Published on August 17, 2007
Jesus as Messiah: Jesus as Messiah Who is the Messiah?: Who is the Messiah? A descendent of David (The kings who would continue the Davidic dynasty) A Levitical priest (anointed one) The divine caretaker of Israel The conqueror of the enemies of Israel For Further Information: For Further Information This presentation is rather brief because the topic of Messiah is an extremely complex one. I am providing a minimal presentation here simply so emphasize certain aspects of the expectation of a Messiah so that they will be apparent when reading the book of Revelation. For more information see: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10212c.htm and http://www.livius.org/men-mh/messiah/messiah_15.html A Descendent of David: A Descendent of David Christ as Davidic Messiah: Christ as Davidic Messiah Through the prophets, the people of Israel had long awaited the Messiah who would come and free the people of Israel from what was a very long period of oppression from foreign powers. This Messiah would come from the Lineage of Abraham, Jacob, his son Judah (one of the tribes of Israel), Jesse (Father of David) and David (king of Israel): The Messiah as the Descendent of David: The Messiah as the Descendent of David Read Psa 89 and Psa 132 The Greek form Messias is a transliteration of the Hebrew, Messiah, 'the anointed'. The messiah is both a ruler and a descendent of David The Genealogy of Jesus: The Genealogy of Jesus Read Lk 3:31-33 (the genealogy of Jesus) Read Isa 11:1, 10 Jesse is the Father of David Is Jesus as descendent of David? Now Read Rev 22:16, Rev 5:1-5 What is John trying to say when he uses these titles for Jesus? The Messiah as Levitical Priest: The Messiah as Levitical Priest Christ – The Great High Priest: Christ – The Great High Priest Read Lev 4:1-7 Read Heb 5:1-10 How is Christ seen as priest? Christ is in fact the offering 'the lamb of God' and the high priest making the offering The Divine Caretaker of Israel: The Divine Caretaker of Israel The Messiah as One Who is Divinely Appointed to Care for Israel: The Messiah as One Who is Divinely Appointed to Care for Israel Read 2 Sam 7:8-16, Jer 33:14-18, Eze 37:23-28 Is there anything in these verses that reminds you of passages we have looked at from Revelation or topics we have discussed? Which passages and topics are those? The Messiah as Conqueror: The Messiah as Conqueror He who conquers: He who conquers Some of the prophets of the Old Testament would lead one to believe that the Messiah is a figure who is going to concur the oppressors of Israel. Read Psa 2:7-9 then Read Rev 2:11 All of the letters to the Churches have these words or similar words: 'he who concurs' when they refer to Jesus at the end of the letter The Martyr as Conqueror: The Martyr as Conqueror John is contrasting the militaristic Messiah (recall the Zealots and also the Pharisees who looked toward a political Messiah to concur the Romans) and the conqueror of Revelation who concurs by persevering under persecution. Victory Now and to Come: Victory Now and to Come The messianic war is not necessarily in the future. The decisive victory has in fact already been won by Christ. His followers are called to continue the battle in the present. The final victory still lies in the future. Richard Baukham, pg. 78. Spiritual Conquest: Spiritual Conquest Jesus does not win his victory by military conquest, and those who share in his rule are not national Israel but the international people of God. Richard Baukham, pg. 68. Revelation and History: Revelation and History The ideas that are found in Revelation are more theological than prophetic. Yes, they do contain an element of things past (ex. regarding Babylon), things happening at the time the book was written (i.e. Rome) and the future (i.e. the parousia – the coming of Christ again) but time here is not linear. The Problem with Time: The Problem with Time Heaven is eternal and therefore not really 'in time'. We also find an earthly kingdom (i..e. a new heaven and a new earth) so the realization of the kingdom is difficult to place in terms that we can really understand. When Revelation is realized, the truth will be made clear. Theological ThemesThe Focus of Revelation: Theological Themes The Focus of Revelation What is important to focus on in the Book of Revelation are the theological themes such as the nature of good and evil, salvation and redemption and how we are to play a part in this drama that has, is and will be talking place and in which God will fulfill his plan of salvation. The Messianic Holy War: The Messianic Holy War Expected What Was?: Expected What Was? Many of the verse in the OT show the messiah as concurring king to rule the nation of Israel. However, Revelation modifies this image although it does us OT imagery. What develops from the OT imagery is the idea of a Messianic war, led by the Messiah, to free Israel from oppression. This idea is prevalent both in history and in the nation of Israel today. But the Battle Rages On: But the Battle Rages On The history of Jewish resistance to foreign domination began before the time of Jesus in the person of Judas Maccabeus. Judas Maccabeus and his descendents managed to achieve independence for the Jewish people but only for a short time. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08541a.htm Zealots and Thieves: Zealots and Thieves The Romans would gain control over Palestine but the resistance would continue in the In the time of Christ. Examples of these are: Judas Iscariot Simon the Zealot Barrabus Judas Iscariot as Daggerman: Judas Iscariot as Daggerman The Resistance After Jesus: The Resistance After Jesus After the death of Jesus, the 'Jewish wars', those spoken of by the historian Josephus resulted in he destruction of the temple and the mass suicide at Massada (as per testimony of Jewish historical Josephus). After the Temple Fell: After the Temple Fell and latter figures such as Simon Bar Kochba. The current nation of Israel was created by a group known as Zionists who lay claim to Jerusalem and the Holy Land as a God given rite. Messianism and Revelation: Messianism and Revelation Messianism for John does not involve an earthly conquest but is one by God’s heavenly army of Martyrs. Despite this teaching in Revelation, dispensationalists and even some Catholics (influenced by dispensationalism) look towards the current history of Israel as evidence for the fulfillment of Revelation. This approach fails to understand the John’s theology.