Published on March 3, 2014
© Mustafa Jarrar Lecture Notes, Knowledge Engineering (SCOM7348) University of Birzeit 1st Semester, 2011 Knowledge Engineering (SCOM7348) Mandatory Roles (Chapter 5) Dr. Mustafa Jarrar University of Birzeit firstname.lastname@example.org www.jarrar.info Jarrar © 2011 1
Conceptual Schema Design Steps 1. From examples to elementary facts 2. Draw fact types and apply population check 3. Combine entity types 4. Add uniqueness constraints 5. Add mandatory constraints 6. Add set, subtype, & frequency constraints 7. Final checks, & schema engineering issues Jarrar © 2011 2
Mandatory Versus Optional Any problem with this table? By default, all roles are optional. How can we say that a role is mandatory? each Patient Has at least one PatientName Jarrar © 2011 3
Mandatory Roles Mandatoriness is implied with Value Types (by default). For example: it is assumed that “each PhoneNr is for at least one Patient”, because PhoneNr is a Value Type. ?? Jarrar © 2011 4
Mandatory Definition Role r is mandatory (for the population of A) Each instance of type A that is recorded in the database is also recorded to play r pop( r) = pop( A) Jarrar © 2011 5
Mandatory Roles How can we decide to make a role mandatory? Recall our discussion on (Conceptual data modeling) versus (conceptual modeling) If a role is mandatory in the real world, it may be optional in the model. Jarrar © 2011 6
Disjunctive Mandatory How to say that it is mandatory for each member to (PlaysFor | Coaches) a team, or both. We cannot have both roles optional, at least one role should be played. Disjunctive mandatory constraint: Each Member coaches or plays (or both). Jarrar © 2011 7
Disjunctive Mandatory Alternative notations for disjunctive mandatory role constraint. Jarrar © 2011 8
Definition of Disjunctive Mandatory Disjunctive mandatory role constraint The inclusive disjunction of roles r1...rn is mandatory for A i.e., each member of pop(A) plays r1 or r2 ...or rn (or all) i.e., each member of pop(A) plays at least one of r1 … rn Jarrar © 2011 9
Another Example Each person must be a parent or child. Jarrar © 2011 10
Back to Uniqueness Jarrar © 2011 11
External Uniqueness How to say that the combination of (Discipline, YearLevel, SerialNr) is unique for each subject? The Subject code might be generated from this combination Jarrar © 2011 12
Another Example Jarrar © 2011 13
Reference Schemes In data modeling, each entity (i.e., Object Type) must have an identity. The identity is achieved if an entity has mandatory and unique role This is not important (i.e. implicit) in ontology modeling. Jarrar © 2011 14
Discussion Summarize what you learned? And what you think about it? Compare what you learned with EER and UML? Questions & Suggestions? Jarrar © 2011 15
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