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Published on March 23, 2013

Author: iamjaya

Source: authorstream.com

CREAMS: CREAMS Presented By :- Jaya Singh Roll No:-11 Pharmacy Final year St pauls college of pharmacy Hyderabad . Under Guidance of : Mr. Kalyan sir INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION Definition of cosmetic : FD &C act defines cosmetics by their intended use, as articles intended to be rubbed. Poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced in to, or otherwise applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting, attractiveness, or altering the appearance. HERBAL COSMECEUTICALS: Cosmetics containing an active ingredient obtained from plant origin. Objectives: To enhance the general appearance of face and other body parts to minimize the skin defects to a considerable extent Psychological, social and clinical application. PowerPoint Presentation: The main function of this covering is to protect body, eliminate waste material & regulate body temperature. Creams semi-solid emulsions that is mixtures of oil and water Uses of creams Ideal characteristic Protect the skin Non toxic Retention of moisture Easily spreads Cleansing Remains stable Emollient effects Not too hygroscopic As barrier with sunscreens Easy to remove Skin cosmetics Creams : Creams DEFINES : “Creams are formulated to provide preparation that are essentially miscible with skin secretion. they are intended to be applied to the skin or certain mucous membranes for protective ,therapeutic, or prophylactic purposes especially when occlusive effect is not necessary.” PowerPoint Presentation: In USPXVIII ,creams are defined as “ semisolid emulsions of either oil in water or water in oil type.” “ semisolid emulsions usually medicated ,intended for external application.” PowerPoint Presentation: According to emulsion phase W/O creams eg: Cold cream, Emollient cream O/W creams E.g.: Shaving cream, foundation cream, Vanishing cream 2. According to functional aspect Cold & cleansing creams Night & Nourishing creams Vanishing & Foundation creams All –purpose cream Others : Anti-acne, anti-wrinkle cream Classification of creams Types: Types Oily creams oil-in-water (O/W) creams which are composed of small droplets of oil dispersed in a continuous phase more comfortable and cosmetically acceptable as they are less greasy and more easily washed off using water. emulsifying agents of natural origins( bees wax, wool alcohols, wool fat) Emollient and creamy, white or translucent and stiff. eg: Fluocinolone Acetonide Cream 7 PowerPoint Presentation: Aqueous cream water-in-oil (W/O) creams which are composed of small droplets of water dispersed in a continuous oily phase. more difficult to handle but many drugs which are incorporated into creams are hydrophobic and will be released more readily from a W/O cream than an O/W cream more moisturising as they provide an oily barrier which reduces water loss from the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin. accommodate and release better lipophilic API eg: Moisturizing & Cold cream 8 CLEANSING CREAM AND LOTION : CLEANSING CREAM AND LOTION Function of cleansing cream/lotion are, removal of facial make-up, surface grime, oil, dead cells and crusts. Water is good and cheap cleansing agent but it is ineffective on its own against oil. Soaps can emulsify oils and therefore, soap and water can effectively remove oil. But disadvantages of this combination are there : DISADVANTAGES OF WATER AND SOAP : DISADVANTAGES OF WATER AND SOAP It may remove too much oil from skin surface leaving it rough and dry Residual alkalinity of soap may cause outer most cells to lift and separate from neighbouring cells. These disadvantages can be overcome by properly formulated cleansing cream or lotion . PROPERTIES OF CLEANSING CREAM : PROPERTIES OF CLEANSING CREAM it should be stable and should have a good appearance. It should soften on application to the skin. It should spread easily without dragging. During application it should not have oily or greasy feel. A thin emmollient film should remain on the skin after its use. FORMULA FOR CLEANSING CREAM OR