Published on July 13, 2016
1. 1 THE INFLUENCE OF PRINCIPAL LEADERSHIP AND ENGAGEMENT OF SCHOOL COMMITTEE TO THE EFFECTIVENES IMPLEMENTING SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT (Descriptive Study at Public Elementary Schools in Coblong Sub-district, in Bandung City, Indonesia) By: Mut Somoeun Preah Sihanouk Raj Buddhist University (SBU) # 393, Preah Sisowath Quay, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Aan Komariah Indonesia University of Education (UPI) Abstract School-based management (SBM) is a decentralization of decision-making power from central office to local school. Thus, this study is focused on the influence of principal leadership and engagement of school committee which contribute to the SBM effectiveness. It is conducted at public elementary schools in Coblong sub- district in Bandung. The method used in this study is the descriptive-quantitative approach by giving closed-ended questionnaires to 72 respondents. The study population is 36 public elementary schools. The study results found that: (1) the influence of principal leadership has high impact on the SBM effectiveness; (2) the engagement of school committee has high impact on the SBM effectiveness; (3) both the influence of principal leadership and engagement of school committee have high impact on the SBM effectiveness. Although the results are good, both principal and school committee should more strengthen their key roles and responsibilities for enhancing better school improvement. Keywords: School-Based Management, Principal Leadership, and School Committee. Abstrak Manajemen berbasis sekolah(MBS) adalah desentralisasi kekuasaan pengambilan keputusan dari kantor pusat ke sekolah lokal. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada pengaruh kepemimpinan kepala sekolah dan keterlibatan komite sekolah yang berkontribusi terhadap efektivitas MBS. Penelitian ini dilakukan di sekolah- sekolah dasar negeri di Kecamatan Coblong Bandung. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan deskriptif-kuantitatif dengan memberikan kuesioner tertutup berakhir 72 responden. Populasi penelitian adalah 36 sekolah dasar negeri. Studi ini menemukan bahwa: (1) pengaruh kepemimpinan kepala sekolah memiliki dampak yang tinggi terhadap efektivitas MBS; (2) keterlibatan komite sekolah memiliki dampak yang tinggi terhadap efektivitas MBS; (3) kedua pengaruh kepemimpinan kepala sekolah dan keterlibatan komite sekolah memiliki dampak yang tinggi terhadap efektivitas MBS. Meskipun hasilnya baik, kepala sekolah dan komite sekolah harus lebih memperkuat peran dan tanggung jawab untuk meningkatkan perbaikan sekolah yang lebih baik. Kata kunci: Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah, Kepemimpinan Kepala Sekolah, dan Komite Sekola
2. 2 INTRODUCTION In this 21st century of education, the school-based management (SBM) has been viewed largely as a political reform that transfers a central power over management of budget, personnel and curriculum to individual school. SBM aims to drive greater school improvement by fostering principal’s roles and involving stakeholders to school communities through putting the hard work and generating significantly better results for their students. Another term, SBM is to foster the effectiveness of school and extends to which the schools themselves can perform their core functions such as technical and economics, human and social, political, culture, and educational. In this sense, the effectiveness of the schools shows effective school performance in improving the high quality of education (Teguh Sihono and Rohaila Yusof, 2012). Indonesia started implementing SBM in 1999. The central government established a Commission of National Education in February 2001 on the basis of Law 22/1999 for decentralizing education system (Journal of NTT Studies, 2009). Until 2002, the government provided a set of guidelines to establish mandatory corporate governing body type school councils (the SBM principles, Decree No. 044/U/2002 on Education Board and School Committees) by defining the school committee as a community representative body at school level with members from parents, community leaders, education professionals, private sector, education associations, teachers, NGOs and village officials. Furthermore, the Education Act 20/2003 (art. 56) states that community shall take part in the quality improvement of educational services, which include planning, monitoring, and evaluation of educational programs through Educational Council and School Council. Through decentralization of education reform, Indonesia’s SBM design incorporates some features that are considered as essential to SBM effectiveness (Barrera- Osorio et al., 2009). First, the Indonesian reform is designed to provide a high level of autonomy to schools and encourage broad participation of the local community in school affairs. Second, SBM in Indonesia provides schools with the autonomy to exercise power in resource allocation over a block of discretionary
