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Published on October 1, 2007

Author: BeatRoot

Source: authorstream.com

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Critical Infrastructure: That Tangled Web We’ve Woven Public Forum: Catastrophic Nuclear Incident, HSDEC-GEPAR:  Critical Infrastructure: That Tangled Web We’ve Woven Public Forum: Catastrophic Nuclear Incident, HSDEC-GEPAR Murray E. Jennex, Ph.D., P.E., CISSP San Diego State University Editor in Chief, International Journal of Knowledge Management Personal Highlights:  Personal Highlights Ph.D. in IS from the Claremont Graduate University MBA, MS in Software Engineering, MS in Telecommunications Management, BA in Chemistry and Physics Professional Engineer in Mechanical Engineering, State of CA Certified Information Systems Security Professional 20 years experience in commercial nuclear power Former Navy Nuclear Power Officer Editor in Chief, International Journal of Knowledge Management Project Manager, Southern California Edison, Y2K Embedded Systems and Contingency Planning Projects Coordinated Southern California working group of critical infrastructure providers for Y2K Led teams that performed Y2K risk assessment of critical infrastructure for the countries of Ukraine, Armenia, and Georgia Worked with Eastern European utilities and the IAEA in final contingency planning Strong Angel III participant Member ISCRAM, International Society for Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Active researcher in crisis response Introduction:  Introduction The purpose of this talk is to give you an overview of: What Critical Infrastructure is The complexity of the relationships between critical infrastructure components Threats to and fragility of critical infrastructure How various nuclear events can affect critical infrastructure What this means for emergency planning What is Critical Infrastructure?:  What is Critical Infrastructure? The American Heritage Dictionary defines critical infrastructure as: The basic facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society, such as transportation and communications systems, water and power lines, and public institutions including schools, post offices, and prisons. What is Critical Infrastructure?:  What is Critical Infrastructure? The Patriot Act defines “critical” infrastructure as: systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters (Sec. 1016(e)). What is Critical Infrastructure?:  What is Critical Infrastructure? The National Strategy for Homeland Security defines America’s critical infrastructure as: Our agriculture, food, and water sectors, along with the public health and emergency services sectors, provide the essential goods and services Americans need to survive. Our institutions of government guarantee our national security and freedom, and administer key public functions. Our defense industrial base provides essential capabilities to help safeguard our population from external threats. Our information and telecommunications sector enables economic productivity and growth, and is particularly important because it connects and helps control many other infrastructure sectors. Our energy, transportation, banking and finance, chemical industry, and postal and shipping sectors help sustain our economy and touch the lives of Americans everyday What is Critical Infrastructure?:  What is Critical Infrastructure? DHS lists 17 critical infrastructure/key resources: Agriculture and food Banking and finance Chemical Commercial facilities Commercial nuclear reactors, including materials and waste; Dams Defense industrial base Drinking water and water treatment systems Emergency services Energy Government facilities Information technology National monuments and icons Postal and shipping Public health and healthcare Telecommunications Transportation systems including mass transit, aviation, maritime, ground or surface, rail and pipeline systems What is Critical Infrastructure?:  What is Critical Infrastructure? The previous definitions apply to what we need to protect However, in a catastrophic event, critical infrastructure for emergency response is much less: Communications Energy Transportation This big three is what is essential for emergency planning and is what we will discuss Why These:  Why These Communications provides the means for coordinating response, i.e. command and control Energy provides the motive force to operate virtually everything Transportation moves resources and people While other assets are important, without these three you will get nothing done Evidence to Support :  Evidence to Support 9/11, lost cell communication because the towers hosted the local cell towers plus other communication equipment. Also lost subway connections and street connections hindering response and movement The Tsunami lost all three, responders had to set up a base critical infrastructure before they could even begin to respond and help survivors (Strong Angel III practiced this also, not easy) Evidence to Support :  Evidence to Support Katrina lost transportation and power first due to flooding, then