Jha M03 PKA Globalization New Eco Order

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Information about Jha M03 PKA Globalization New Eco Order
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Published on May 7, 2008

Author: Riccard

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Slide1:  Workshop on Macroeconomic Analysis and Policy REFORM Project, USAID/India Globalization: The New Economic Order Presentation by Dr. Pawan K Aggarwal Deputy Chief of Party and Senior Advisor (Tax Policy) REFORM Project, USAID India New Delhi Workshop on Macroeconomic Analysis and Policy Mo3-PKA-Jha-New Eco Order:  Globalization: The New Economic Order Presentation by Dr. Pawan K Aggarwal Deputy Chief of Party and Senior Advisor (Tax Policy) REFORM Project, USAID India New Delhi Workshop on Macroeconomic Analysis and Policy Mo3-PKA-Jha-New Eco Order Coverage:  Coverage General Agreement on Tariff and Trade: GATT (1947-1995) World Trade Organization: WTO (since 1995) Washington Consensus (since 1989) Concluding remarks GATT (1947-1995):  GATT (1947-1995) GATT was established in 1947 to oversea international trade with a view to create an environment of free trade GATT negotiations were conducted in sessions referred to as “Rounds” GATT held 8 rounds of negotiations From the first in 1947, through the Uruguay round of 1986 GATT (1947-1995):  GATT (1947-1995) The main achievements of the first 7 rounds are: Reduction of tariff rates among industrial countries From an average of 40% to 5% 9 of the 10 disputes that were referred to GATT were settled satisfactorily, discreetly, without publicity The volume of trade in manufactured goods multiplied 20-fold GATT (1947-1995):  GATT (1947-1995) The Uruguay round (1986): Its main achievements are: Further reduction of tariff rates in a phased manner Evolving new international rules for Trade in services and agriculture, and Protection of intellectual properties Agreement for phasing out multifiber arrangement covering textiles and clothing Establishing antidumping laws WTO (since 1995):  WTO (since 1995) On 1 January 1995, WTO replaced the GATT Secretariat This replaced the practice of periodic rounds by a permanent process of reviewing the rules of international trade By February 1997, there were 129 WTO member-countries In addition, 31 countries had requested for membership India is member of WTO WTO (since 1995):  WTO (since 1995) In February 1997, there was a major trade and investment liberalization break-through 70 countries made an agreement that will cover 95% of the world’s telecommunications business It ends state run monopolies and lifts restrictive regulations It was expected to Lower consumer costs Expand telephone service area Improve access to internet and satellite services Washington consensus (since 1989):  Washington consensus (since 1989) It is a package of 10 reform proposals believed to be developed for promoting economic growth in Latin America It was first presented by John Williamson in 1989, and expected to be adopted in 1989 The reform package was also summarized by the World Bank in its year 2000 Poverty Report The package is based mainly on 3 ideologies Macroeconomic discipline A market economy Openness to the world (e.g., in respect of trade and FDI) Washington consensus (since 1989):  Washington consensus (since 1989) The reform proposals are: Fiscal policy discipline Primarily to check large deficits Redirection of public spending Focus on pro-poor spending Spending on education, health and infrastructure Tax reform Broad tax base with moderate tax rates Washington consensus (since 1989):  Washington consensus (since 1989) The reform proposals are: 4. Interest rates Should be market determined Positive (but moderate) in real terms 5. Competitive exchange rates Trade liberalization Replacement of quantitative restrictions with low and uniform tariffs Openness to foreign direct investment Technology, prices, growth Washington consensus (since 1989):  Washington consensus (since 1989) The reform proposals are: Privatization of state enterprises State monopolies, efficiency Brings benefits when done properly Transfer of assets to privileged elite for a fraction of their true value needs to be avoided Deregulation Abolition of regulations that impede entry or exit Regulations designed for safety or environmental reasons to continue Washington consensus (since 1989):  Washington consensus (since 1989) The reform proposals are: Legal security for property rights This was primarily about providing the informal sector with the ability to gain property rights at acceptable cost Washington consensus (since 1989):  Washington consensus (since 1989) Towards adoption of the Consensus: In the early 1990s, many countries, especially in Latin America, attempted to implement an agenda similar to the Consensus Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominical Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Tunisia, Uruguay, Zambia Washington consensus (since 1989):  Washington consensus (since 1989) Towards adoption of the Consensus: North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) The three North American countries (US, Maxico and Canada) agreed to gradually phase out or sharply reduce tariffs on foreign goods A policy perfectly in line with the ideals of the Consensus US President George W. Bush continues to support NAFTA Washington consensus (since 1989):  Washington consensus (since 1989) Towards adoption of the Consensus: Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) US administration is currently negotiating an agreement similar to NAFTA with the Dominican Republic and Central America Countries currently opposed to the consensus include: Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Venezuela Washington consensus (since 1989):  Washington consensus (since 1989) Achievements/Failures Most Latin American countries continue to struggle with high poverty, unemployment/underemployment, and low growth Countries such as El Salvador and Uruguay have shown some positive signs of economic development Chile has been a success story However, according to Joseph Stiglitz, Chile success story owes a lot to the state ownership of key industries and currency interventions stabilizing capital flows Washington consensus (since 1989):  Washington consensus (since 1989) Critical evaluation It is not a strategy to avoid crisis Economic growth effected due to series of crisis that emerging markets have suffered Inappropriate associated policies (not required by the Consensus) Opening up the capital account prematurely Letting money flood in and overvalue the currency Washington consensus (since 1989):  Washington consensus (since 1989) Critical evaluation Incomplete set of reform strategies Failure to undertake labour market reforms and strengthening of institutions Excessively narrow objective Acclerating growth without worsening income distribution Birdsall and Torre (2001) gives a set of 10 reform proposals intended to improve income distribution without reducing growth This package can be viewed as a complement to the Consensus Washington consensus (since 1989):  Washington consensus (since 1989) Critical evaluation Western countries that urge liberalization on developing countries maintain trade restrictions on the goods that developing countries are in a position to export to them The hypocrisy of Western countries Some leftist critics of trade liberalization, such as Noam Chomsky and Naomi Klein, see it as a way of throwing open the labor market of an underdeveloped economy to exploitation by a more developed economy Washington consensus (since 1989):  Washington consensus (since 1989) Critical evaluation The Consensus is widely held by many economists to be a 'suicidal policy' if implemented when an economy is weak. It might succeed if implemented during a period of rapid growth Concluding remarks:  Concluding remarks A reform package may not suit all countries, or at all times, or under all circumstances What works under rapid growth might fail under crisis Reforms ancillary to a reform package could be as important as the package itself These need to be identified and adopted A move towards free trade is unavoidable Time and speed need to be determined based on circumstances of individual countries Concluding remarks:  Concluding remarks India is member of WTO and contemplating Further reductions in tariff on imports Free trade zones such as SAARC Rapid growth in inflow as well as outflow of FDI Privatization of state enterprises Slide24:  Thank You Pawan K. Aggarwal

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