3. 3 funds, called BOS (Bantuan Operasional Sekolah). BOS allows schools to cover operational costs based on annual per student basis by facilitating autonomous SBM resource allocation regarding the disbursement of funds according to school priorities across almost all school activities (except paying bonuses to teachers, rehabilitation of facilities, and building new rooms or buildings). Third, through central government direction, the SBM reform calls for the creation of school committees, BOS teams and teaching boards that are made up of teachers, parents and community leaders. Fourth, the reform encourages schools to engage in self- evaluation and monitoring of their processes, which schools are expected to inform stakeholders for their decisions, and to be accountable for their decisions through monitoring by education districts, school committees, parents, and the immediate community (Vernez, G., Karam, R. & Marshall, J., 2012). According to the World Bank (RAND, 2012:1-4) although the Indonesian government has broadly implemented SBM policy since 2003, the national survey was conducted throughout the country with 400 principals in 2010 indicated that most principals consulted with teachers, district staff, and other school principals before making decisions, community and parent participation in school decision- making was very limited. Members of school committees, which were designed to facilitate parental and community involvement in education, rarely participated in school affairs. The survey revealed that school committee participated in decisions in 44 percent of schools. Principals mainly viewed the school committee as an intermediary between the schools and parents, and the school committee members expressed attitudes of noninterference with school matters and deference to school staff. Commonly, parents similarly expressed deference to school staff, and most principals and teachers reported feeling little or no pressure from parents to improve school performance. As a result, parents and community members are not participating as fully as envisioned, and the decision-making authority of principal at school level was: 88% in recruiting and hiring teachers; 99% in setting school vision and goal; 88% in developing school curriculum; 65% in setting school calendar; 88% in selecting textbooks; 96% in student administrating; and 99% in allocating school budget. The survey further emphasized that although the policy
4. 4 change toward local autonomy, districts still strongly influenced school policies and practices. Principals reported that they rarely made decisions without seeking district approval out of fear of making a mistake or appearing authoritarian. The finding shown that the district influence was equal to/greater than that of teachers in all areas averaging 3.2 to 3.6 on a scale of 4—except in classroom instructional practices. Principals frequently had meeting with district staff, which indicated the district’s continued prominent role in school decision-making. Based on the background of research above, this study has six research questions as the followings: 1. How is the influence of principal leadership in performing roles and responsibilities strengthened at public elementary schools in Coblong sub-district, Bandung city? 2. How is the engagement of school committee promoted at public elementary schools in Coblong sub-district, Bandung city? 3. How far is the effectiveness of implementing SBM policy at public elementary schools in Coblong sub-district, Bandung city? 4. How can the influences of principal leadership foster the effectiveness of implementing SBM policy in Coblong sub-district, Bandung? 5. How can the engagement of school committee foster the effectiveness of implementing SBM at public elementary schools in Coblong? 6. How much can the influence of principal leadership and engagement of school committee enhance the effectiveness of SBM policy? 1. School-Based Management School-based management (SBM) has many different names including site-based management, school-sited autonomy, school-sited management, school- centered management, decentralized management, school-based budgeting, site based decision-making, responsible autonomy, school-lump sum budgeting, shared governance, the autonomous school concept, school-based curriculum development, and administrative decentralization (Clune and White, 1988; and Jerome G. Delaney, 1998).