LOTION: FORMULA FOR CLEANSING CREAM OR LOTION Beeswax 8.0% Mineral oil 50.0% Microcrystalline wax 5.0% Borax 0.4% Paraffin 0.4% Ozokerite 0.4% Watermake up to 100.0% Perfume q.s. Preservatives q.s. NIGHT AND MASSAGE CREAMS: NIGHT AND MASSAGE CREAMS There are certain creams which are applied at night and are removed in morning. There are other creams which are gently rubbed on the skin with massage like action. These creams known “NIGHT CREAMS” and “MASSAGE CREAM” respectively. These creams should therefore be formulated with substanial fatty phase having easy spread. These creams provide occlusive layer on the skin which slows the rate transepidermal water loss. So these creams are know as emollient creams or moisturing cream FORMULA FOR NIGHT CREAM: FORMULA FOR NIGHT CREAM Beeswax 9.50 % Spermaceti 4.50 % Mineral oil 35.50 % Almond oil 15.00 % Borax 0.50% Water 100.00 % Anti oxidant q.s . Perfume q.s. preservative q.s . VANISHING AND FOUNDATION CREAM: VANISHING AND FOUNDATION CREAM Creams which spread easily and seem to disappear rapidly when rubbed on on the skin are termed as vanishing cream. These creams are composed of emmollient esters which leave little apparent film on the skin. Low percentage of oil phase is also chosen for the above mentioned reason. Traditional formula of vanishing creams are based on stearic acid. Stearic acid melts above body temperature and crystallizes in form so as to be invisible providing a non greasy film. PowerPoint Presentation: With stearic acid white creams are produced and sometimes because of this whiteness these creams are called “SNOW ”. FORMULA OF VANISHING CREAM: FORMULA OF VANISHING CREAM Stearic acid 20.0% Isopropyl myristate 2.0% Triethanolamine 1.2% Glycerine 5.0% Water make up to 100.0% Perfume q.s. Preservatives q.s . HANDS CREAM AND LOTIONS: HANDS CREAM AND LOTIONS Hands mat be exposed to water, water-soap, water-detergent contact several times in a day. This results in removal of lipids and other secretion from the skin. Cold and dry winds take out moisture from the skin resulting in chapping of the skin. From this it can be made out that moisture is important for maintanance of normal skin. Development of formulations of hand cream will therefore require inclusion of emmollients,vanishing cream base,a combination of waxes, oils and humectants FORMULA FOR HAND CREAM: FORMULA FOR HAND CREAM Cetyl alcohol 2.0% Lanolin 1.0% Mineral oil 2.0% Stearic acid 15.0% Glycerine 10.0% Potassium hydroxide 1.0% Water 100.0% Perfume q.s. Preservative q.s. Color q.s. ALL PURPOSE CEAMS: ALL PURPOSE CEAMS The term “all purpose” is very popular but it is misnomer. No creams can have the properties which should be possessed by a foundation cream, cleansing cream, hand cream and protective cream. These cream is know as sports cream. These are some what oily,but non greasy in u Experiment an be started with the following formulations. FORMULATION: FORMULATION Wool alcohols Microcrystalline wax Mineral oil Petroleum oil Glyserine Megnesium sulphate Cholesterol Paraffin wax Sorbitan sesquioleate Butylated hydroxyanisole Water Perfume PowerPoint Presentation: Invented by Galen : Galen's cold cream was based on beeswax and water, also containing olive oil and rose petals for softness and scent. It is an emulsion of water and certain fats (W/O) Normally following base are used: Almond oil, white bees wax Borax (used as emulsifier),Rose water Method of preparation: Dissolve borax in hot rose water. Melt various waxes together keeping the temp. about 70  C. Mix both the oil & water phase at same temp. with constant stirring. Mix without heat for 1 hrs &when cool (45-50  C), add perfume For example: Nyle cold cream (Red apple extract) Cold Cream PowerPoint Presentation: A great moisturizer for dry skin that helps heal, repair, and maintain soft, supple skin. Increasing skin hydration (by reducing evaporation) E.g.: Aloe moisturizing cream Method of formulation: Heat coconut oil & beeswax until wax melt. Stir & cool slowly add the aloe vera gel a drop at a time. Continue stirring & when the mixture thickens, add the vitamin oil & chamomile extract. Ingredients Aloe vera gel Chamomile