Job Analysis & Design

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Information about Job Analysis & Design
Business & Mgmt

Published on January 30, 2009

Author: aasthatyagi

Source: slideshare.net

CHAPTER 4 JOB ANALYSIS & DESIGN CONCEPT OF JOB ANALYSIS PROCESS OF JOB ANALYSIS JOB ANALYSIS METHODS JOB DESCRIPTION JOB SPECIFICATION USES OF JOB ANALYSIS ISSUES IN JOB ANALYSIS CONCEPT OF JOB DESIGN MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES

CONCEPT OF JOB ANALYSIS

PROCESS OF JOB ANALYSIS

JOB ANALYSIS METHODS

JOB DESCRIPTION

JOB SPECIFICATION

USES OF JOB ANALYSIS

ISSUES IN JOB ANALYSIS

CONCEPT OF JOB DESIGN

MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES

CONCEPT OF JOB ANALYSIS Job Analysis is the process of determining and recording all the pertinent information about a specific job, including the tasks involved, the knowledge and skill set required to perform the job, the responsibilities attached to the job and the abilities required to perform the job successfully. Job Analysis differentiates one job from another. It is also referred as JOB REVIEW or JOB CLASSIFICATION.

Job Analysis is the process of determining and recording all the pertinent information about a specific job, including the tasks involved, the knowledge and skill set required to perform the job, the responsibilities attached to the job and the abilities required to perform the job successfully.

Job Analysis differentiates one job from another.

It is also referred as JOB REVIEW or JOB CLASSIFICATION.

Two end products of Job Analysis are JOB DESCRIPTION and JOB SPECIFICATION. Job Analysis provides inputs for:- - Job Descriptions Employee Selection Training Performance Appraisals Job Classification Job Evaluation Job Design

Two end products of Job Analysis are JOB DESCRIPTION and JOB SPECIFICATION.

Job Analysis provides inputs for:-

- Job Descriptions

Employee Selection

Training

Performance Appraisals

Job Classification

Job Evaluation

Job Design

PROCESS OF JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION GATHERING JOB-SPECIFIC COMPETENCY DETERMINATION DEVELOPING A JOB DESCRIPTION DEVELOPING A JOB SPECIFICATION

INFORMATION GATHERING

JOB-SPECIFIC COMPETENCY DETERMINATION

DEVELOPING A JOB DESCRIPTION

DEVELOPING A JOB SPECIFICATION

JOB ANALYSIS METHODS Observation Method Interviews Structured Questionnaire / Inventory Logbooks / Work Diaries

Observation Method

Interviews

Structured Questionnaire / Inventory

Logbooks / Work Diaries

1. OBSERVATION METHOD :- The individuals performing the job are observed and relevant points are noted. Eg: Motion and Time Studies

1. OBSERVATION METHOD :-

The individuals performing the job are observed and relevant points are noted.

Eg: Motion and Time Studies

2. INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEW METHOD :- Applied when the job is complex Structured interviews are the most effective. 3. GROUP INTERVIEW METHOD :- Employees performing the same job are interviewed together, in groups

2. INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEW METHOD :-

Applied when the job is complex

Structured interviews are the most effective.

3. GROUP INTERVIEW METHOD :-

Employees performing the same job are interviewed together, in groups

4. QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD :- Long & structured questionnaire to be filled in by job incumbent. Has both objective & open-ended questions.

4. QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD :-

Long & structured questionnaire to be filled in by job incumbent.

Has both objective & open-ended questions.

5. TECHNICAL CONFERENCE METHOD :- Gathering information from the EXPERTS, usually supervisors & NOT the job incumbents. 6. DIARY METHOD :- Job incumbents take immediate note of the activities they perform.

5. TECHNICAL CONFERENCE METHOD :-

Gathering information from the EXPERTS, usually supervisors & NOT the job incumbents.

6. DIARY METHOD :-

Job incumbents take immediate note of the activities they perform.

7. FUNCTIONAL JOB ANALYSIS :- Developed by U.S. Department of Labor. Job analysts conducts background research, interviews job incumbents & supervisors, make site observations, & then prepares a detailed document.

