# Jarrar: Conceptual Schema Design Steps

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Technology

Published on March 3, 2014

Author: jarrar02

Source: slideshare.net

## Description

Knowledge Engineering Course - fall 2011

Lecture video by Mustafa Jarrar at Birzeit University, Palestine.
See the coursehttp://jarrar-courses.blogspot.com/2011/09/knowledgeengineering-fall2011.html and http://www.jarrar.info

© Mustafa Jarrar Lecture Notes, Knowledge Engineering (SCOM7348) University of Birzeit 1st Semester, 2011 Knowledge Engineering (SCOM7348) Conceptual Schema Design Steps (Chapter 3) Dr. Mustafa Jarrar University of Birzeit mjarrar@birzeit.edu www.jarrar.info Jarrar © 2011 1

Conceptual Analyses • Given an application domain, e.g. hospital, and three information modelers, what steps do you suggest them to start with, to build the hospital’s conceptual model? • There is no strict or perfect modeling process or procedure! • You may start with any step you think suitable, taking into account the complexity of the domain, available resources, modelers’ prior knowledge about the domain, etc. • It is recommended that you modularize the domain into sub-domains, build a conceptual schema for each sub-domain , then integrate all subschemes into one conceptual schema. • The following procedure (7 steps) is to help you model a sub-domain, but you don’t have to strictly follow these steps. Jarrar © 2011 2

Conceptual Schema Design Steps 1. From examples to elementary facts 2. Draw fact types and apply population check 3. Combine entity types 4. Add uniqueness constraints 5. Add mandatory constraints 6. Add set, subtype, & frequency constraints 7. Final checks, & schema engineering issues Jarrar © 2011 3

Elementary Facts and Fact Types What is a fact? – – – – – Rami smokes. Rami drives car. Rabab was born in Ramallah. Rami smokes and drives car. If Rabab was born in Ramallah and Ramallah is part of Palestine, then Rabab was born in Palestine. è A fact must be either true or false What is a fact type? – – – – – Person smokes. Person drives car. Person was born in a city. Person smokes and drives car. If a Person was born in a city and this City is part of a country, then this person was born in that country. Jarrar © 2011 4

Elementary Facts and Fact Types What is an elementary fact type? ü– ü– ü– û– û– Person smokes. Person drives car. Person was born in a city. Person smokes and drives car. If a Person was born in a city and this City is part of a country, then this person was born in that country. à An elementary fact type cannot be spited. Jarrar © 2011 5

Conceptual Schema Design Steps 1. From examples to elementary facts Jarrar © 2011 6

1. Make elementary facts from examples • Mustafa teaches Knowledge Engineering. • Rami is enrolled in Knowledge Engineering. • Knowledge Engineering is offered by the University of Birzeit. From examples to fact types Ø The Person that has the name Mustafa teaches the course that has the title Knowledge Engineering. Ø The Person Rami is enrolled in the course that has the has the title Knowledge Engineering. Ø The course that has the title Knowledge Engineering is offered by the university that has the name University of Birzeit. More precise v The Person (ID4514) that has the name Mustafa teaches the course (SC242) that has the title Knowledge Engineering. v The Person (ID123) Rami is enrolled in the course (CS242) that has the has the title Knowledge Engineering. v The course (CS242) that has the title Knowledge Engineering is offered by the university that has the name University of Birzeit. Jarrar © 2011 7

Conceptual Schema Design Steps 1. From examples to elementary facts 2. Draw fact types and apply population check Jarrar © 2011 8

2. Draw fact types and apply population check v The Person (ID4514) that has the name Mustafa teaches the course (SC242) that has the title Knowledge Engineering. v The Person (ID123) Rami is enrolled in the course (CS242) that has the has the title Knowledge Engineering. v The course (CS242) that has the title Knowledge Engineering is offered by the university that has the name University of Birzeit. Draw Fact Types Has/IsOf Title Teaches/ IsOf/Has Name Course Person (nr) OfferedBy /Offers (Code) EnrolledIn/ Jarrar © 2011 University (Name) 9

2. Draw fact types and apply population check v The Person (ID4514) that has the name Mustafa teaches the course (SC242) that has the title Knowledge Engineering. v The Person (ID123) Rami is enrolled in the course (CS242) that has the has the title Knowledge Engineering. v The course (CS242) that has the title Knowledge Engineering is offered by the university that has the name University of Birzeit. Test with population Has/IsOf Title Teaches/ SC242 IsOf/Has ID4154 SC242 Person Name Rami ID4154 ID123 OfferedBy /Offers University (Code) (nr) Mustafa Course EnrolledIn/ ID123 Knowledge Engineering (Name) SC242 Birzeit University SC242 Jarrar © 2011 10

Basic ORM Constructs and Syntax • Object and Value Types • Roles and relations • Unary relations • Ternary relations • Nested Fact Types • Ring Fact Types Jarrar © 2011 11

Object and Values Types Person Person Car Adams B 235PZN Jones E 235PZN Jones E 108AAQ Car drives has has ‘Adams B’ ‘Jones E’ Object Type (non lexical) You cannot lexicalize, or refer to a person without using a value of its properties. Value Type (lexical) It is always a value of an Object Type. ‘235PZN’ ‘108AAQ’ RegNr PersonName drives / is driven by Person Car has has refers to refers to PersonName Jarrar © 2011 RegNr 12

Roles and Relations Called Binary Relation It consists of two roles (“drives” and “is driven by”) Called Role which is part of a relation Jarrar © 2011 13

Unary Relations Pat smokes Lee smokes Shir does not smoke Called Unary Relation as it has one role (“smokes”) You can transform unary fact types into binary: Jarrar © 2011 14

Ternary Relations Called Ternary Relation as it has three roles (“smokes”) Jarrar © 2011 15

Nested Fact Types Called Nested Fact Type The fact type “Student enrolled in Subject” is objectified, i.e., the whole Fact type is seen as an Object Type Jarrar © 2011 16

Ring Fact Types Same object type is connected to two roles in the same relation Jarrar © 2011 17

The ORM Syntax (Test) An object type can be only connected with roles. Each role can be connected with only one object type. û û û û ü ü û ü ü ü ü Jarrar © 2011 û 18

Project 1 Model the following 3 cases using ORM, in both Arabic and English. Each student is expected to deliver (through Ritaj) his/her model in PDF format, each case in a different file. Any ORM tool can be used. Deadline: 14/9/2011 midnight. Each student is expected to bring his laptop next lecture, so to present his/her models to all students. Case I: According the Israeli ID Card that each Palestinian must hold: Each Person has a ID Number, First Name, Father Name, Grandfather Name, BirthDate, Birth Place, Religion, Gender, and Address. A Person maybe a father/mother of one or more persons, and wife/husband of another person. Case II: According to the Ministry of Higher Education: A University consists of a set of faculties, each faculty offer several Bachelor and Master programs. Each program consists of a set of courses. Same courses might be offered by different programs. Case III: Each person should be either a male or a female. A person may have a name, birth date, passport number, and born in country. A person may works for and manages a company, and may have a bank account. Jarrar © 2011 19

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