JangWoo Son

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Published on October 9, 2007

Author: Sevastian

Source: authorstream.com

Metro Optical Ethernet:  Metro Optical Ethernet 2001년 1월 12일 연세대학교 제3공학관 대강당 손 장 우 webmaster@netmanias.com www.netmanias.com 016-460-5747 The 1st Network Manias Workshop Content:  Content Internet Big Picture Metro Area Network Problem of SONET/SDH networks New Alternatives to SONET/SDH ATM VP Ring MSPP (Multi-Service Provisioning Platform) DPT (Dynamic Packet Transport) Gigabit Ethernet Metro Ethernet Vendors ESP (Ethernet Service Provider) Conclusion Internet Big Picture:  Internet Big Picture IP IP Metro Backbone Metro Applications: VoD, Conferencing, VPN Voice, E-commerce, Entertainment, banking Metro POP CO CO Contents User Business Residential User IP Core IP aggregation IP access IP aggregation IP access Residential Metro Core Metro Access (“last mile”) Internet Backbone Metro Core Metro Access (“last mile”) Global Internet or Other ISP Business Metro POP Internet Big Picture:  Internet Big Picture ISP POP CO Metro Core Metro Access (“last mile”) Internet Backbone Transport Core (Long-haul) DWDM OADM, OXC Metro Transport Core CWDM DWDM Metro Transport Access 전화선,HFC TDM(copper) FTTX CWDM/DWDM Wireless Enterprise GE/10GE ATM User Contents Customer Premise 분산화 Residential xDSL 케이블 Dialup E/FE/GE Leased line (TDM) xDSL Cable modem GE, PON POS, DPT ATM, FR xDSL GE/10GE(MPLS) 멀티서비스 SONET Dialup POS(GSR) ATM TDM(SONET) MPLS DPT Ethernet(GE/10GE) 멀티서비스 SONET POS(TSR) ATM 10GBE MPLS MPS IP Core IP aggregation IP access Function Area Transport Network Core Tech. SONET SONET Metro, Backbone ?:  Metro, Backbone ? 대전 전주 대구 부산 원주 Metro Core CO (광화문) CO (여의도) CO (강남) (혜화) CO (일산) Metro Access POP 서울 광주 Metro/Regional Network Backbone Network Global Internet POP POP POP POP POP POP POP: backbone 접속점 Ex1) Dacom BoraNet: Internet access:  Ex1) Dacom BoraNet: Internet access 부산 진주 울산 김해 통영 TDM access network 서울강남 천리안, ftp, E-mail, Web 서버 Co-location 2.5Gbps SDH Ring 2.5Gbps SDH Ring ADM ADM/DCS 서울강북 n64Kbps T1/E1, T3/E3 Channelized DS3 Enterprise GSR Ethernet Global Internet (825Mbps) Other ISP contents POS POS 155M 155M 45M 45M 155M 155M 45M 광주 목포 여수 SDH 전송망 백본 aggregation aggregation aggregation access access GSR GSR cisco7500 cisco7500 cisco7500 cisco7500 cisco7500 cisco7500 cisco7500 cisco7500 cisco7500 cisco7500 ADM ADM ADM ADM GSR 대전 IP 백본 Enterprise 140Km Ex2) Hanaro Network:  Ex2) Hanaro Network RT COT RT COT DSLAM (ASAM) PBX Router FTTO (가입자빌딩) FTTC (아파트) 전용회선(I-direct) CO RT RT RT RT POP 음성 교환기 ATM 교환기 WB-DCS CO RAS CO Other ISP NAP GW 라우터 ATM 라우터 L2SW To/From Other Cities contents 국제/시외/이동전화 ATM/STM Hybrid Statistical multiplexing OC48 2.5Gbps SDH Ring OC3 OC3 IP access ATM: 전용회선, ADSL STM: Voice ADM (SDH 2.5Gbps) ATM PVC access Ex3) TDM leased line:  Ex3) TDM leased line Internet Performance 병목구간은?:  Internet Performance 병목구간은? IP IP Metro Backbone Metro CO CO Contents User