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Jesus Through the Centuries

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Information about Jesus Through the Centuries
Spiritual-Inspirational

Published on July 9, 2007

Author: AscotEdu

Source: authorstream.com

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Jesus Through the Centuries:  Jesus Through the Centuries Jesus Through the CenturiesJ. Pelikan and H. Kung:  Jesus Through the Centuries J. Pelikan and H. Kung The Good, the True, and the Beautiful A Series of Images that portray the various epochs and paradigms of Christ in Christian history. These images are based on the Christological assumption that Jesus Christ is the particular answer to the questions of each era. The Rabbi:  The Rabbi Jesus as teacher and prophet in the setting of first-century Judaism. The Jewishness of in relation to the tradition of Israel. Earliest Palestinian Christianity:  Earliest Palestinian Christianity Two Foci-Christology The Earthly Ministry Inactive Waiting The Life of the Church Parousia Resurrection Ascension Emphasis on: 'the historical word and work of Jesus, and his parousia' (as Son of Man). (p.243) Eg. Acts 3:12-26; I Cor. 15:3,4; Mt. 11:19; Mk. 2:28, Mk. 8:29, Mk. 9:31; Mk. 14:62; Hellenistic-Jewish Christianity:  Hellenistic-Jewish Christianity Two Stage Christology Reign as Christos andamp; Kyros Parousia The Life of the Church The Earthly Ministry Sending Emphasis: This is an 'Exaltation Christology' that stresses the Present reign of Christ and the Holy Spirit in the life of the church in the face of the delay of the Parousia. Eg. Acts 2:36; Rom. 1:4 (Lord) The Turning Point of History:  The Turning Point of History The significance of Christ for human history. Apocalypse, prophecy, and ethics in the first and second centuries. The implications of the life of Jesus for biography and historiography. Gentile Mission Christology:  Gentile Mission Christology Three Stage Christology Creation-Pre-existence Incarnation Incarnate Life Resurrection-Ascension Reign as the Exalted One Life of the Church Parousia Emphasis: Stress is on Redeemer’s: Pre-existence Incarnation—through which he effected redemption His resurrection and ascension Eg. Phil. 2:6-11; Jhn 1; I Tim. 3:16 The Light of the Gentiles:  The Light of the Gentiles Pagan 'anticipations' of Christ, especially Socrates and Vergil. The message of Christian missionaries and apologists to the Greco-Roman world of the second and third centuries. UNITY OF CHRIST3rd through 5th Centuries:  UNITY OF CHRIST 3rd through 5th Centuries Introduction: In the history of the Christological debates in the Early Church, through the orthodox formulation at Chalcedon, 451, the burning question was the relationship of humanity and deity in Christ. Sometimes one was emphasized to the exclusion or distortion of the other; sometimes humanity and deity were described as blending into one another so that Jesus Christ was a third kind of being, neither quite human or divine. At other times the two natures were so separated in theological formulas that Jesus Christ was viewed as two separate beings in some apparent connection. Or, the adoptionist alternative loomed: Jesus was a man who was elevated to Divine Sonship, at his baptism, or at his resurrection or ascension. Or, the divine nature overpowered and absorbed his human nature. Or, his body was human; but his spirit (or mind) was the Divine Logos. All of these rational efforts to comprehend Christ faltered because there was absolutely no adequate analogy or model for a Person who was confessed as unique--without analogy or parallel in the whole of reality. The purpose of the following outline is to trace the theological journey of the Patristic Church through to the Council of Chalcedon: Arianism::  Arianism: Arius (256-336), pupil of Lucian of Antioch and presbyter of Baucalis, in Asia Minor, taught that Christ is a Tertium quid, a third level of being, lower than God but greater than man. The Son has a beginning: 'There was, when He was not' Christ had a human body, but a divine soul (Logos). Condemned at Nicea, 325. Apollinarianism::  Apollinarianism: Apollinaris (331?-392?), bishop of Laodicea, at first followed Arius’ Logos idea; but this was condemned again at a Synod in Alexandria, 362. Then Apollinaris tried to refine it further by moving from bi-partite to tri-­partite definitions of human personality: Humanity includes body (soma), soul ( psyche) and spirit (pneuma). Sometimes, for the third (and highest) level of human being, Apollinanis would substitute the word mind (nous). The Divine Logos replaced this human pneuma or nous in Jesus, leaving him .two-thirds human, and one-third divine. In a final refinement, hoping to escape the fate of Arius, Apollinaris described the human nature as passive, while the divine nature was active. This involved effort was finally and decisively condemned at the Council of Constantinople in 381. Nestorianism::  Nestorianism: Nestorius, presbyter and monk in Antioch, a pupil of Diodorus of the Antiochene School, was made patriarch of Constantinople in 428. He emphasized the humanity of Jesus, over against the gnostic-docetic