JillSunwold ComprehensionStrateg ies

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Information about JillSunwold ComprehensionStrateg ies

Published on March 11, 2008

Author: Cajetano

Source: authorstream.com

Comprehension Strategies K-5:  Comprehension Strategies K-5 Jill Sunwold Literacy Facilitator Mountain View Elementary, Quincy School District “Do you know that great readers think and read at the same time?” (better yet, do your students know?!) 3-D Comp:  3-D Comp Comprehension is three dimensional: Purpose: Why do readers read? Process: What mental activities must the reader engage in? Consequence: What is the reader learning or experiencing as a result of reading? Sweet and Snow Proficient Readers Research:  Proficient Readers Research Activating relevant, prior knowledge (schema) before, during, and after reading. (Anderson and Pearson 1984) Creating visual and other sensory images from text during and after reading. (Pressley 1976) Drawing inferences from text to form conclusions, make critical judgments and unique interpretations. (Hansen 1981) Asking questions of themselves, the authors, and the text. (Raphael 1984) Determining the most important ideas and themes in a text. (Palinscar & Brown 1984) Synthesizing what has been read. (Brown,Day&Jones1983) Before Reading Strategies :  Before Reading Strategies Purpose Setting Text Walks Text Format/Features Predicting Activating Prior Knowledge Setting a Purpose :  Setting a Purpose Purpose setting helps readers focus by allowing opportunities to discover that reading serves many purposes: for pleasure for specific information to learn how to do something to satisfy curiosity Setting a Purpose:  Setting a Purpose What is important? Books contain many interesting things from illustrations, interesting words, funny characters to interesting facts. We set a purpose to narrow a students focus from a book full of sea creatures to specifically looking for sharks. Teachers may set the purpose but also allow our student to set their own after sufficient modeling. In setting the purpose, teachers need to be concise and model the reasoning behind it. Purpose Setting:  Purpose Setting Steve Moline writes in his book, I See What you Mean, “If we teach children that all reading is ‘reading for story’ we may overlook many key strategies that we employ when reading selectively. Some of these strategies include skimming, accessing the test through index, using headings and signposts to the information we want or just strolling through pictures in order to orientate ourselves in the text.” Text Walks:  Text Walks Text walks are another tool used before reading to aide in predicting and inferring. Purpose of Text Walks: To give students familiarity with what they are about to read, along with the language and vocabulary they may encounter. Students turn through the pages making predictions and inferences based on pictures, narratives and text format. Students predict key words they think might be found in a passage based upon title or pictures. (A-Z Organizer) Text Format:  Text Format Nonfiction is often organized in terms of: Description Cause and Effect Comparison Time Order Problem Resolution Graphic organizers support organizing these ideas. Text Features:  Text Features Text Features also help children make decisions about what is important. Authors often signal us with: Headings Fonts Graphic illustrations Summary statements Marginal notes Cue words (first, next, in conclusion, most important) When children learn these strategies their reading becomes focused and efficient. Predicting Helps:  Predicting Helps There are many different helps students can use to aide in prediction: Personal Experience World Knowledge Genre Knowledge Story Sequence Illustrations Cover Features Character and Setting Knowledge Text Features Prediction is a piece of the puzzle for inference… Predicting:  Predicting Pressley (2002) suggest predicting as one of five major comprehension strategies. Predicting helps readers connect what they are reading with what they already know. (Text to Self) Predicting helps bring meaning to text in order to get meaning from text. Teacher asks students to discuss possibilities for content based on title, author, cover picture… Predicting:  Predicting In choosing text for younger students it is helpful to start with books that lend themselves to to clear-cut predictions that can be confirmed or contradicted. Anchor Charts: Teacher writes down student predictions noting initials or name beside prediction. Teaching the skill of rereading, the students predictions can be “C” confirmed or “checked” for contradicted. With the use of two column notes the students can make further predictions. Predicting with Fiction:  Predicting with Fiction Looking at the predictable characteristics or organization of fiction is helpful in making predictions. Beginning, Middle, End Character, Setting, Problem, Solution Throughout a text, readers should continually generate new predictions. Predicting with Non-Fiction:  Predicting with Non-Fiction Looking