extract Vitamin E Coconut oil Beeswax Moisturizer Cream PowerPoint Presentation: It acts as a superficial disease that affects the hair follicles and oil secreting glands of the skin. Example : Himalaya acne –n pimple cream Composition actions Lens culinaris (Lentil) Reduce inflammation Silk cotton tree Astringent Saurashtri(Alum) Emollient Vitex negundo Anti-inflammatory Anti-acne cream PowerPoint Presentation: Sunscreen cream are those topical preparations which protect the skin by harmful sunlight either by scatter sunlight or to absorb erythemogenic radiations. Examples of Sunscreen cream: Aloe vera Fat-soluble walnut extract Bees wax Hydrogenated ricinus oil Sunburn Creams PowerPoint Presentation: It delays wrinkles and smoothes fine lines. Regular use prevents oxidative skin damage. Composition Action Aloe vera antibacterial & antifungal Papaver rhoeas emollient Vitis vinifera nourish the skin Solanum lycopersicum antioxidant Santalum album alleviate itching and inflammation. Anti-Wrinkle Cream PowerPoint Presentation: It inhibits the formation of melanin. It reduces pigmentation. E.g. 1.Himalaya Fairness Cream 2.Fair & lovely fairness cream Composition Action Rosa centifolia improves complexion Citrus reticulata removes blemishes Aloe vera moisturizes and softens skin. Rubia cordifolia reduces freckles Santalum album reduces irritation Sympiocos racemosa lightens color Fairness Cream PowerPoint Presentation: 1) The skin of the infant and the adults differs both histologically and physiologically in many respects. It is less hairy, thinner and less cornified in infants. There is tendency towards peeling and flaking of skin during first 3 weeks after birth. Being comparatively thin, skin of infant is expected to be more permeable to topical agents applied Shelmire demonstrated that a semipermeable film is formed after water is evaporated from o/w emulsion,especially when hydrophilic additives are present. Traditionally baby creams and lotions can be prepared by using triethanolamine state, an anionic emulsifier . CREAMS FOR BABY PowerPoint Presentation: FORMULA Mineral oil Lanolin Stearic acid Triethanolamine Stearyl alcohol Cetyl alcohol Sodium alginate Water preservatives Creams: Creams METHOD OF PREPARATION : TRITURATION: Used for finely divided insoluble powder particles or liquids insoluble powder are added by geometric dilution Liquids are added by making well in centre. Air pocket formation avoided. Involved the use of glass slab when small quantities are used Mortar and pestle used when we have large quantities. Creams: Creams LEVIGATION: Incorporation of insoluble coarse particles. Also known as “ Wet grinding ”. insoluble coarse powder is rubbed with molten base or liquid or a semi solid base. A considerable shearing force is applied to avoid grittiness. Creams: Creams Hygiene: ( aseptic condition) All equipment & spatula to be cleaned by IMS. (70% ethanol should be used) Determine the miscibility of the substances being incorporated. Melt the fatty base .substances with the highest melting point to be melt first. These bases then cooled to 60°C. Temperature of the aqueous phase to be adjusted to 60°C. The disperse phase to be incorporated to the continuous phase at the same temperature. Avoid air pockets & hasty cooling. Creams: Creams Incorporation Of solid Ingredients Into Cream Base: Solid particles can be incorporated after the bases cools Soluble solids: added to the molten cream at the lowest possible temperature& the mixture stirred until cold. Insoluble solids: incorporated by using tile & spatula or mortar and pestle using doubling technique . Creams: Creams Coarse powder: minimum quantity of cream should be placed in the centre of the tile & used to levigate the powders. Fine powders : may be triturated to into other wise finished creams on ointment tile. (geometric dilutions . Creams: Creams Incorporation Of Liquids: Non volatile ,miscible liquids: may be mixed with molten cream in evaporating basin. if a pre-prepared base is used then follow procedure for volatile or immiscible liquids. Volatile or immiscible liquids: E.gs coal tar should be triturated with creams on tile .a very small amount of creams should be placed on tile and a well made in centre. small quantities are folded gently to avoid splashing. Creams: Creams Diluted creams: If the diluents is stated in the manufacturer data sheet Freshly prepared No heating should be involved. Should be carried out in aseptic conditions. Should not be used more than 2 wks. Manufacturing process: Manufacturing process STEPS Preparation of the oil phase : Flake/powder ingredients, sometimes dry blended in advance, are dispersed into mineral oil or silicone oil. Heating may be required to melt some ingredients. Hydration of aqueous phase ingredients : Emulsifiers, thickeners and stabilizers are dispersed into water in a separate vessel. Heating may be required to accelerate hydration Forming the Emulsion : The two phases are blended under vigorous agitation to form the emulsion. Dispersion of the Active Ingredient: The active ingredient often makes up only a small proportion of the formulation; this must be efficiently dispersed to maximize yield and product effectiveness 37 Machinery required: Machinery required Steam jacketed kettle Kettle with stirrer Tube filling machine Numatic tube sealing machine 38 QUALITY CONTROL AND STANDARDS: QUALITY CONTROL AND STANDARDS The quality of these products are maintained as per the buyers specification. Important quality controlling parameters are as per the FDA norms and BIS specification. The requirements of a cream are as follows: It should liquefy at body temperature. Its viscosity should be low enough to permit easy spreading but high enough to retain in suspension particles of dirt and insoluble foreign matter. It should penetrate the epidermis (via natural openings) and contain enough light oils to permit flushing the pores. It should be an emulsion type with a small percentage of water. It should possess a mild bleaching action. It should leave the skin smooth, relaxed, refreshed, non greasy and clean. It should contain no chemical that would be quickly absorbed by the skin . 39 Test method Vertical Diffusion Cell Method: Test method Vertical Diffusion Cell Method Simple, reliable, and reproducible, measuring drug release from semisolid dosage forms. Consists of two primary chambers separated by a membrane Test product is applied to the membrane via the top chamber. Bottom chamber contains fluid from which samples are taken. Determines the amount of active that has permeated the membrane at each time point Constant temperature of 37°C 40 Case study: Case study BETAMETHASONE CREAM Manufacturing Directions : Heat the mixture of cetyl stearyl alcohol, cremophor A6, cremophor A25, liquid paraffin and paraben to approximately 80°C. Also heat water seperately at 80°C. Mix both solutions together with rigourous stirring. Heat propylene glycol and Betamethasone until the active ingredient is dissolved. Mix both the solution and continue to stir. Cool it to room temperature to produce a white Betamethasone cream . 41 Material Name Qty/kg (g) Cetyl stearyl alcohol 70.0 Cremophor A6 15.0 Cremophor A25 15.0 Liquid paraffin 12.0 Paraben (S) 2.0 Water 697.0 Propylene glycol 80.0 Betamethasone 1.0 EVALUATION TEST FOR CREAMS : EVALUATION TEST FOR CREAMS RHEOLOGY : Rheology is very important as these cream s are marketed in tubes or containers. The Rheology or viscosity should remain constant. As these products are normally non- newtonian in nature, the viscosity can be measired using viscometers used for such liquids . PowerPoint Presentation: SENSITIVITY : As various types of ingredients are used with occasional use of antiseptics, hormones, etc., there is a possibility of sensitization or photosensitization of the skin. This should be tested beforehand. This test is normally done by patch test on skin and can be either open or occlusive. The test sample is applied along with a standard market product at different places and effect is compared after a period of time . PowerPoint Presentation: BIOLOGICAL TESTING: This is particularly essential for products containing antiseptics, hormones, vitamins, etc . PowerPoint Presentation: Thank you

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