mS/m) Red 7.2 10.6 Green 11.0 11.1 Blue 12.1 15.4 N 100m The Future…...:  The Future…... Immediate determine the potential for Precision Viticulture in Australia is there enough spatial variability can we manage this variability Long term application to table grapes other horticultural crops derivation of DSS (eg AUSVIT) and farmer friendly technology A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Our Research Goals:  Our Research Goals Assessment of Yield Monitors Build an extensive vineyard database Yield maps Geo-referencing vines for crop counts Intensive site directed soil sampling Remote sensing Moisture - Veris calibration and intensive monitoring in crops A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e The Quality Issue:  The Quality Issue Value adding has big potential in viticulture Two issues Real time sensing of grape quality Prediction of wine quality in the vineyard A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Acknowledgements:  Acknowledgements Orlando-Wyndham Pty Ltd Mark Sims - Assistant Manager at Richmond Grove Ron Campbell and HarvestMaster U.S. Pty Ltd A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Slide39:  A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Making Precision Viticulture Work:  Making Precision Viticulture Work A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Yield monitoring Quantifying spatial variation and interactions between yield determining factors Defining management zones and modelling interactions Tailoring agronomic practices to suit management zones Clusters Of Bud vs. Yield:  Clusters Of Bud vs. Yield 4 6 8 10 12 14 100 150 200 250 Yield (Mg/ha) Bud Count Cluster Bud Yield (Count) (MG/ha) Red 159 7.4 Green 160 11.4 Blue 224 12.8 A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e When Green cluster removed the linear fit is improved Spatial Location of Clusters:  Spatial Location of Clusters Blue Management Zone - high yield, high bud count and high ECa Red management zone - low yield, Bud count and ECa Green Management Zone - High yield but low ECa and Bud count A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e Spatial Variability in Vineyards:  Spatial Variability in Vineyards Yield is spatially variable Other vineyard parameters soil properties physical chemical yield (quantity) indicators bud, bunch counts remote sensing quality indicators A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e S25 - elevation yield and Eca and bud/bnch counts:  S25 - elevation yield and Eca and bud/bnch counts A u s t r a l i a n C e n t r e f o r P r e c i s i o n A g r i c u l t u r e

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