tendencies in Alexandria, insisting that the 'incarnation' was the indwelling of the Logos in a perfect man, as of God in a temple. Since the Logos is eternal (and like can only bear like), Mary could be the mother of the humanity of Jesus, but not of the Logos: mother of Jesus but not 'mother of God.' This left Jesus in two natures that were never really unified; a moral but not an essential union. This teaching was condemned at Chalcedon in 451. Eutychianism::  Eutychianism: Eutyches (378-454) was diametrically opposed to Nestorius, insisting that the divine and human natures became one theanthropic nature in the incarnation. Christ was of (from) two natures, but not in two natures (monophysite). He was also condemned at Chalcedon. Chalcedonian Christology::  Chalcedonian Christology: Leo’s Tome reigned supreme (en duo phusesin, asugchutos, atreptos, adiairetos, achoristos)--in two natures, without confusion, without change, without division, without separation. (See Henry Bettenson, Documents of the Christian Church, pp. 63ff.) The King of Kings:  The King of Kings The lordship of Caesar versus the Lordship of Christ in the Roman Empire of the second and third centuries. The triumph of Constantine as Caesar and as Christian. The rise of the Christian Empire in the fourth century. The Cosmic Christ:  The Cosmic Christ Christ the Logos as the mind, reason, and word of God and as the meaning of the universe in the Christianized Platonic philosophy of the third and fourth centuries. The Son of Man:  The Son of Man The Incarnate Son of God as the revelation both of the promise of human life and of the power of evil, according to the Christian psychology and anthropology worked out above all by Augustine in the fifth century. The True Image:  The True Image Christ as the inspiration for a new art and architecture in Byzantine culture. The artistic and metaphysical meaning of the icons in the eighth and ninth centuries. Christ Crucified:  Christ Crucified The cross in literature and art, the crucified Christ as 'the power of God and the wisdom of God' in the Middle Ages. Metaphors for the saving work of Christ in the language of the tenth and eleventh centuries. The Monk Who Rules the World:  The Monk Who Rules the World The Benedictine definition of 'Love for Christ' as denial of the world. Monastic conquest of the world and of the church. Monasticism and politics in the medieval Western society of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The Bridegroom of the Soul:  The Bridegroom of the Soul Christian and non-Christian sources of Christo-mysticism. Sacred and profane love in the allegorical interpretation of the Song of Songs. The Divine and Human Model:  The Divine and Human Model The rediscovery of the full humanity of Jesus through Francis of Assisi, 'the second Christ.' The Franciscan image of Jesus as the inspiration for demands in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries that society and the institutional church be radically transformed. The Universal Man:  The Universal Man The Renaissance of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, with its image of Jesus, as the rebirth of the Christian gospel. 'Sacred philology' and the philosophy of Christ in Erasmus and the other humanists. The Mirror of the Eternal:  The Mirror of the Eternal Reformation images of Christ. Christ as the mirror of the True in the new vernacular. As the Mirror of the Beautiful in Reformation art and the literature of the Catholic reformation in Spain, and as the Mirror of the Good in the Christian politics of Calvin and the Reformation tradition. The Prince of Peace:  The Prince of Peace The Reformation and the Wars of Religion. 'Just War' as justified by the teaching and example of Jesus. Crusade as 'holy war' sanctioned in the name of Jesus. The resurgence of pacifism in the spirit of Christ as Prince of Peace. The Teacher of Common Sense:  The Teacher of Common Sense The Quest of the historical Jesus in the scholarship and philosophy of the eighteenth century Enlightenment. The effort to go beyond (behind) the Christ of Dogma to the system of morals he represented. The Poet of the Spirit:  The Poet of the Spirit Idealism in the philosophy of the nineteenth century and Romanticism in its art and literature. The protest against both orthodox rigidity and rationalist banality, and their portrayal of the beauty and sublimity of Jesus as the 'bard of the Holy Ghost' (Emerson). The Liberator:  The Liberator Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries from Tolstoy to Mahatma Gandhi to Martin Luther King Jr. the use of Jesus’ prophetic opposition to the economic and social injustice of his time as the dynamic for revolutionary change in the ordering of human relations, political as well as private. The Man Who Belongs to the World:  The Man Who Belongs to the World The unprecedented circulation of the message of Jesus during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries into Asia and Africa. The relation between Jesus and other 'Teachers of the Way'. Jesus as a world figure also beyond the borders of Christendom. Slide30: 

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