communications as cell tower back up batteries died about 9 hours after power was lost. This was most evident in the Superdome and in the hospitals (as they ran out of fuel for their generators or were overcome with flood waters) Tangled Web of Relationships :  Tangled Web of Relationships Following a catastrophic event we can expect issues with critical infrastructure due to the tangled web of relationships Communications depend on power, backup can last as short as a few hours, transportation is needed to replace batteries or refuel generators and to fix any problems Energy transmission relies on GPS coordination for the Energy Management Systems (Y2K about a third of EMS in the US failed but we were ready and had no issues) Tangled Web of Relationships :  Tangled Web of Relationships Following a catastrophic event we can expect issues with critical infrastructure due to the tangled web of relationships Energy generation relies on transportation to deliver fuel and employees to run the plants Remote operated plants (hyrdo units) rely on communications for control Energy generation dispatch relies on communication Repair dispatch relies on communication and transportation Tangled Web of Relationships :  Tangled Web of Relationships Following a catastrophic event we can expect issues with critical infrastructure due to the tangled web of relationships Transportation relies on energy and communication for signal controls (traffic lights for streets and rail) Air traffic control relies on energy and communications (recent power outage issues) Gas stations need power to pump and communications for control ALL RELY ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY And on and on, bottom line is all three are related and need each other to function Threats to Critical Infrastructure :  Threats to Critical Infrastructure Nuclear catastrophic events have obvious threats Blast force knocking down key bridges, communication towers, transmission lines, etc. These have to be overcome following the event by response personnel But actually easier to respond to than Katrina or the Tsunami as surrounding infrastructure is still intact and can build in But there are other more subtle threats Threats to Critical Infrastructure :  Threats to Critical Infrastructure Perhaps not so obvious threats: Contamination from dirty bombs can greatly constrain transportation so that contamination isn’t spread Contamination also limits access to towers and battery compartments and other key areas Electro Magnetic Pulse, EMP, fries unshielded computer chips and disables information technology, this could be the worst impact Threats to Critical Infrastructure :  Threats to Critical Infrastructure Reliance on IT is prevalent: Virtually all communications are digital Most components rely on digital control systems Examples of affected equipment include all vehicles, generation plants, transmission systems, building control systems (HVAC, fire, elevators), etc. EMP, frying unshielded computer chips is permanent. EMP also disrupts wireless wavelength bands Threats to San Diego :  Threats to San Diego San Diego as many interesting threats Power is an issue, not enough generation in town (and if a catastrophe it may be damaged or destroyed) Power transmission into San Diego is via two interconnections A 500 kv line from SDG&E Miguel Substation 230 kv lines from San Onofre (also a supplier of power) No one power source can supply San Diego at normal load although this may be adequate following a catastrophe Threats to San Diego :  Threats to San Diego San Diego as many interesting threats Transportation is an issue, only three major highways into San Diego Events at peak congestion times can jam freeways and make them impassable, in particular from an EMP Made worse by San Diego’s population density variations between day and night Not helped by limited rail connections Threats to San Diego:  Threats to San Diego If there is a redeeming point it is that San Diego has an abundance of communication networks and providers EMP can severely damage this Diverse networks can be difficult to interconnect (Strong Angel III showed this) Impacts on Emergency Planning:  Impacts on Emergency Planning Planning needs to consider that critical infrastructure may not be there Assume that existing communication and power infrastructure will not work, will need to bring in your own equipment Wireless won’t work well for several hours and then may die after about 9 hours Transportation will be severely impacted Contamination will limit access Movement of personnel will be very difficult Expect unexpected impacts Conclusions:  Conclusions Critical Infrastructure is heavily dependent upon each other, Power is necessary for communications, communications is necessary for power, transportation relies on power and communication, transportation supports power and communications Plans should not expect communications, power, or transportation to be fully functional Prepare contingency plans with multiple backups Thank you – Questions?:  Thank you – Questions?

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