Joe Staubhaar - Annenberg Research Park Colloquium - Sep 30 2008

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Information about Joe Staubhaar - Annenberg Research Park Colloquium - Sep 30 2008
Education

Published on October 18, 2008

Author: arnic

Source: slideshare.net

Description

"Migrants and New Media: Comparing Generations, Language Communities and Technology Uses in the U.S. and Portugal"

This talk will examine several years of research in East and South Austin,
which focused on how migrants from Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America,
are using media, particularly new media (Internet, cell phones) to adapt to
life in the USA, make new local communities, maintain community with people
back "home" and adjust to the emerging central role of these technologies in
American life. The talk will discuss comparable research about immigrants
from Eastern Europe, North Africa and Brazil in Portugal, as well as a new
project comparing the U.S. and Portugal.

Digital Divides of Age, Immigration and Language in One Urban and Two Rural Texas Communities IAMCR 2008 By Joseph Straubhaar, Sharon Strover, Nobuya Inagaki, Jeremiah Spence, Robert Larose

Theoretical and policy issues Increasing focus on language Linguistic capital (Bourdieu) as key for interest, awareness, use of ICTs Language more important than ethnicity Previous focus on ethnicity challenged by recent studies (Spence & Straubhaar, 2007) Immigration generation key Age cohort important Youth begin to act more like native residents

Increasing focus on language

Linguistic capital (Bourdieu) as key for interest, awareness, use of ICTs

Language more important than ethnicity

Previous focus on ethnicity challenged by recent studies (Spence & Straubhaar, 2007)

Immigration generation key

Age cohort important

Youth begin to act more like native residents

Urban Austin studies Observation of library access centers Showed lack of use by minority teenage boys Life history with technology interviews With minority youth and parents Impact of computer skills training Life history with technology Interviews with three generations over 3 years

Observation of library access centers

Showed lack of use by minority teenage boys

Life history with technology interviews

With minority youth and parents

Impact of computer skills training

Life history with technology

Interviews with three generations over 3 years

Family and trajectory Families as sites of resources, reproduction of status, or change of status Bertaux and Thompson Trajectory of family social mobility across generations Bourdieu Capital, habitus and dispositions Linguistic Educational, cultural Familial Choices within structural limits, family trajectories For immigrants, language capital, social capital, cultural capital all present barriers to ICT use

Families as sites of resources, reproduction of status, or change of status

Bertaux and Thompson

Trajectory of family social mobility across generations

Bourdieu

Capital, habitus and dispositions

Linguistic

Educational, cultural

Familial

Choices within structural limits, family trajectories

For immigrants, language capital, social capital, cultural capital all present barriers to ICT use

Family and trajectory, 2 Families as sites of resources, reproduction of status, or change of status Gonzalez’ theory of information resource availability and disposition to use over generations Gonzalez’ methods for trajectory In-depth life histories with two-three generations 12 three generation families interviewed 2004-2006 Genograms back three generations from informant 56 genograms providing information on 904 people, back to grandparents or great grandparents In 2004-06, in-depth interviews by undergrad and grad students about general life histories and life histories with media and ICTs

Families as sites of resources, reproduction of status, or change of status

Gonzalez’ theory of information resource availability and disposition to use over generations

Gonzalez’ methods for trajectory

In-depth life histories with two-three generations

12 three generation families interviewed 2004-2006

Genograms back three generations from informant

56 genograms providing information on 904 people, back to grandparents or great grandparents

In 2004-06, in-depth interviews by undergrad and grad students about general life histories and life histories with media and ICTs

Migration, both transnational and rural-urban Generation of migration to U.S. First generation, those who migrated Often have language, cultural capital issues Second generation, their children Tend to learn English, gain economic capital, aspects of cultural capital Very dependent on urban vs. rural Third generation, migrants’ grandchildren Tend to learn ICTs more easily, pass knowledge to parents Multiple generations in USA Some return to earlier patterns via marriage with immigrants

Generation of migration to U.S.

First generation, those who migrated

Often have language, cultural capital issues

Second generation, their children

Tend to learn English, gain economic capital, aspects of cultural capital

Very dependent on urban vs. rural

Third generation, migrants’ grandchildren

Tend to learn ICTs more easily, pass knowledge to parents

Multiple generations in USA

Some return to earlier patterns via marriage with immigrants

Migration, transnational and rural-urban, cont. Secondary migration: rural to urban Produces more educational, occupational opportunity than migration to U.S. per se Importance of language vs. ethnicity for migrants From 904 genogram records on individuals within families, language has more impact on education, occupation, ICT use than ethnicity Studied in 2004-06 interviews, genograms

Secondary migration: rural to urban

Produces more educational, occupational opportunity than migration to U.S. per se

Importance of language vs. ethnicity for migrants

From 904 genogram records on individuals within families, language has more impact on education, occupation, ICT use than ethnicity

Studied in 2004-06 interviews, genograms

Second study examines early impact of rural broadband Study took place in two communities where new wireless broadband grants were being implemented 2005 survey in first year of broadband 2008 survey after 2-3 years of broadband Impacts, use, awareness varied by ethnicity, age, language, immigration Structural barriers, education, location Cultural, linguistic capital barriers Generational divides of both age cohort and immigration

Study took place in two communities where new wireless broadband grants were being implemented

2005 survey in first year of broadband

2008 survey after 2-3 years of broadband

Impacts, use, awareness varied

by ethnicity, age, language, immigration

Structural barriers, education, location

Cultural, linguistic capital barriers

Generational divides of both age cohort and immigration

Similarities between two rural Latino communities Economic bases Entrepreneurial grantsmanship for state, federal $ Government education, health, community development programs economically crucial Can lead to localized corruption, as in Cristal Emigration out to larger cities for education, jobs Social Preference for staying in community if possible due to strong family networks

