Published on March 13, 2014
Maritime Domain Awareness Inspector Joe McNulty Marine Area Command NSW Police Force
• Anything associated with the maritime domain, • All areas and things relating to, adjacent to, or bordering on a sea, ocean, or other navigable waterway. • MDA encompasses all maritime related activities, infrastructure, people, cargo and vessels and other conveyances that could impact a Nations; • Security. •Safety. •Economy. •Environment.
Law Enforcement Challenges THREATS: Maritime Security Oil and Gas Illegal Fishing Human Trafficking Weapons Narcotics Money Laundering CHALLENGES: Regional and National Information sharing. Collecting, Storage, Analysis and dissemination of Intelligence. Tracking the worlds illegal maritime trade.
Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) Inspector Joe McNulty NSW Police Force Marine Area Command
Global Transnational Organised Crime Flows
Transnational Drug Crime - IO • HMAS Melbourne has seized and destroyed over 353kg of heroin with an estimated street value of $AU1.086 billion. (4 drugs to date) • HMCS Toronto seized 500kg in similar boarding operation. • Reduction in funding to extremist crime syndicates.
MDA - Organised Crime in Fisheries • Why is organised crime involved in Fisheries? The main motivation is profit. The fishing industry in globalised. The fish caught in one ocean are transported and consumed by people in another region of the world. Fishing vessels freely transit the world’s oceans and ports. The transnational mobility of fishing vessels creates opportunities for criminal activities and the commodities can be transported over long distances with little or no interference from law enforcement agencies.
INTERPOL: Project Scale
MDA - Transnational crime cycle of vessels Flag State of Vessel Nationality of Vessel's Master Vessel OwnerMulti National Crew Multi Jurisdictional operations
Global Maritime Law Enforcement Environmental Crime Challenges
Tracking Illegal vessels
Organised Crime Other Crime Areas Fishing Vessel Operations Nationality of Master Nationalities of Crew Area of Operations High Seas Maritime Zones Type of organised criminal activity Capability of law enforcement to respond and Investigate Responsible Jurisdiction Ports of convenience Flag State Capacity, or ability or willingness to enforce jurisdiction Company and Ownership Structure Tax Havens and relationships with Flag States Organised crime in Transnational vessel Fleets
Organised Transhipment Operations
• Security concerns across the global landscape reinforce the need for continuous awareness of one’s environment. A capability that can provide intelligence imagery anytime, in any type of weather, is critical to enhancing situational awareness and gaining a tactical edge. That capability is Synthetic Aperture Radar, or SAR. • Unlike electro-optical imaging systems, SAR is an active system with its own microwave illuminator. Its microwave operating frequencies are chosen so that the radar imaging is unaffected by weather or light. As such, SAR is the only imaging system that can generate high resolution imagery, anytime - even in inclement weather or darkness. • Lockheed Martin developed the first operational SAR system in the early 1950s. This discovery forged a new era in aerial reconnaissance. SAR has revolutionized reconnaissance by peering through clouds and darkness to create photo-quality images. Subsequent demands for increased resolution and smaller-sized components led to quantum leaps in the development of new technologies. • Lockheed martin has since adapted SAR to meet the requirements for a multitude of military, government and civilian mission needs. Demands for increased resolution and smaller components have led to quantum leaps in the development of new SAR technologies, including foliage penetration, dual band (UHF/VHF) sensors, and ground moving target indication capabilities. • SAR images are so amazingly clear and crisp that SAR has been for a diverse range of military and science applications. This includes earth resources monitoring, agricultural and land use, ocean spill monitoring, polar ice assessment, intelligence acquisition, battlefield reconnaissance and weapon delivery.
Satellites • Integration of satellite imagery, radar and intelligence into law enforcement analyse centres.
Satellite imagery functionality • Ice; Sea- and river-ice applications are the multi-polarization options that improve ice-edge detection, ice- type discrimination, and ice topography and structure information. • Disaster management; Disaster responses such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, landslides, forest fires, and other natural or technological disasters. • Hydrology; An understanding of the hydrological features water distribution around the globe is essential • Mapping; Digital Elevation Models (DEM)s, the detection and mapping of centimetre-scale movements at the Earth's surface (InSAR), and the extraction and identification of features to support environment management and security. • Geology; Geological exploration and mapping activities for petroleum and mineral resources. • Agriculture; harvests and crop yields depend in part on soil dynamics that fluctuate throughout the growing season. Satellite imagery is an efficient method for mapping crop characteristics over large spatial areas and tracking temporal changes in soil and crop conditions. • Forestry Satellite imagery is the most efficient method for synoptic coverage of forested areas and parameters. • Defence, etc…
Marine Surveillance • Worldwide offshore resource-based operations such as fishing and oil and gas exploration and production have intensified over the past few decades. Government and industry require powerful solutions for assessing the resources and risks associated with the ocean environment. • To monitor the world's oceans, has provided radar data for operational applications such as ship detection, oil spill monitoring, and wind and surface-wave field estimation. • RADARSAT-2 improves ship detection with its Ultra-Fine beam mode (three-metre resolution) and offers the potential for ship classification.
Future Satellite Usage. • Near Live satellite Imagery POC • Historical intelligence support • Search and Rescue. • Crime Prevention (predictive)
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