5. 5 Although there are different names, UNESCO (2012) defined SBM as the way of measuring the degree of centralization and decentralization to ask where the decisions are made on these areas: core curriculum; school construction; school location; school maintenance; teacher compensation; teacher recruitment; and textbook selection. While A. De Grauwe (2004) as cited in the Education for All Global Monitoring Report (2005:4) that the most recurrent arguments of SBM are: more democratic: allowing teachers and parents to take decisions about an issue of such importance as education is certainly more democratic than to keep this decisions in the hands of a select group of central-level officials; more relevant: locating the decision-making power closer to where problems are being experienced will lead to more relevant policies as local staff generally know their own situation better; less bureaucratic: decisions will be taken much quicker if they do not need to go through a long bureaucratic process, but can be made at a level close to the school; stronger accountability: allowing schools and teachers greater say implies that they can be held accountable for their results towards parents and the close community directly, such accountability is expected to act as a tool for greater effectiveness; greater resource mobilization: teachers and especially parents will be more eager to contribute to the funding of their school if they have a say in the organization and management it. According to Dr. K. Pushpanadham (cited in the ABAC Journal Vol. 26, No.1, 2006), SBM model fosters principals, teachers, students, and parents to have greater control over decisions of budget, personnel, and the curriculum development. Commonly, SBM has principle, dimension, and impact in practice at school level as the followings: a. Principles of SBM 1). Decentralization: individual local schools are authorized to have power in making decision for their own educational development. This means that at school level, school leaders and stakeholders (community) can plan, monitor, and evaluate their school by them-selves, which is not to do what they are told.
6. 6 2). Autonomy: Rights in making decisions over the budget management, staff management, school governance, and curriculum development are given to the local schools to grow up themselves with their responsibilities. 3). Collaboration: Principals do not work alone in school or just follow the central office’s force/decisions but they have to fosters the local participations of stakeholders; especially, they have to build a good relationship among teachers, school committee, parents, and community members to work, decide and share responsibilities together to improve school with accountability. 4). Planning and Evaluation: On the basis of SBM, at the school level can establish school board or school committee who are competent and have right to plan strategy for developing staff, budget and curriculum, and giving feedback. b. Dimensions of SBM 1).Budget Management: Principal and school committee members through open discussions, they can make decision on school budget expenditures and find funds from various sources for supporting their school development processes. 2). Staff Management: Principal and in some case with discussion among school committees can decide to promote, assign, compensate, hire or terminate staff or teachers for school improvement purpose. 3). Curriculum Development: Based on the SBM policy, each local school can develop its core curriculum and select textbook for students’ needs. c. Impacts of SBM in School 1).Learning Culture: effective SBM implementation brings good condition of school that leads to positive culture. 2).Positive Human Relations: a good condition of school and culture, the active participation and communication is increased. 3).High Reputation: SBM increases satisfaction of teachers, students, parents, and all stakeholders which brings the school well-known to the outside. 4). High Academic Performance: When the community participation is at high level and teachers’ performance is well managed, then it will push student achievement at high level too.
