jayveeendowmentprese ntation

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Published on January 9, 2008

Author: Dorotea

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What is happening to polymer additives:  What is happening to polymer additives Jitu Vadodaria Jayvee Organics Endowment Lecture March 24, 2005 Ahmedabad Contents:  Contents Why additives - significance Additives - types Global scenario Indian scenario Key issues Trends Case studies PVC compounding - some aspects PVC/HDPE pipes:  PVC/HDPE pipes 50 years of service life PVC pipes - underground HDPE pipes - outside Heat stabilizer key for service life of PVC pipes Carbon black/UV stabilizer for service life of HDPE pipes PVC windows:  PVC windows At least 15 years service life for economy No colour fading No breakage This is only possible due: * Acrylic/CPE impact modifier * Rutile titanium dioxide pigment PVC power cable:  PVC power cable High temperature resistance due high tension power (85-105 C) Higher insulation Can only be achieved by: *Higher mol.wt. Phthalate plasticizer (DIDP) or trimellitate plasticizer * Calcined clay for insulation PE insulation cable:  PE insulation cable PE in contact with copper breaks down This can be prevented by use of * Metal deactivator in addition to primary antioxidant system PE halogen free flame retardant building wire:  PE halogen free flame retardant building wire High oxygen index Low smoke density Only possible by use of * N-P based FR additive * Melamine compounds Additives=Performance+ property-preservation/retention :  Additives=Performance+ property-preservation/retention All these examples clearly show: * Performance * Property retention/preservation/protection in severe service environment/condition Polymer additives essential to provide Performance Property protection Property preservation LLDPE thin film:  LLDPE thin film Shark skin surface - rough surface Melt fracture Surface can be made smooth by use of * Polymer processing aid - Fluro elastomer polymer BOPP film for high speed packaging:  BOPP film for high speed packaging High stiffness Easy machinability Faster packaging speed High stiffness - Aromatic resin Easy machinability - Slip additive Faster packaging speed - Terpolymer Plastic –wood composites:  Plastic –wood composites Wood flour dispersion Higher moisture of wood flour Low flow Dispersion - Coupling agent Moisture control - Desiccant Flow - Processing aid/lubricant PVC building thin wire:  PVC building thin wire Economical production of highly filled flame retardant formulation Faster extrusion speed for economy This is achieved by * Use of processing aid * Use of PE wax or montan acid ester Polymer additive=Processability:  Polymer additive=Processability Processing aid * Acrylics/ Fluro elastomer * Slip additive - Erucamide/ Oleamide All these additives contribute to Processability of polymer Polymer additive can spoil quality if care not taken properly :  Polymer additive can spoil quality if care not taken properly Quality of additive quite difficult to convert into plastic properties Chemical quality alone can not justify its use in polymer Numerous suppliers Slow process of approval Select standard additive product from leading suppliers and not go for cost saving Loss will be significantly high Slide15:  POLYMER ADDITIVES PERFORMANCE PROPERTY RETENTION PRESERVATION PROCESSABILITY Functions of polymer additive Additives classification Property modifier:  Additives classification Property modifier Plasticizer Impact modifier Blowing agent Coupling agent Nucleating agent Organic peroxide Reinforcing agent Additive classification Property extender:  Additive classification Property extender Flame retardant Heat stabilizer Antioxidant Light stabilizer Antistatic agent Additive –classification Processing aid :  Additive –classification Processing aid Lubricant Mould release agent Anti block additive Slip additive Polymer additive demand estimates 2004:  Polymer additive demand estimates 2004 Polymer demand 170 MMT Additive demand 9 MMT Additive percent 5 % Additive cost 10 % Additive costs only 10% of the polymer but plays a much bigger role Global polymer additive distribution by type (%):  Global polymer additive distribution by type (%) Plasticizer 59 Flame retardant 12 