at the predictable characteristics or organization of non-fiction is helpful in making predictions in specific topics. Main ideas Teaching information What do you expect to learn? Table of contents Headings Index Activating Prior Knowledge:  Activating Prior Knowledge Proficient readers construct meaning using prior knowledge (schema) before, during, & after reading Anderson & Pearson (1984) The teacher’s goal is to build a framework of thinking. “Asking children to recall words or or point out the picture keeps their connection text based and gives others a point of reference as we listen and learn from their thinking.” Miller (2002) During Reading Strategies:  During Reading Strategies Thinking Through the Text Together Anchor Charts Schema Inference Connections Questioning QtA Questioning the Author Visualization Reciprocal Teaching Monitoring Thinking Through the Text Together:  Thinking Through the Text Together Thinking through the text (Anderson et.al. 1992) is asking our students to share connections… (mental images, inferences, questions…) in order to become aware of what is going on inside of their heads. TTT gives students a framework for thinking as well a a common language for talking about books, allowing students opportunities to construct meaning, reflection and insight. The teacher must instill a common language that can be used throughout the year. Anchor Charts:  Anchor Charts Debbie Miller encourages the creation of “anchor charts” during and after lessons in order for children (and teachers!) to remember specific strategies or concepts. Anchor Charts: make thinking permanent and visible allowing connections from one strategy to another clarify a point build on earlier learning remember a specific lesson… Schema Anchor Charts:  Schema Anchor Charts In Debbie Miller’s Reading with Meaning, she displays three charts in her classroom to enhance becoming familiar or building schema with the Author: Becoming familiar with different authors Text Types: Different types of text Text Characteristics: Different characteristics and features unique to Poetry, Narrative and Expository Text Students add to these charts as they encounter new information. Building Schema:  Building Schema Thinking about what you already know is using your schema. Schema can be explained to students stating: “Schema is what is already in your head about that particular thing,” or “the places you’ve been,” “the things you’ve done,” and “books you have read.” Text to Self Connections:  Text to Self Connections Text to Self is using one’s schema to make connections from our reading to ourselves. Anchor charts Debbie Miller encourages a charting of student connections along with noting the students name to show importance of thoughts and to help students figure out which kinds of connections help us most. Following day reread story and revisit chart marking “1” beside responses that helped build connections, “2” beside comments that did’nt. Text to Text Connections:  Text to Text Connections Making connections from one book to another can help students understand the new story and make predictions about what may happen based on what is known from another story. Text to World Connections:  Text to World Connections Young students can grapple with complex issues at times with clearer heads than some adults! Searching for the just right book to go along with the just right local situation will help in this endeavor. Inferring:  Inferring Inferring is related to predicting. The reader uses background knowledge to make decisions/predictions. Prediction is a smart guess. Inference is an assumption, a supplying of information that is not explicitly stated. Reading between the lines. Inference:  Inference There are many helps students can use to aid in inferring: Personal experience World knowledge Illustrations Title Characters Themes Events Word Level Inference:  Word Level Inference What components or skills would need to be in a lesson in order to convey inference? Rereading Paying attention to the words Looking closely at pictures Using schema Taking the time to allow students to process Thinking aloud…model, model, model Questioning:  Questioning Questions help children activate what they already know. Questions can open the “mental file” and add information, revise or even delete Hearing others questions often generates your own information Questioning:  Questioning Readers ask questions for many reasons: Clarify meaning Speculation about text To determine the author’s style, intent, content, or format Focus attention Locate a specific answer Questioning Before, During and After:  Questioning Before, During and After We must model when to ask questions about the authors goals, intent and meaning…so our students becoming proficient questioners. Anchor Charts Noting questions that students have generated before, during and after reading the text. Questioning Before, During and After:  Questioning Before, During and After Questioning Webs Useful in poetry and nonfiction text. Partner Talk with Anchor Charts: Teacher lists