7. 7 5). Sense of Ownership: All school stakeholders or participants feel every progress and even materials or human resources belong to them, then the school responsiveness is created by all members of the school. 6). Innovation and Change: Through participation, shared decision and responsibilities, innovation and positive change will surely happen in school; that is school improvement. 2. Principal Leadership Principal leadership is a performance or an effort to influence people or followers in a school organization done by the principal, and the result he/she aims to achieve in implementing school management to reach the designed goal of education by being effective, efficient, productive, and accountable. The principal has a very important role in school management so that it is in parallel with public demand and progression of era; especially, in the progress of science, technology, culture, and arts. This idea contributes to the better understanding of how the roles and responsibilities of school leaders can shift from individual-centered to organizational-centered as shared decision and responsibilities for the outcomes of schooling (Camburn, Rowan, & Taylor, 2003; Gronn & Hamilton, 2004). For Shelly Habegger, as cited in the Principal’s Role in Successful Schools (Sept/ Oct 2008: 42-43), there are some main roles and responsibilities of school principal in leading school such as: assuring instruction aligned to state academic content standards; maintaining continuous improvement in the building; designing instruction for student success; developing partnerships with parents and the community; and nurturing a culture where each individual feels valued. He further emphasized that positive school culture is the heart of improvement and growth which the principals need to create a sense of belonging and providing a clear direction for all involved people. However, Derrick Meador (cited in Keys to Being an Effective Principal, 2013) asserted that principal should focus on his/her school operations in these areas: school leadership; teacher evaluation; student discipline; implementing, and evaluating programs; reviewing policies and procedures; school schedule setting; hiring new teachers; parent and community
8. 8 relations; and authority delegation. Although there are different ideas on principal leadership, Michael Usdan, Barbara McCloud, and Mary Podmostko (as cited in the School Leadership for the 21st Century Initiative, Leadership for Student Learning, 2000) clarified the major roles and responsibilities of principal leadership in three dimensions in school community, those are: (a) instructional leadership; (b) community leadership; and (c) visionary leadership. a. Instructional leadership The principal must put special focus on strengthening the teaching and learning process, professional development, data-driven decision making and accountability. The focus of teaching and learning instruction, forming structures and collaborative processes for faculty to work together to improve learning , and ensure that continuous professional development and focusing on the goals of the school are the major tasks that must be performed by principals to becoming an effective instructional leader. Lunenburg (2006: 14) stated that the instructional principal must achieve school goals by focusing on the followings: 1). Focus on learning: Expectations for high level of student achievements by communicating directly with the students, teachers, and parents; setting clear rules and expectations for the use of time allocated to teaching and monitoring. 2). Fostering Collaboration: ensure that teachers 'expectations are aligned with instructional objectives; discuss the students' learning process; structure of collaboration in a team of teachers; working with teachers to improve instructional programs; and developing the instructional programs based on honesty. 3). Analyzing Results: showing the linked data on each student; specifying objectives and target levels in school curriculum; and sizing assessment aligning with curriculum and indicating student learning. 4). Providing Support: teachers should be given the training, and teaching tools; helping teachers to access curriculum guides, textbooks, or specific training related to curriculum; and professional development for teachers.
9. 9 5). Alignment of Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment: the process of student learning should be aligned with curriculum and instruction-book teachers; determining, implementing, and evaluating students and teachers; assessment may change the nature of learning and teaching toward the curriculum richer and more challenging; promoting discussion and collaboration among teachers; creating a good conversation between teachers and parents; and focusing on stakeholder leadership to improve the performance of students. b. Community leadership The principal should manifest in a big-picture awareness of the school’s role in society; promote shared leadership among educators, community partners and residents; build good relations with parents and others; and open advocacy for school capacity building and resources. To David Lustick and Jing Lei (2005: 64), the principal should engage in these activities: provide channels for involving the community in the school’s operation; invite parents to become partners in the education process; and coordinate school-community relationships. In this sense, principal needs to listen, consults, and engages in dialogues more and identifies the needs of teachers, parents and learners (MINEDUC, 2008:5). The principal, teachers, parents and students have to work together to promote collaboration and participation by encouraging stakeholders to share decisions and responsibilities for planning effective teaching and learning activities, and strengthening school- self management in school community. c. Visionary leadership A visionary principal should have a clear vision by demonstrating energy, commitment, entrepreneurial spirit, values and conviction to all children in school to learn at high levels, as well as inspiring other people both inside and outside the school building to work together for school effectiveness. According to Shoji Shiba and David Walden (Surinder Kapur, 2007), there are eight principles in visionary leadership: 1) a visionary leader must do on-site observation leading to personal perception of changes in societal values from an outsider's point of view; 2) Even though there is resistance, never give up; squeeze