Impact modifier 8 Heat Stabilizer 6 Lubricant 6 Antioxidant 3 Peroxide 2 Light stabilizer 1 Others 3 Total 100 Additive usage distribution by polymer:  Additive usage distribution by polymer Polymer % PVC 65-70 Polyolefin 10 Styrenics 5 Other 15-20 Additive usage by region:  Additive usage by region North America 2.5 Europe 2.5 Asia 3 S. America 0.5 Middle East 0.5 Russia etc 0.5 Total 9 All in MMT Additive demand estimates India 2004 (KT):  Additive demand estimates India 2004 (KT) Plasticizer 185 Heat stabilizer 25 Lubricant 18 Antioxidant 5 Flame retardant 4 Impact mod/P. aid 5 Others 8 Total 248 Polymer additive Key issues:  Polymer additive Key issues Global market Vs local suppliers Market growing more in Asia but suppliers continue in Europe/USA Large no. of small suppliers in Asia Lower growth - survival of fittest leading to M&A Environmental pressures & new legislation Polymer additive Key issues:  Polymer additive Key issues Plasticizer toxicity Elimination of heavy metal components Non halogenated flame retardants Lowering of dosage level for safety Recent trends:  Recent trends Global majors developing niche products Patents expiry leading to newer players M& A activities on an increase for survival Global majors setting up plants in fast growing Asia Higher awareness on environmental issues demanding more HSE research Recent trends:  Recent trends PVC pipes moving from lead stabilizer to tin/ca - zn/organic Slow but sure phasing of lead from PVC cable sector Phasing out of halogenated flame retardants Shift from PVC to non vinyls for flame retardance New additive products/markets:  New additive products/markets Oxygen scavenger for packaging Wood composites Newer flame retardants Biodegradable additive Conductive additive Nano filler Newer additive for plasticulture Glass bead -an economic alternative of glass fiber:  Glass bead -an economic alternative of glass fiber PP Moulded product of 0.5 KG weight Production requirement - 1000 unit Production cost Rs 500/hour Raw material cost PP Rs. 60/KG Glass Fiber Rs. 70/KG Glass bead Rs. 60/KG Glass bead in PP- A case study:  Glass bead in PP- A case study Cycle time/Defect rate PP 60 second 5.2% PP+30% Glass fiber 65 second 5.2% PP+20% GF+10% GB 54 second 3.6% PP+20% Glass bead 46 second 1.2% PP moulded product A case study:  PP moulded product A case study Material Total units KG PP 1052 526 PP+30% GF 1052 526 PP+20%+10% 1036 518 PP+20% GB 1012 506 Cost benefit analysis PP glass bead Vs glass fiber moulded product:  Cost benefit analysis PP glass bead Vs glass fiber moulded product Material Process hour Total cost(Rs) PP 17.52 40327 PP+30% 18.99 42635 PP+20+10 15.54 39886 PP+20% 12.93 36826 Saving 4.59 3501 Saving 6.06 5809 Saving 2.61 3060 PVC compounding Some aspects:  PVC compounding Some aspects All PVC products contain 30-95 % of PVC polymer PVC very dependent on additive/compounding More than 50% of PVC is mixed only up to dry blend powder form (rigid) Plasticized compounds in pellet form Key aspects of PVC compounding:  Key aspects of PVC compounding Cooling of dry blend essential for efficient use of heat stabilizer Higher bulk density can only be developed by dry blending temp reaches 120C Moisture removal essential for better clarity or surface finish Critical compounding features - PVC:  Critical compounding features - PVC Cooler mixer essential for dry blend Internal mixer or continuous extruder often used Sequential addition of additive provides advantages Die face cutting system more suited to prevent moisture pick up Close system more preferred due environmental pollution Compounding of PVC is black art:  Compounding of PVC is black art PVC melt tends to stick to metal more than all other polymers Lubricant selection to be done on External Internal Internal-external Also multi lubricants with varying melting temp should be selected PVC is driven by additive systems & compounding:  PVC is driven by additive systems & compounding Same PVC products can be produced with different approaches of additives Experience a key requirement for successful PVC compounding/products at optimum cost and quality Additive indeed a great leveler in PVC products Learn additive in order to become expert in PVC compounding

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