Economic bases

Entrepreneurial grantsmanship for state, federal $

Government education, health, community development programs economically crucial

Can lead to localized corruption, as in Cristal

Emigration out to larger cities for education, jobs

Social

Preference for staying in community if possible due to strong family networks

Differences between the two Latino communities Economic and social bases Cristal - semi-collapsed agricultural economy Population stable - people have lived there 414 months on average (in 2008) 13% born outside USA (2008) 81% took survey in English (2008), 90% in 2005 97% Hispanic Zapata - from ranching to tourism, oil & gas Population dynamic - moving in - people have lived there 277 months on average (2008) Average was 314 in 2004 37% born outside USA (2008) -- many new migrants 66% took survey in English (2008), 78% in 2005 90% Hispanic

Economic and social bases

Cristal - semi-collapsed agricultural economy

Population stable - people have lived there 414 months on average (in 2008)

13% born outside USA (2008)

81% took survey in English (2008), 90% in 2005

97% Hispanic

Zapata - from ranching to tourism, oil & gas

Population dynamic - moving in - people have lived there 277 months on average (2008)

Average was 314 in 2004

37% born outside USA (2008) -- many new migrants

66% took survey in English (2008), 78% in 2005

90% Hispanic

Internet by Hispanics vs. non- Hispanics not significant Hisp. 2005 Hisp. 2008 Non-H 2005 Non-H 2008 Ever heard of Internet? 76% 82% 68% 83% Ever used the INTERNET? 57% 64% 50% 65% Currently use INTERNET? 45% 50% 41% 56% Currently use broadband? 23% 38% 20% 37%

Internet among Hispanics 2005, by age Among Hispanics 2005 18-29 30-59 60+ Ever heard of Internet? 93% 84% 38%* Ever used the INTERNET? 84 64 15** Currently use INTERNET? 62 52 9*** Currently use broadband? 31 27 5

Internet among Hispanics 2008, by age Among Hispanics 2008 18-29 30-59 60+ Ever heard of Internet? 93% 84% 59%* Ever used the INTERNET? 89 66 20*** Currently use INTERNET? 73 50 14*** Currently use broadband? 58 38* 9**

Spanish vs. English speaker differences significant Language more significant difference than ethnicity Age does not matter within language groups, whereas age differences very significant within ethnic groups Young higher on most Internet measures Mid- and older Internet averages lowered by new migrants

Language more significant difference than ethnicity

Age does not matter within language groups, whereas age differences very significant within ethnic groups

Young higher on most Internet measures

Mid- and older Internet averages lowered by new migrants

Spanish vs. English speaker differences tend to increase Eng. 2005 Span. 2005 Eng. 2008 Span. 2008 Ever heard of Internet? 82% 51%*** 91% 57%*** Ever used the INTERNET? 69 16*** 77 27*** Currently use INTERNET? 54 12*** 63 14*** Currently use broadband? 29 3*** 48 10***

Internet by language, Zapata vs. Cristal, 2005 In 2005 Eng. Zapa Span. Zapa Eng. Crist Span. Crist Ever heard of Internet? 83% 57%*** 87% 44%*** Ever used the INTERNET? 70 22*** 72 13*** Currently use INTERNET? 57 16*** 58 7*** Currently use broadband? 36 4*** 21 0***

Internet by language, Zapata vs. Cristal, 2008 In 2008 Eng. Zapa Span. Zapa Eng. Crist Span. Crist Ever heard of Internet? 91% 54%*** 91% 63%*** Ever used the INTERNET? 80 25*** 73 29*** Currently use INTERNET? 69 11*** 58 21*** Currently use broadband? 51 7*** 46 15***

Internet among immigrants Immigration impact magnified by age Older immigrants much less aware or likely to use Internet

Immigration impact magnified by age

Older immigrants much less aware or likely to use Internet

Internet among Immigrants Born outside USA Born in USA Ever heard of Internet? 60% 90%*** Ever used the INTERNET? 34 74*** Currently use INTERNET? 23 59*** Currently use broadband? 18 45***

Internet among immigrants, Zapata vs. Cristal In 2008 Imig. Zapa Nativ. Zapa Imig. Crist Nativ. Crist Ever heard of Internet? 59% 90%*** 64% 89%*** Ever used the INTERNET? 34 78*** 33 70*** Currently use INTERNET? 22 66*** 28 54*** Currently use broadband? 16 48*** 24 43***

Internet among immigrants by age 18-29 Immg 18-29 Nativ 30-59 Immg 30-59 Nativ 60+ Immg 60+ Nativ Heard of 75% 98% 64% 92% 41% 72% Ever used 54 96 38 77 8 36 Current use 34 82 27 60 6 27 Use broadb 28 65 21 46 4 15

Conclusions Linguistic capital most crucial different in Internet, broadband awareness, use Immigration generation and age cohort also important Number of recent immigrants changes overall ICT numbers of Hispanic population Younger generation adopting ICT but needs resources, focus in policy U.S. federal support for broadband mixed success, specific projects failed but triggered others and forced SWB to offer service

Linguistic capital most crucial different in Internet, broadband awareness, use

Immigration generation and age cohort also important

Number of recent immigrants changes overall ICT numbers of Hispanic population

Younger generation adopting ICT but needs resources, focus in policy

U.S. federal support for broadband mixed success, specific projects failed but triggered others and forced SWB to offer service

Thank you

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