questions students would like to talk about regarding a text. Names are noted beside question, Partners get “One , two, three, get eye to eye, knee to knee” for discussions. As a class choose one “burning question” to answer on the next read. Questioning Before, During and After:  Questioning Before, During and After Narrative and Expository Comprehension Cards: Students respond orally to cue cards used before, during, and after read alouds, in reading group, and with independent or partner reads. Questioning Before, During and After:  Questioning Before, During and After Concept Ladders An advanced organizer to help students develop questions that will guide understanding of the text. Students develop questions for each rung of the ladder based on background knowledge and common reading experience around a concept. These questions establish a purpose for reading. WASL Stems:  WASL Stems Using a common language with our students can only benefit their verbalization of comprehension… Questioning the Author :  Questioning the Author QtA assists students in building understanding through: text interaction queries discussion Students and teacher collaboratively construct ideas through the segmentation of text. Students “take on” text little by little, idea by idea, in order to understand what ideas are there and how they connect. Beck, McKeown, Hamilton & Kucan 2003 QtA Queries :  QtA Queries Queries are: General probes used to initiate discussion used during initial read Prompting of students to consider meaning and develop ideas. Teachers response always turns responsibility toward thinking to the students Open-ended: “What is the author telling us?” “Why did he say that?” Used with expository or narrative text Teacher controlled with selected points of questioning Queries :  Queries Three Types of Queries: Initiating Query Follow-up Query Narrative Query Traditional questioning: Retrieve or report information and state ideas from the text. Assign material to be read and then pose questions to evaluate comprehension “after the fact.” Beck, McKeown, Hamilton & Kucan 2003 QtA Key Components :  QtA Key Components Segmenting Text Determining where to stop reading to initiate and develop discussion toward constructing meaning. Teacher’s Role Helping student’s develop ideas rather than managing thinking and explaining ideas Student Contribution Collaborating with one another to construct ideas Reciprocal Teaching:  Reciprocal Teaching Brown and Palincsar (1984) developed this instructional strategy “to teach poor comprehenders how to approach text the way successful readers do.” This strategy involves: Dividing text into smaller chunks Works well with Expository Text Brown and Palincsar (1984) Reciprocal Teaching:  Reciprocal Teaching Reciprocal Teaching provides practice in four comprehension strategies: Questioning: the teacher poses questions that direct students attention to the main idea of the text. These may include higher level inferential and evaluative questions. Student answers help monitor comprehension Reciprocal Teaching:  Reciprocal Teaching Clarifying: students can identify anything that puzzles them and the group can work to clarify these issues. Clarifications can be anything from unfamiliar vocabulary to concepts. In clarifying students gain control of monitoring their comprehension. Reciprocal Teaching:  Reciprocal Teaching Summarizing: Students are required to synthesize information and determine what is important to remember. Reciprocal Teaching:  Reciprocal Teaching Predicting: Students and teachers can predict what the next portion of text will be about based on what has been read. The teacher can also lead with the visual clues provided on the pages. This process encourages students to review what they have learned and use it as a springboard to what will happen next, thus setting a purpose for reading. Visualization:  Visualization Proficient readers create visual and other sensory images from text during and after reading. (Pressley 1976) Visualizing:  Visualizing When children visualize they make picture in their heads of what they have experiences with in the world. Mental imaging involves: Sights Sounds Smells Tastes Physical sensations Emotions…all evoked by the reading. Visualization:  Visualization Drawing to aide comprehension: students draw what they see in their minds. By giving students a goal, they can listen in a way that will help them meet that goal. Have text available to reread several times and use prompts. Monitoring:  Monitoring Monitoring is when the reader actively considers the meaning of what has been read. When something doesn’t make sense, the reader recognizes it and revises thinking by using a fix-up strategy to get back on track. After Reading Strategies:  After Reading Strategies Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) Summarizing/Synthesis Literature Responses (four types) Research Charts Retelling Evaluating Question-Answer Relationship:  Question-Answer Relationship Part of children becoming proficient questioners involves helping them