10. 10 the resistance between outside-in pressures in combination with top-down inside instruction; 3) transformation is begun with symbolic disruption of the old or traditional system through top-down efforts to create chaos within the organization; 4) the direction of transformation is illustrated aimed by a symbolic visible image and the visionary leader's symbolic behavior; 5) quickly establishing new physical, organizational and behavioral systems is essential for successful transformation; 6) real change leaders are necessary to enable transformation; 7) create an innovative system to provide feedback from results; and 8) create a daily operation system, including a new work structure, new approach to human capabilities and improvement activities. In short, the three major roles in school leadership of principal are the basis leading to school improvement in establishing a vision and mission, setting goals, managing staff, rallying the community, creating effective learning environments building support systems for students, and guiding instruction for teaching quality. 3. School Committee A school site council/committee is defined as an elected group of teachers, parents, and classified employees who work with the site principal to develop, review, evaluate and allocate funds for school improvement programs at school level (www.jdusd.k12.ca.us/primary.cfm). The school committee is established at school that participates in the school improvement programs. As a well-diversified group of individuals, they make decisions with principal about how state-allocated school improvement funds should be spent in their school by encouraging the parents of students to attend the school meetings. Murphy and Beck (1998: 14) stated that a “central feature of SBM is the site council or school committee”. While school committee varies in composition and responsibilities; most writers agree that it is within a school committee that school stakeholders such as principals, teachers, parents, community members and students do participate in decision making. In this sense, the school site council or school committee is a form of community engagement in school governance, based on regulation, with elected but voluntary membership.
11. 11 In Indonesia, Decree 044/U/2002 states that school committee sometimes called school site council committee is defined as an independently elected body which its members shall be comprised of parents, teachers, community leaders, education professionals, private sector, education association, NGOs, and village officials. The community representatives should be consisted of: parents; public figures; educational experts; industries/businesses; professional organization of teachers; representatives of alumni; and at secondary level, representatives of students. This Decree also stipulates that the school shall be empowered to exercise the four major roles at school level, including: (1) an advisory agency in determining/approving educational policies at school level; (2) a supporting agency in supporting the school both in financial and non-financial matters; (3) a controlling agency for the purpose of accountability and transparency at school level; (4) a mediator in term of communication between school, government, and community. In addition, the Indonesian Education Act 20/2003 (art. 56) defines school committee as an independent body established to provide advice, directions and support for personnel, facilities and equipment, and monitoring to individual school. According to Robert V. Antonucci (1995), the school committee’s roles are involved in these areas: establish educational goals and policies for the schools in the district, consistent with the requirements of law and the statewide goals and standards established by the board of education; responsible for adopting general disciplinary policies for students in consultation with the superintendent; delegate to the superintendent and principal the authority to define detailed rules of student conduct; reviews and approves the budget for education programs; hold a public hearing on the proposed annual budget; determine school expenditures; adopt the professional development plan for principal, teachers and other professional. However, the school committee cannot make decision alone but with discussions or shared decisions with principal, teachers, parents, and community for effective education reform, including participatory decision-making, parent and community involvement, and training for members of school council. Even thought there are different ideas relating roles of school committee,
12. 12 Triton Regional School in Massachusetts, USA (2013) and Foxborough Public School (2008) have the common idea concerning with roles and responsibilities of school committee at school level. They state the school committee has five major roles and responsibilities as the followings: (1) Policy making: the school committee is responsible for development of the school policy as guides for administrative action and for employing a superintendent who will implement its policies. (2) Appraisal: the school committee is responsible for evaluating the effectiveness of its policies and their implementation. (3) Provision of financial resources: the school committee is responsible for adoption of a budget that will enable the school system to carry out the committee's policies. (4) Public relations: the school committee is responsible for providing adequate and direct means for keeping the local citizenry informed about the schools and for keeping itself and the school staff informed about the needs and wishes of the public. (5) Educational planning and evaluation: the committee is responsible for ensuring that educational objectives are set that promote continual improvement of the educational programs. Based on some concepts cited above, the major roles of school committee should be summarized into these areas: sharing decision-making in setting school vision, mission, and goal; planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating the school programs; managing school budget; hiring, terminating, and compensating; bridging relations; promoting parental and community participations through sensitizing, involving and effectively communicating educational information to all parents, pupils, community stakeholders, and toward local authorities in order to seek the effectiveness of education quality, student outcomes, teaching quality and building good environments or conditions of school.
