Job Hazard Analysis

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Information about Job Hazard Analysis

Published on January 8, 2008

Author: Prudenza


Job Hazard Analysis:  Job Hazard Analysis Identification and Control of Hazards Prior to Job Accomplishment Presentation for The System Safety Society Tennessee Valley Chapter April 25, 2007 System Safety – Industrial Safety:  System Safety – Industrial Safety System - Job Identification and Control of Hazards Concept – Prior to Job Performance What is Job Hazard Analysis:  What is Job Hazard Analysis Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) – A proven analytical tool used to identify associated hazards and control measures for each step of a given job or task. Requirements:  Requirements 29 CFR 1960.8(a) - furnish each employee employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm. JHA Purpose:  JHA Purpose Provides a standardized means to identify job hazards and control measures prior to actual job performance. Implementation of effective control measures prior to job accomplishment results in a safe and healthful work environment. Proactive rather than Reactive, i.e. take the action to eliminate hazards prior to accident occurrence. JHA Benefits:  JHA Benefits An integral part of your job planning effort – JHA identifies job steps, hazards, and control measures. Part of pre-shift/shift turnover briefings to ensure control measures to prevent injuries are understood. Use to train new employees. Monitor job performance to ensure safe procedure are being followed. Assists with accident investigations. Provides feedback for SOP, facility, and equipment improvements. Where Do I Start?:  Where Do I Start? Identify all jobs performed. When defining a job ensure that it is not too broadly or too narrowly defined. Rank According to Hazards. Develop JHAs starting with the jobs that are most hazardous. Who Performs JHA?:  Who Performs JHA? Supervisor At least one employee who performs the work being analyzed Facilitator from safety staff How do I Perform a JHA:  How do I Perform a JHA Identify Job Steps Identify Hazards Assign Initial Risk Assessment Code Define Control Measures – Short and Long Term Assign Interim and Long Term RAC Assign Actions JHA Form:  JHA Form Identify Job Steps:  Identify Job Steps Record each step of the job in sequence. Description of the job step must be clear and concise. Descriptions of job steps must describe “what” is done and not “how” it is to be done. Use action verbs to describe the steps, i.e. lift, carry, place, remove, etc. Identify Hazards:  Identify Hazards Identify all of the hazards associated with each step. To help identify hazards consider the following: Past accidents to include near misses. Use the potential hazard categories on the next slide Potential Hazard Categories:  Potential Hazard Categories Struck by Struck against Contact by Contact with Caught on Caught in Caught between Fall same level Fall from elevation Overexertion Exposure (chemicals, radiation, etc.) Hazardous energy Environmental (noise, heat, etc.) Human Error Risk Assessment Code:  Risk Assessment Code Determine initial Risk Assessment Code (RAC) for each hazard identified Qualitative assessment of each hazard to determine its level of risk The higher the level of risk the higher the level of attention required to ensure elimination or control Risk Assessment Code:  Risk Assessment Code The first step to perform a qualitative analysis is to determine the worst-case credible outcome of a mishap that could result from the hazard. Note: See Table 1 on next slide. Table 1: Severity of Hazardous Event:  Table 1: Severity of Hazardous Event Risk Assessment Code:  Risk Assessment Code The next step is to estimate the probability of occurrence of the hazardous event, which is the likelihood that an identified hazard will result in a mishap, based on an assessment of such factors as location, exposure in terms of cycles or hours of operation, and affected population. The following table is used to classify the probability of an event: Note: See Table 2 on next slide. Table 2: Probability of Hazardous Event:  Table 2: Probability of Hazardous Event Risk Assessment Code:  Risk Assessment Code Using the results from these two tables, a Risk Assessment Code (RAC) is determined using a matrix like the one in Figure 1 on the next slide which has severity on one axis and probability of event on the other. Figure 1: Risk Assessment Matrix:  Figure 1: Risk Assessment Matrix Risk Assessment Code:  Risk Assessment Code High risks are raised to management’s attention, and corrective actions are taken immediately. On issues requiring long-term corrections, the hazard(s) are abated by an interim method. Medium risks are reported in the established systems and interim corrective actions instituted until the issues are corrected via the normal maintenance schedule. Low risks are reported in the established system and corrective actions are taken as resources permit. Define Mitigation Controls:  Define Mitigation Controls Mitigation controls describe how the job step can be performed safely. List all the mitigation controls necessary for each hazard. The following are methods of controlling hazards: Eliminate the hazard Engineered safety feature Use safety device Warning device Procedures/Training Define Mitigation Controls:  Define Mitigation Controls Mitigation Controls may be short and/or long term Short term controls can be implemented immediately, i.e. PPE Long term controls require more time to implement, i.e. redesign the work environment to eliminate the hazard Frequently short and long term controls are used. Catastrophic events should never occur as the result of a single failure. Interim and Final RAC:  Interim and Final RAC Assign the interim and final RAC. Interim RAC is based on interim protective measures put in place until the final corrective action is taken. Final RAC is based on completion of all mitigation measures including long term items. Other Information:  Other Information Assign a JHA Number Describe the job Identify PPE; Tools & Equipment; Job Preparation Hazardous Materials Special Requirements Skills Required Review and Approval:  Review and Approval Record who performs the analysis Person(s) responsible to review the JHA Approval signature Pitfalls to Avoid:  Pitfalls to Avoid Can be difficult to sell to management. Selection of the job and job steps. JHA too broad in scope. Completed and not used. No oversight to ensure proper completion and use. Failure to continually update. Simple Example:  Simple Example Slide31:  5. Sit down at desk. 4c. Splash coffee onto hand or other body part causing a burn.. 5a. Trip over chair or other object. 5b. Spill coffee causing a burn to the hand or other body part. 5a. Sit cup on desk prior to sitting down. 5b. Maintain carpet and keep floor clear of tripping hazards. Summary:  Summary JHA Effective – Hazard Control Tool ID Job Steps ID Hazards ID Control Measures Integrate into work process Continue to improve

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