Published on February 16, 2014
Early Japan Nara and Heian Periods 710-1192 A Mighty Fine Presentation by Janet Pareja Signature School, Evansville, IN
4 Main Islands
Closest Neighbor: KOREA • 120 miles away at closest point • Tempestuous seas • Spoken languagedistantly related to Korean; unrelated to Chinese
Relative Isolation Distinctive Culture – Interacted & traded sometimes – Isolation by choice sometimes – only in recent times open
Shintoism • “The way of the gods” • Worship of Kami – nature & all forces of nature, seen & unseen • Goal – become part of Kami – Follow ritual & customs – Obedience & proper behavior • Emperor as descendent of Sun Goddess, a main force Yamato stayed in power • Yamato Clan – first and only clan to rule! … current Emperor included
Patrilineal Path to the Chrysanthemum Throne His Imperial Majesty AKIHITO, the AKIHITO 125th Emperor of Japan Her Imperial Majesty MICHIKO, Empress of Japan Crown Prince Naruhito, Princess Masako , Princess Aiko
1. Nara: 710-794 Emperor Agriculture, Villages, Fishing, Iron working.
Sinicization • Chinese art & literature (Tang poetry) • Capital modeled Chang’an • Chinese Script adopted • Confucianism in upper classes; Buddhism in lower classes. Chinese culture Arrived via Korea
Chinese Influence Tributary Relationship •Aristocratic sons studied Confucianism in China important positions in Japan – Confucianism – Buddhism – Daoism •Chinese tastes, artistic styles…
Distinctive Japanese Culture Chinese influence NEVER REPLACED Japanese culture
2. Heian Period: 794 - 1185 NO central government structure NO professional bureaucrats – NO Civil Service Exam – NO Confucianism WHY? Nobility was born, not taught in Japan! - Feudal Lords Hereditary Aristocrats, Royalty.
Heian Period • Chinese influence disappeared! • Fujiwara Family – Intermarried w/ Royalty… ran country – Emperor as Figurehead
BOKUFU • “Tent Government” – temporary • Title of Sei-i Taishōgun = “Commander-inChief of the Expeditionary Force Against the Barbarians” • Minamoto • Yorimoto • Kamakura Muromachi Tokugawa
Feudal System • 1192- 1864 • SHOGUN – Title given by emperor – Real power; Emperor as figurehead
Daimyo • “Counts” – warrior / noblemen • Huge landowners • Samurai
Samurai • Vassals to Daimyo • Land (& Protection) for Loyalty Exchange – Peasant farmers – Artisans – Soldiers
Bushido • “The Way of the Warrior” • Strict code of Conduct – Loyalty – Courage – Honor Japanese ladies were not esteemed. No chivalry, no religious overtone in Bushido.
Seppuku “Hari Kari” -Avoid falling into Enemy hands -Avoid punishment / torture/ execution -Avoid Shame of letting down one’s Lord -Assumed / Ordered by their Lord Ritual Disembowlment
Twelve Lined Robes Made of?
Heian Period 794 – 1185 CE Kyoto: JAPANESE Imperial Court Culture
Upper Class Heian Women Could inherit and keep property, although usually a man administered it. Law protected them from physical violence. (?) Most married women continued living in their birth homes, preventing husbands or mothers-in-law from holding too much power or influence over their day-today lives. Education of Court Women: poetry, letter writing, calligraphy, music, the preparation of incense and perfumes, and fashion. Did not have the right to choose their husbands, nor was strict monogamy practiced. http://gallery.sjsu.edu/heia n/images/coutesan.jpg
• “Golden Age of Japanese Literature” • Court Women: – Poetry – Pillow Book- Sei Shonagon – Tale of Genji- Mirasaki Shikibu – Tale of Heike • Epic of intra-family warfare • Various authors, probably
Tale of Genji
Sei Shonagan and Life at the Heian Court
Lower Class Women • No writing and not many images survive. • “Illness sketches” – Fat woman as an example of a disease. – conservative white robes completely unlike court women's Juni-Hitoe (twelve unlined robes) .
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