13. 13 In this research framework shows the process of the influence of principal leadership (X1), and engagement of school committee (X2) having impact on the effectiveness of implementing school-based management (Y) as the figure below: This study is conducted at public elementary schools in Coblong sub- district in Bandung city, Indonesia. The method used in this study is descriptive- survey of quantitative approach with total population of 36 public elementary schools. And the closed-ended questionnaires were given to 72 respondents (36 principals and 36 school committees). Two people were selected from each school (one principal and one head of school committee) for this study. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION Based on calculation of correlation coefficient both simple and multiple, the findings of this research found as the followings: a. With 36 respondents of principals responded to 23 questions about the influence of principal leadership (X1), the findings with an average score of each dimension are shown in the diagram below:
14. 14 Based on this figure, the influence of principal leadership in performing their roles and responsibilities relating to the instructional leadership, community leadership, and visionary leadership at public elementary schools in Coblong sub- district is very high with total average score of 4.01. The magnitude of impact of the influence of principal leadership(X1) toward the effectiveness of implementing school-based management (Y) is in strong category with 36.240%. b. With 36 respondents of school committees responded to 25 questions about the engagement of school committee(X2), the findings with an average score of each dimension are shown in the diagram below: Based on the figure above, the engagement of school committee (X2) in performing roles and responsibilities concerning with making school policies, policy appraisal, provision of financial resources, public relations, and educational planning and evaluation at public elementary schools in Coblong sub-district are high with total average score of 3.76. The magnitude of impact of the engagement of school committee (X2) toward the effectiveness of implementing school-based management (Y) is in strong category with 37.454%. c. With 36 respondents of principals responded to 17 questions about the effectiveness of implementing school-based management (Y), the findings with an average score of each dimension are shown in the diagram below:
15. 15 Based on the figure above, the effectiveness of implementing school-based management in exercising authorities as autonomy at local school for managing and adapting its own budget with accountability; managing its own staff; and developing and designing its own curriculum and instructional programs or schedule at public elementary schools in Coblong sub-district, Bandung city is high with total average score of 3.90. In summary, the impact magnitude of the influence of principal leadership (X1) and the engagement of school committee (X2) toward the effectiveness of implementing school-based management (Y) is in strong category with 49.140%, while the remaining 50.859% is influenced by the other variables. Based on the results of hypothesis test on each variable with correlation coefficient, the findings in this study are shown in the figure below: CONCLUSION Based on the research findings and discussion above, this thesis entitled “The Influence of Principal Leadership and Engagement of School Committee
16. 16 toward the Effectiveness of Implementing School-Based Management” draws the conclusion with critical analysis of correlation coefficient technique on the impact magnitudes of each variable as the followings: 1. The Influence of Principal Leadership at the public elementary schools in Coblong sub-district is in the very high category. This finding is shown by the average score calculation on the three key dimensions of the principal leadership, including: (1) Instructional Leadership, (2) Community Leadership, and (3) Visionary Leadership. However, the finding indicates that in each dimension, principals perform their roles in school operations with very high level in term of improving instructional matters and encouraging the community involvements, yet they still exercise highly their roles in building a visionary commitment and designer for modeling and attracting the relevant stakeholders to get involved in school affairs (inspiring, facilitating, and bridging). 