Business Residential Business User Residential Global Internet or Other ISP 먼저, Enterprise LAN은 Gigabit Ethernet의 도입  사용자당 100Mbps, 스위치와 스위치간, 스위치와 서버간 1Gbps Residential access xDSL, Cable Modem 도입  사용자당 수 Mbps Metro POP Metro POP Backbone은 ?:  Backbone은 ? IP IP Metro Backbone Metro CO CO Contents User Business Residential LAN User IP Core Residential Fiber IP /(MPLS) ATM SONET DWDM SONET DWDM DWDM GbE/ 10GbE SONET DWDM GbE/ 10GbE Current Cost Down TSR OADM OXC OPS 병목해소 Metro POP Metro POP Metro는?:  Metro는? IP IP Backbone Metro CO CO Contents User Business Residential LAN User IP access & aggregation Residential Copper/Fiber IP VT/SONET Metro Lanza(Mayan) says, “Traffic races over gigabit networks inside office buildings and within the Internet core, but when it travels between them it has to squeeze through a copper line-and that line is turtle-slow” Young(Yipes) says, “Your data leaves your office going nice and fast, hits the local phone company and turns into a snail, then takes off again when it reaches the backbone—until it hits the next phone company” Global Internet or Other ISP nDS0, T1, T3 Leased line (64K, 256K, 516K, 1.544M, 2.048M, 45M) TDM-based SONET Metro POP Metro POP 그렇다면, Bottleneck은?:  그렇다면, Bottleneck은? Backbone Metro CO CO LAN Residential Metro nDS0, T1, T3 Leased line (64K, 256K, 516K, 1.544M, 2.048M, 45M) TDM-based SONET Enterprise GE 도입  Fast (Gigabit) backbone IP/DWDM, TSR OADM, OXC, OPS  Fast (Gigabit/Terabit) Residential Cable, xDSL, and Broadband Wireless  Fast (Mbps/user) Contents User User Global Internet or Other ISP Metro POP Metro POP Analogy:  Analogy Metro Backbone Metro CO CO Business Residential Residential Global Internet Business 시내도로망 고속도로망 시내도로망 Toll gate Toll gate Business Residential Residential Business 김포공항 서울 부산 서울 부산 DWDM 80 CH  80 차선 MPLS  고속도로, 국도 우회 (부하분산) 혼잡 극심 Metro POP Metro POP 그렇다면 Metro, Internet access만 문제인가? – 새로운 MAN 응용의 출현:  그렇다면 Metro, Internet access만 문제인가? – 새로운 MAN 응용의 출현 Backbone Metro CO CO LAN Residential Metro Contents (localization) Legacy application: Web server, Co-location, Global Internet access New application의 출현: ASP, CSP, DBSP Global Internet or Other ISP Metro POP Metro POP 그렇다면, 현재 MAN은 왜 모양인가?:  그렇다면, 현재 MAN은 왜 모양인가? 현재, Business Internet access, private line은 SONET/SDH 기반 전송망을 이용하는 데, 이 SONET/SDH망의 문제는 Circuit switching/TDM, BW allocation flexibility Upgrade ?, Long lead time 원래 SONET/SDH망은…:  원래 SONET/SDH망은… SONET/SDH network Voice traffic (64Kbps, continuous stream) Data traffic (Bursy) Ok! ? CODEC CODEC CODEC CODEC TDM … … … Analog Voice 1 Analog Voice 24 CH1 CH2 CH3 CH23 CH24 - - - T1 frame (125sec) PCM (64Kbps) SONET은 TDM channel상으로 Voice Traffic을 전달할 목적으로 설계되었다.(Time division multiplexing, Circuit switching) Problem (1): Circuit switching/TDM  비효율적이다!:  Problem (1): Circuit switching/TDM  비효율적이다! 발생율 서비스율 (circuit) SONET은 TDM channel상으로 Voice Traffic을 전달할 목적으로 설계되었다.