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joe talk1 friends laursen srcd2007

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Published on December 24, 2007

Author: Baverly_gal

Source: authorstream.com

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The Lasting Lessons of Early Adolescent Friendships: The Benefits of Autonomy and the Mixed Blessings of Early Intensity Joseph P. Allen Amanda Hare University of Virginia :  The Lasting Lessons of Early Adolescent Friendships: The Benefits of Autonomy and the Mixed Blessings of Early Intensity Joseph P. Allen Amanda Hare University of Virginia Collaborators: Maryfrances Porter, Ph.D. Penny Marsh Kathleen McElhaney, Ph.D. F. Christy McFarland Jessica Meyer, Ph.D. Farah Williams Dave Szwedo Katie Little Erin Miga Jill Antonishak, Ph.D. Claire Stephenson Mindy Schmidt, Ph.D. Glenda Insabella, Ph.D. Megan Schad Joanna Chango Copies of this and related papers are available at: WWW.TEENRESEARCH.ORG Short- vs. Long-term Implications of Adolescent Social Relationships :  Short- vs. Long-term Implications of Adolescent Social Relationships Qualities which are positive (or at least highly desired) in early adolescence… May predict either positive or negative outcomes years later. The case of early, intense friendships. Presence vs. Quality Primary Questions :  Primary Questions Predictions from High Engagement in a Friendship at 13 to: Psychosocial Functioning Concurrently (Age 13) Psychosocial Functioning in Late Adolescence (Age 19)? Moderation via Autonomy Processes Additional Main Effects of Autonomy Processes Sample:  Sample 184 Adolescents, their Parents, Best Friends, and Other Friends Intensive Interviews and Observations with all parties (Parents, teens, best friends, other friends) (Total N over first 8 years ~ 1400). Equal numbers of Males and Females Assessed Annually, Ages 13 to 19 Highly Socio-economically Diverse (Median Family Income= $40- $60K) 31% African American; 69% European American Very Low Attrition Primary Questions :  Primary Questions Predictions from High Engagement in a Friendship at 13 to Concurrent Psychosocial Functioning (Age 13) Measures: Supportive Behavior Interaction Task (Allen et al., 2004):  Measures: Supportive Behavior Interaction Task (Allen et al., 2004) Teen is asked to discuss a problem or question about which they would like some help or advice from their friend 6-minute discussion Coded for Each Party’s Degree of Engagement with other person in the interaction: Listening closely non-verbal signs of engagement following up on what the other person is saying Correlates of Youth Engagement with Friend in Supportive Behavior Task (Age 13):  Correlates of Youth Engagement with Friend in Supportive Behavior Task (Age 13) Dyadic Engagement with Peer Engagement with Mother Relationship with Father Attitudes Twd. Aggression Popularity .36*** Attachment Security Conflict in Friendships .33*** .33*** -.30*** .28** .22** Short- vs. Long-term Implications of Adolescent Social Relationships :  Short- vs. Long-term Implications of Adolescent Social Relationships Engagement with a Close Friend is Linked to an Array of Mostly Positive Concurrent Markers of Functioning Key Question: What Happens Over Time? Primary Questions :  Primary Questions Predictions from High Engagement in a Friendship at 13 to Future Friendship Quality (Age 19)? Measures: Friendship Quality:  Measures: Friendship Quality Friendship Quality Questionnaire (Parker & Asher, 1993) Based on PEER report about friendship with Target Teen 40-item questionnaire tapping: Validation & Caring; Conflict Resolution, Conflict and Betrayal, Help & Guidance, Companionship, Intimate Exchange Early Adolescent Engaged Friendship Predicting Changes in Friendship Quality Across Adolescence :  Early Adolescent Engaged Friendship Predicting Changes in Friendship Quality Across Adolescence Friendship Quality Engaged Interaction Friendship Quality Age 13 Age 19 .35*** .24** R2 = .176*** Engaged Interaction Predicts Relative Increases in Friendship Quality Over Time .20** Short- vs. Long-term Implications of Adolescent Social Relationships :  Short- vs. Long-term Implications of Adolescent Social Relationships Engagement and Aggression Over Time Latent Difference Score Models (Antonishak & Allen, 2006, Society for Research in Adolescence) Slide13:  σx0,y0 Latent Difference Score Model: Slide14:  σx0,y0 2 Manifest Variables Assessed Repeatedly Latent Difference Score Model: Slide15:  σx0,y0 Intercept & Slope Parameters Latent Difference Score Model: Slide16:  σx0,y0 Dynamic Auto-regressive Parameters Latent Difference Score Model: Slide17:  σx0,y0 Consistent Lagged Predictors of CHANGE Latent Difference Score Model: Slide18:  Warmth & Connection with Friend Teen aggression ΔTeen aggression -.34* -.43* Warmth & Connection with Friend Friendship Warmth and Adolescent Aggression CFI=.95, RMSEA=.03 Lack of Warmth in Close Friendships Predicts Increasing Teen Aggression (and vice versa) (Antonishak & Allen, 2006, Society for Research in Adolescence) Latent Difference Score Model: Early Adolescent Engaged Friendship Predicting Changes in Friendship Quality Across Adolescence :  Early Adolescent Engaged Friendship Predicting Changes in Friendship Quality Across Adolescence Depressive Symptoms Engaged Interaction Depressive Symptoms Age 13 Age 19 .32*** .22** R2 = .148*** Engaged Interaction Predicts Relative INCREASES in Depression Over Time .