Japan and the Koreas 23-2TeasED

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Published on February 26, 2014

Author: Taega2002

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and the Koreas: Pgs 597-601 a nd the Koreas Early History : Early History Both Japan and the Koreas were influenced by China. Buddhism is an example an element of Chinese culture that migrated first to Koreas though missionaries and scholars and then was imported into Japan in the 6 th century. 1 3 2 The dharma wheel , is one of the oldest symbols of Buddhism. Around the globe it is used to represent Buddhism in the same way that a cross represents Christianity or a Star of David represents Judaism . Reminder- What is Buddhism?: Reminder- What is Buddhism? Buddhism is a religion based on the teachings or the Buddha who was a sheltered Indian prince, named Siddhartha Gautama. The Buddha looked for answers to why people suffered in life. He traveled through India, meditated, and fasted and discovered suffering occurs as a result of desire for things we don’t have, selfishness, and dissatisfaction for those things we do have. He developed the 4 Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. Buddha believed that the Eightfold path was a middle way between human desires and self denial. Followers should work to overcome their desire for material goods, but at the same time be reasonable and not starve their bodies creating more pain and suffering. Goal to find perfect peace without suffering. Note both Buddhism and Hinduism share a belief in reincarnation. Click here for 2:45 Quick Review of Buddhism via Youtube Japan: Japan The first central government of Japan was based on China’s government. Emperors ruled Japan and they sent Japanese nobles to China to learn and borrow the best parts of Chinese culture. Kyoto was the imperial capital or the emperor’s capital; it was the center of art, literature and learning. In the centuries , to come the authority of the imperial court was undermined as powerful high ranking families fought for control. At the same time, warrior clans were rising to prominence as a distinct class known as samurai . Soon a military government was set up and shoguns or military dictators ruled for 700 years in Japan , while the imperial court existed in relative obscurity. Japan was forced to trade with the West under less than favorable terms to the Japanese. Strife caused by these actions brought down the feudal world of the shoguns. In 1868, the emperor Meiji came to the throne, and the shogun system was abolished. Japan Expands Its Empire Japan quickly made the transition from a medieval to a modern power. An imperial army was established with conscription, and parliamentary government was formed in 1889. The Japanese began to take steps to extend their empire. After a brief war with China in 1894–1895, Japan acquired Taiwan. China also recognized the independence of Korea, which Japan later annexed or took over in 1910. In World War I, Japan jumped at the chance to expand its influence and sided with the Allied forces (France , the United Kingdom, Russia). Japan seized Germany's Pacific islands and took areas in China . Germany and Austria- Hungry where on the losing side of WWI. China eventually declared war on Germany to earn a chair at the bargaining table at the end of the war in hopes of getting back land (  Shantung Peninsula). The Treaty of Versailles then awarded Japan a mandate over the islands. Japan Tests Its Military Might In between wars the Japanese were engaging into a full militarization program. Which included reshaping of industry towards military production, they desperately German military technology. Japan fought alongside Germany, and Italy called the Axis Powers and they fought against the Allies made-up of the United Kingdom, France, Soviet Union and later joined by the United States in December of 1941 due to the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The dropping of atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 by the United States finally brought the government to admit defeat. Japan surrendered formally on Sept. 2, 1945, aboard the battleship   Missouri  in Tokyo Bay. The U.S. helped Japan rebuild their government, infrastructure, and to invest in human capital. While doing this American culture is introduced to Japan and the U.S. gains another nation to sell goods and services to and more importantly an ally is made which helps the US to stave off the spread of communism. Click here to view Japan prepares for Pearl Harbor 10 min Youtube video Remote godlike figure to most; religious leader with no political power Highest ranking