learn to consider where the answers to different questions might be found focusing on four different sources of information: Right There Think and Search On My Own Author and Me Anchor Charts An alternative for record keeping with coding of the text: RT, TS, O, AM Summarizing/Synthesizing:  Summarizing/Synthesizing Keene and Zimmerman’s Mosaic of Thought make the distinction between these two skills: “Summary is a succinct retelling of key points in the text.” “Synthesis is a more personal composite of what the piece is about-a description of the gist of the piece.” Developing competencies in both is a goal. Definition of Synthesis:  Definition of Synthesis “Simple elements of thoughts transformed into a complex whole…like throwing a rock into a pond: first there is a splash, and the waves ripple out, making little waves get bigger and bigger.” “Your thinking evolves as you encounter new information, and the meaning gets bigger and bigger.” (Debbie Miller, 2002) Colored circles example of student talk Synthesis is your experience tied to the text. Practice of Synthesis:  Practice of Synthesis Take TIME… While reading STOP, allow students to get, “eye to eye, knee to knee” and synthesize. Synthesis happens throughout a story-allow students to convey with pictures, words… stopping 3-4 times as you read. Chart the thoughts of the group. Allow independent reading and synthesis time. Fictional Summary:  Fictional Summary Summary aides in retelling. Here are the “big” concepts to focus on: Tell what’s important In a way that makes sense Without telling too much Model using familiar picture books, fairy tales, and fables: Students know how story is organized with setting, character, problem, resolution… Can move from literal (fable) to inferential (moral) Non-fiction Summary:  Non-fiction Summary Framework remains the same as fictional, but a different focus: Focus on what is learned, not story elements Students can take notes or draw pictures of important words or parts Share what has been learned orally or with writing/pictures. Practice of Summary:  Practice of Summary Take TIME… Ask children reading same text to compare their thinking. Allow students to “advertise” a book by synthesizing it aloud to the class Allow students to act out synthesis by creating scenes/event with blocks, Lego’s, Beanie Babies… Encouraging Types of Literature Response:  Encouraging Types of Literature Response A response is any kind of thinking or activity that involves taking a closer look at, or rethinking about the text. Fours Types: Visual Written Dramatic Oral Four Types of Response:  Four Types of Response Visual Response gives students opportunity to communicate their thinking at any stage of knowing symbolically by: Drawing Painting Modeling Sculpting Visualizing Retelling with props Fours Types of Response:  Fours Types of Response Written response compels students to revisit text about personal connections. It can include: Creating maps/graphic organizers for retelling Jotting down questions Listing important ideas Writing evaluations and critiques Four Types of Response:  Four Types of Response Dramatic response allows younger students to share without writing and older students to create from written script and includes: Reenacting scenes or characters Puppetry Four Types of Response:  Four Types of Response Oral response involves any kind of talk about the text. It allows children to: Articulate impressions Clarify what they have understood Interact with other’s thoughts Retelling:  Retelling In order to recreate a story, a flurry of comprehension must first take place: Which parts of the story are important enough to retell? Retelling forces focus and sorting of what their purpose in reading was. Careful listening must take place in order to retell in logical sequence. Children must monitor their comprehension in order that important parts are not skipped, repeated or misunderstood. These skills are especially important in non-fiction as they aid in understanding. Visual Retells:  Visual Retells Revisit a piece of test through: Drawing Painting Coloring Sculpting Captions or narratives may be added in partners or teams. Retelling Web Dramatic Retells:  Dramatic Retells Dramatic Retells: Characters (puppets) Personalities-As you model the use of props, think aloud what characters or personalities would say. Settings (props) Problem solution sequence (self-stick Velcro or magnetic strips) Reenactments are typically brief without a great deal of planning! Evaluating:  Evaluating Evaluating involves: Critiquing Establishing opinions Considering the authors intent and viewpoint Preparing to use and apply new information gained from the reading (Owocki 2003) To be used with Narrative and Expository text. SUCCESS:  SUCCESS It takes time to become proficient at comprehension. Not one of these strategies will be easily accomplished by all of the students in your classroom. Remember to introduce and master one skill at a time and most important: MODEL,MODEL,MODEL,MODEL

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