2. The Engagement of School Committee at the public elementary schools in Coblong sub-district is in the high category. This result is indicated by the average score calculation on the five key dimensions of the school committees’ involvements in the school affairs, namely: (1) making school policies, (2) policy appraisal, (3) provision of financial resources, (4) public relations, and (5) educational planning and evaluation. With these dimensions, the scores of average calculation show that the school committees’ participations are almost at the same level in term of executing their roles and functions in school operations. 3. The Effectiveness of Implementing School-Based Management at the public elementary schools in Coblong sub-district are in the high category. This result is shown by the calculation of average score on the effectiveness of school- based management implementation in term of managing the local school over three main dimensions, namely: (1) budget management, (2) staff management, and (3) curriculum development. As a result, the indicators point out that every local school can manage their school at almost the same level, except the budget management is at higher level than the other two dimensions. 4. As shown in the data analysis results, the hypothesis testing reveals that the Influence of Principal Leadership contributing toward the Effectiveness of
17. 17 Implementing School-Based Management at Public Elementary Schools in Coblong sub-district, in Bandung city, Indonesia has impact of 36.240%, which is in the strong category of correlation coefficient. Whereas the Engagement of School Committee has impact of 37.454% contributing toward the Effectiveness of Implementing School-Based Management, which is in the strong category of correlation coefficient. The magnitude of Influence of Principal Leadership and the Engagement of School Committee have impact of 49.140% contributing toward the Effectiveness of Implementing School-Based Management, which is in the strong category of correlation coefficient, while the remaining 50.859% is influenced by the other factors. As results, it can be concluded that although each variable shows the level of performances and participations of school principals and school committees at the 36 public elementary school in Coblong sub-district are at very high and high expectation, seeing the hypothesis testing result on the significant correlation of influence toward the effectiveness of implementing school-based management is not really high. This means the effect result is below 50%, which is still low that inevitably requires more improvement of the principals’ performances and school committees’ involvements to help enhancing the effectiveness of school-based management for school success. REFERENCES Howard Adelman and Linda Taylor (2011). School Improvement Planning: What’s Missing? Center for Mental Health in Schools, Dept. of Psychology, UCLA, Los Angeles. Howard Adelman and Linda Taylor (June, 2011). What Every Leader for School Improvement Needs to Know About Student and Learning Supports. Center for Mental Health in Schools, Dept. of Psychology, UCLA, Los Angeles. Jamie Wallin, Ph.D (2003). Improving School Effectiveness. ABAC Journal Vol. 23, No.1 (January - April, 2003), The University of British Columbia. The Wallace Foundation (2012). The Making of the Principal: Five Lessons in Leadership Training. Rahim Jamal Jones (06/01/2007). The Principal's Role in Building Teacher Leadership Capacity in High-Performing Elementary Schools: A Qualitative Case Study. University of South Florida. Shelly Habegger (Sept/Oct 2008). The Principal’s Role in Successful Schools: Creating a Positive School Culture. Ohio: www.naesp.org
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How to Cite (2014), Editor's Introduction: Updating the Curtis Thesis. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 73: 445–473. doi: 10.1111/ajes.12080
Springer is committed permanently to maintaining this open access publishing policy, retrospectively and prospectively, in all eventualities, ...
Nikolas Broy - Religious Studies / Chinese Studies ... 2015 "Buddhist Words, Sectarian Acts: Buddhist Texts in the Milieu of Popular Religious Sects in ...
Name: Fahim Aziz El-Dein Mohamed Shaltout. Professor of Meat Hygiene, Department of Food Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Moshtohor, Benha ...
Archive Journal 2016 Archive Journal. Some Rights Reserved. | RSS Feed. Home; About; Submit; Contact; Past Issues; Source: http://www.archivejournal.net/ ...
Lars Nagel, Dr. Postdoctoral research fellow at the Zentrum für Datenverarbeitung. Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz Anselm-Franz-von-Bentzel-Weg 12
the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction. The results suggest that service quality should be treated as an antecedent of
WomanSpeak, A Journal of Writing and Art by Caribbean Women. 399 likes · 9 talking about this. A biennial literary journal of writing and art by...