member of the warrior class; ran country and government Loyal to the Shogun; owned castles and large amounts of land Warrior nobility; respected and feared; only people allowed to ride horses and carry swords The Koreas : The Koreas The Koreas had been ruled by China for years following this it this Japan invaded the Korean Peninsula and took it over by force in 1910. The Japanese were harsh rulers who in 1938 . outlawed use of Korean language in an attempt to eradicate Korean national identity. F orced Koreans to abandon Korean names and change them to Japanese names. The Koreans held deep seated resentment toward Japan because of how little regard the Japanese had shown for their culture. Tangun a leader and founder of the earliest Korean society. Divided Peninsula: Divided Peninsula At the end of WW II in 1945, during the Postdam conference US (Truman), USSR (Stalin) and UK (Churchill) decided to divide Korean peninsula at 38 th parallel without consulting Koreans. Country Time 1948 Established Republic of Korea in South 1950-1953 Korean war 1961 Military coup 1988 Seoul Olympics The DMZ is 160 miles long,  approximately 2.5   mi wide Brief Clip about how DMZ is monitored 3 min How did the DMZ form and why? 10min Korean War: Korean War North Korea invaded south by launching surprise attack on 6/25/50. United Nations forces led by US defended South. Many Koreans lost or separated from family members in both south and north. Country Time 1950-1953 Korean war 1961 Military coup 1988 Seoul Olympics Korean Food: Korean Food Cooked rice, main dish, and side dishes 3-12 side dishes Kimchi fermented pickled vegetable with or without hot pepper, hundreds of variations Common elements of cooking soy sauce soy-bean paste ( dyon-jang similar to miso ) hot-pepper paste (go- chu - jang ) sesame oil Lots of vegetables Korean Alphabet: Hangul : Korean Alphabet: Hangul King Sejong the Great invented Korean alphabet in 1446. Alphabet organizes written language into syllabic units. 14 consonants & 10 vowels Easy to learn: "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; a stupid man can learn them in the space of ten days”. From http://library.thinkquest.org/20746/non/info/index.html Hangul (Korean Alphabet): Hangul (Korean Alphabet) Purely phonetic alphabet 14 consonants ㄱ ㄴ ㄷ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅅ ㅇ ㅈ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ 10 vowels 아 야 어 여 오 요 우 유 으 이 Hangul is a scientific system, invented following the shapes of vocal organs as they make sounds . From http://library.thinkquest.org/20746/non/info/index.html Traditional Arts: Painting: Traditional Arts: Painting Typically use few color, leaving background blank Often combined with poem. Painters signed their artistic name and signature stamps Typically use few color, leaving background blank. Often combined with poem. Painters signed their artistic name and signature stamps. Korean Dance and Music: Korean Dance and Music Court dance and music Folk dance and music Korean Dress: Korean Dress Religions of Korean People (based on 2004 census report): Religions of Korean People (based on 2004 census report) Japanese Culture Theater: Japanese Culture Theater Noh During the 14th century, there were small companies of actors in Japan who performed short, sometimes comedies .   Noh is a mixture of pantomime and vocal acrobatics, this style has fascinated the Japanese for hundreds of years. Kabuki Kabuki is less formal , yet very popular among the Japanese public. Actors are trained in many varied things including dancing, singing, pantomime, and even acrobatics. Kabuki was first performed by young girls, then by young boys, and by the end of the 16th century, Kabuki companies consisted of all men. The men who portrayed women on stage were specifically trained to elicit the essence of a woman in their subtle movements and gestures . Japanese Culture: Japanese Culture Origami Origami is a traditional Japanese pastime where a single square of paper is folded in different ways to create shapes like cute animals and beautiful plants. Since it only takes a sheet of paper, the hobby can easily be enjoyed anywhere; many people in Japan enjoy it at home and at school. The best known origami shape, which many children learn from their parents or grandparents, is the crane.  Sumo In sumo, two people who are wearing nothing but a  mawashi  (loincloth), face each other in a  dohyo  (circular ring) and push, grapple, and try to throw each other. The one who forces his opponent to the ground or pushes him out of the ring is the winner. Japanese Food: Japanese Food

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