7. FUNCTIONAL JOB ANALYSIS :-

Developed by U.S. Department of Labor.

Job analysts conducts background research, interviews job incumbents & supervisors, make site observations, & then prepares a detailed document.

WORK FUNCTIONS & THE LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY 8 helping 7 handling 7 serving 6 feeding 6 speaking-signaling 6 comparing 5 tending 5 persuading 5 copying 4 manipulating 4 diversity 4 computing 3 driving- operating 3 supervising 3 compiling 2 operating-controlling 2 instructing 2 analyzing 1 precision working 1 negotiating 1 coordinating 0 setting up 0 mentoring 0 synthesizing THINGS PEOPLE DATA

8. POSITION ANALYSIS QUESTIONNAIRE ( PAQ):- Describes job in term of worker activities. 194 elements to 5 dimensions: Having decision making/ communication/ social responsibilities Performing skilled activities Being physically active/ related environmental conditions. Operating vehicles/ equipment Processing information

8. POSITION ANALYSIS QUESTIONNAIRE ( PAQ):-

Describes job in term of worker activities.

194 elements to 5 dimensions:

Having decision making/ communication/ social responsibilities

Performing skilled activities

Being physically active/ related environmental conditions.

Operating vehicles/ equipment

Processing information

9. CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE (CIT):- According to John Flanagan, behaviors in specific situations contribute to the success or failure of individuals Interviews & Questionnaire can be used to collect the information on the critical incidents Most suitable for middle & top management levels.

9. CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE (CIT):-

According to John Flanagan, behaviors in specific situations contribute to the success or failure of individuals

Interviews & Questionnaire can be used to collect the information on the critical incidents

Most suitable for middle & top management levels.

JOB DESCRIPTION (JOB- ORIENTED) Job identification Job Summary Relation to other jobs Location in hierarchy Tools used Responsibilities Conditions of work location of work Hazards JOB SPECIFICATION (EMPLOYEE-ORIENTED ) Education Experience Training Initiative Physical effort Physical skills Communication skills JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION

JOB DESCRIPTION

(JOB- ORIENTED)

Job identification

Job Summary

Relation to other jobs

Location in hierarchy

Tools used

Responsibilities

Conditions of work

location of work

Hazards

JOB SPECIFICATION

(EMPLOYEE-ORIENTED )

Education

Experience

Training

Initiative

Physical effort

Physical skills

Communication skills

JOBS

Employment Organization Audit Training and Development Performance Appraisal Promotion and Transfer Health and Safety Induction Preventing Dissatisfaction Industrial Relations Career Planning Succession Planning USES OF JOB ANALYSIS

Employment

Organization Audit

Training and Development

Performance Appraisal

Promotion and Transfer

Health and Safety

Induction

Preventing Dissatisfaction

Industrial Relations

Career Planning

Succession Planning

CONCEPT OF JOB DESIGN Job design is the process of structuring work and designating the specific activities at individual or group levels. It determines, the responsibility of an employee the authority he enjoys over his work his scope of decision-making his level of satisfaction his productivity

Job design is the process of structuring work and designating the specific activities at individual or group levels.

It determines,

the responsibility of an employee

the authority he enjoys over his work

his scope of decision-making

his level of satisfaction

his productivity

Major components of job design are: Job content / scope Includes various tasks to be performed by the job holder, the responsibilities attached and the relationship with other jobs. Job depth It is the autonomy or the authority that the job holder enjoys in planning and organizing the work.

Major components of job design are:

Job content / scope

Includes various tasks to be performed by the job holder, the responsibilities attached and the relationship with other jobs.

Job depth

It is the autonomy or the authority that the job holder enjoys in planning and organizing the work.

DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO JOB DESIGN Engineering approach: The key element of the approach is “task idea” Use of overspecialization Demerits of overspecialization Repetition Mechanical pacing No end product Little social interaction No personal input

Engineering approach:

The key element of the approach is “task idea”

Use of overspecialization

Demerits of overspecialization

Repetition

Mechanical pacing

No end product

Little social interaction

No personal input

Human relations approach: Over-specialized jobs were redesigned to become more satisfying and rewarding to employees.--- human touch It was felt that workers have social needs. Theory of motivation proposed by Herzberg Factors that affect job satisfaction – the motivators & the hygiene factors Hygiene factors – prevents dissatisfaction among employees Ex: working conditions, job security, more money Motivators – helps motivating employees on the job Ex: recognition, achievement, responsibility

Human relations approach:

Over-specialized jobs were redesigned to become more satisfying and rewarding to employees.--- human touch

It was felt that workers have social needs.

Theory of motivation proposed by Herzberg

Factors that affect job satisfaction – the motivators & the hygiene factors

Hygiene factors – prevents dissatisfaction among employees

Ex: working conditions, job security, more money

Motivators – helps motivating employees on the job

Ex: recognition, achievement, responsibility

Job characteristics approach Based on job characteristics theory of Hackman and Oldham The theory states that employees work hard when they are rewarded for their hard work. Identifies specific job characteristics that affect productivity, motivation and satisfaction Core characteristic of a job are: Skill variety – the degree to which the job necessitates the use of different skills Task identity – the degree to which the job requires completion of task

Job characteristics approach

Based on job characteristics theory of Hackman and Oldham

The theory states that employees work hard when they are rewarded for their hard work.

Identifies specific job characteristics that affect productivity, motivation and satisfaction

Core characteristic of a job are:

Skill variety – the degree to which the job necessitates the use of different skills

Task identity – the degree to which the job requires completion of task

Task significance – the degree to which the job makes an impact on the lives or the work of the people Autonomy – the degree to which the job provides freedom Feedback – the degree to which objective, direct and timely information about performance is given to the employees Skill variety, task identity & task significance gives job satisfaction Autonomy gives sense of responsibility & commitment Feedback enables to analyze performance

Task significance – the degree to which the job makes an impact on the lives or the work of the people

Autonomy – the degree to which the job provides freedom

Feedback – the degree to which objective, direct and timely information about performance is given to the employees

Skill variety, task identity & task significance gives job satisfaction

Autonomy gives sense of responsibility & commitment

Feedback enables to analyze performance

Motivating Potential Score (MPS) of a job = ( skill variety + task identity + task significance ) 3 X autonomy X feedback

Motivating Potential Score (MPS) of a job =

( skill variety + task identity + task significance )

3

X autonomy X feedback

Sociotechnical approach both technical and social environment are emphasized. Jobs according to this approach are: A little challenging and demanding Variety and novelty Social support and recognition Desirable future Decision-making authority Correlation with social lives

Sociotechnical approach

both technical and social environment are emphasized.

Jobs according to this approach are:

A little challenging and demanding

Variety and novelty

Social support and recognition

Desirable future

Decision-making authority

Correlation with social lives

MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES Job Rotation Job rotation enhances employee motivation by periodically assigning the employee to alternative jobs. Job Enlargement It involves assigning workers additional same-level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform. Job Enrichment The process of redesigning the job so as to increase both their scope and their depth. Job holder has autonomy to plan, organize and control his job.

Job Rotation

Job rotation enhances employee motivation by periodically assigning the employee to alternative jobs.

Job Enlargement

It involves assigning workers additional same-level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform.

Job Enrichment

The process of redesigning the job so as to increase both their scope and their depth.

Job holder has autonomy to plan, organize and control his job.

Flextime It allows the employees to choose their working hours Telecommuting It is the practice of working at home or while traveling, keeping in contact with the office. Job sharing Two or more part-time employees share the work of a full-time employee. Condensed work week It involves compressing the work week by increasing the number of working hours per day. Working from home Employees work from home and visit office once or twice in a week.

Flextime

It allows the employees to choose their working hours

Telecommuting

It is the practice of working at home or while traveling, keeping in contact with the office.

Job sharing

Two or more part-time employees share the work of a full-time employee.

Condensed work week

It involves compressing the work week by increasing the number of working hours per day.

Working from home

Employees work from home and visit office once or twice in a week.

 

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