-.11 Early Adolescent Engaged Friendship Predicting Changes in Friendship Quality Across Adolescence :  Early Adolescent Engaged Friendship Predicting Changes in Friendship Quality Across Adolescence Social Withdrawal Engaged Interaction Social Anxiety Age 13-15 Age 17-18 -.05 .24** (Teachman & Allen, in press, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology) Engaged Interaction Predicts Greater Social Anxiety Over Time -.14+ Short- vs. Long-term Implications of Adolescent Social Relationships :  Short- vs. Long-term Implications of Adolescent Social Relationships Adolescents who at 13 are highly engaged with friends over time are becoming: Better Friends, and Less Aggressive; BUT More Anxious and Depressed It May Matter What KIND of Engaged Friendship a Teen Has. Relationship Quality Handling of Autonomy Negotiations in the Midst of Closeness Primary Questions :  Primary Questions Predictions from High Engagement in a Friendship at 13 as Moderated via Peer Autonomy Processes Failures to Handle Disagreements: Becoming Hostile & Enmeshing When Disagreeing:  Failures to Handle Disagreements: Becoming Hostile & Enmeshing When Disagreeing Coded from Videotaped Discussions of “Mars Task” 2 best friends separately decide which hypothetical characters will be rescued first following a space accident. The 2 friends are then brought together and come to a “consensus” answer. Autonomy-Undermining/Enmeshing Behavior: overpersonalizing disagreements pressuring with threats or intimidation false “concessions” and “recantations” Relatedness-Undermining/Hostile Behavior: Rudeness, hostility, sarcasm Ignoring other person, distracting interruptions Interaction of Teen Engagement and Autonomy Processes Predicting Relative Change in Friendship Quality:  Low Engagement High Engagement Interaction of Teen Engagement and Autonomy Processes Predicting Relative Change in Friendship Quality Low in Behavior Undermining Autonomy & Relatedness (13) Age 13 Interaction of Teen Engagement and Autonomy Processes Predicting Relative Change in Friendship Quality:  Low Engagement High Engagement High in Behavior Undermining Autonomy & Relatedness (13) Interaction of Teen Engagement and Autonomy Processes Predicting Relative Change in Friendship Quality Engagement Predicts Increasing Friendship Quality ONLY for Teens Not in Enmeshed Peer Relationships Low in Behavior Undermining Autonomy & Relatedness (13) Age 13 Interaction of Teen Engagement and Autonomy Processes Predicting Relative Change in Depressive Symptoms:  Low Engagement High Engagement Low in Behavior Undermining Autonomy & Relatedness (13) Interaction of Teen Engagement and Autonomy Processes Predicting Relative Change in Depressive Symptoms Age 13 Interaction of Teen Engagement and Autonomy Processes Predicting Relative Change in Depressive Symptoms:  Low Engagement High Engagement Engagement Predicts Increasing Depression ONLY for Teens in Enmeshed Peer Relationships Low in Behavior Undermining Autonomy & Relatedness (13) High in Behavior Undermining Autonomy & Relatedness (13) Interaction of Teen Engagement and Autonomy Processes Predicting Relative Change in Depressive Symptoms Age 13 Short- vs. Long-term Implications of Adolescent Social Relationships :  Short- vs. Long-term Implications of Adolescent Social Relationships Its not just a matter of having very close friendships… it matters what KIND of a close friendship one has. Intensity Increases the Predictive Value of a Friendship… whether for good or for bad, depending on autonomy processes in the friendship. Primary Questions :  Primary Questions Long-term Main Effect Predictions from Close Peer Autonomy Processes at 13 Early Adolescent Autonomy in Friendship Predicting Changes in Aggression Across Adolescence :  Early Adolescent Autonomy in Friendship Predicting Changes in Aggression Across Adolescence Aggression Autonomy Aggression Age 13 Age 17 .32*** -.24** R2 = .177*** Autonomy at 13 Predicts DECREASING Aggression Early Adolescent Autonomy in Friendships Predicting Changes in Susceptibility to Peer Pressure Across Adolescence :  Early Adolescent Autonomy in Friendships Predicting Changes in Susceptibility to Peer Pressure Across Adolescence Peer Pressure Experienced Autonomy Peer Pressure Experienced Age 13 Age 17 .11 -.31*** R2 = .116*** Autonomy at 13 Predicts DECREASING Exposure to Peer Pressure Limitations:  Limitations Non-experimental Nature of Data Examining Limited Aspects of One Friendship Assessed in just a few contexts Conclusions:  Conclusions Engaged close friendships mark positive adaptation in early adolescence In terms of their future predictive value….it depends… Early Engagement may determine HOW MUCH a Friendship will Matter Autonomy Processes May Determine the VALENCE or the Way in which a Friendship will Matter Copies of this and related papers are available at: www.TeenResearch.org Conclusions:  Conclusions Like Parent-Teen Relationships, Peer-teen relationships are optimal when characterized by Relatedness AND Autonomy The High School Reunion Effect: To understand what’s most important in adolescent development, we need to consider where that development ultimately leads. Copies of this and related papers are available at: www.TeenResearch.org

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