(Time division multiplexing, Circuit switching)  Bursty data traffic 전송에 비효율적이다 Data traffic: highly-bursty 발생율 서비스율 (circuit) BW wasted ! No Problem ! Voice Traffic  Circuit service Data Traffic  Circuit service a 64Kbps circuit 1 2 3 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 1 2 3 Problem (2): Circuit switching/TDM  고가다!:  Problem (2): Circuit switching/TDM  고가다! OC3: 84 T1’s or 3 T3’s OC12: 336 T1s or 12 T3s OC48: 1344 T1’s or 48 T3’s 많은 가입자 수용이 불가 ! SONET/SDH Core Ring (OC12/48) SONET/SDH access Ring (OC3/12) ADM DCS ISP POP Enterprise A본사 Enterprise A지사 T1 전용회선 인터넷 전용회선 TDM dedicated Circuit, not shared! Statistical Multiplexing불가 Enterprise B Problem (3): Ethernet계위와 SONET계위:  Problem (3): Ethernet계위와 SONET계위 DS1(1.5M) DS3 (45M) OC3 (155M) CODEC CODEC CODEC CODEC TDM … … … Analog Voice 1 Analog Voice 24 CH1 CH2 CH3 CH23 CH24 - - - T1 frame (125sec) 1.544Mbps PCM 64Kbps DS1(1.5M) DS3 (45M) OC3 (155M) E: 10Mbps FE: 100Mbps SONET 계위 Ethernet 계위 ? Data Traffic (LAN 94% = Ethernet) Voice Traffic (64Kbps PCM) 24 DS0 CHs 28xDS1 = 672 DS0 CHs 3xDS3 = 2,016 DS0 CHs SONET망으로 Data traffic을 전달하는 것은 …:  SONET망으로 Data traffic을 전달하는 것은 … SONET/SDH network Voice traffic (64Kbps, continuous stream) Data traffic (Bursy) Ok! ? 적합치 않다.! 비효율적이다 : Bursty data traffic을 TDM방식으로 서비스하는 것은 대역폭의 낭비를 가지고 온다. 고가이다: TDM circuit을 독점하며 다른 사용자의 트래픽과 통계적 다중화가 되지 않으므로! 따라서 링크 대역폭당 가용 사용자수가 적다. (T1~200만원/월, T3~5,000만원/월) Ethernet 계위와 SONET/SDH계위가 맞지 않는다: 10Mbps 전용선을 원하는 경우 45Mbps T3 line을 써야 한다. 더군다나… : Data traffic의 폭증:  더군다나… : Data traffic의 폭증 현재 SONET Ring 용량 한계 임박 이유 Internet Leased line ASP, CSP DBSP Source:RHK 그렇다면, SONET Ring을 upgrade하자… Data Traffic의 급증 Problem (4): Upgrade ?:  Problem (4): Upgrade ? OC12/48 ADM DWDM Ring OC12 ADM WDM MUX 1. Replace all ADMs: OC12OC48 2. Deploy another Ring 3. Deploy DWDM All the solution  high cost Problem (5): Long lead time (수주-수개월):  Problem (5): Long lead time (수주-수개월) T1 1 28 … SONET access Ring e.g. OC3(155Mbps) 2 3 T3 … Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet M13 MUX Ex) Multitenant office buildings Problem (5): Long lead time (수주-수개월):  Problem (5): Long lead time (수주-수개월) T1 1 28 … 2 3 T3 … Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet M13 MUX CP ISP POP Internet SONET Access Ring SONET Core Ring LEC’s infrastructure Truck Rolls Enterprise: T1 하나 더 주세요^^ Service provider: Yes, wait… MAN = Emerging Market:  MAN = Emerging Market Internet access (ISP) VoD ASP CSP DBSP Distributed Contents Super MAN이 요구됨 New Technologies 개발 및 적용 New Service Provider 탄생 Mini Core Backbone Metro ISP POP ISP POP CO CO LAN Residential Metro Global Internet or Other ISP Legacy SONET 1) 비효율성 2) 고가 3) BW flexibility 4) Upgrade 5) Long lead time Slide26:  Market Forecast CIR, July 27, 2000 5-year forecast (Metro/Access) USA Next-generation data aware SONET Gigabit and 10 Gigabit Ethernet pure packet-over-light DataQuest, Dec. 1999 5-year forecast (GE/10GbE MAN/WAN) Global $3.5 Billion by 2004 $3.6 Billion by 2004 Ethernet Switch Revenue Projected to Exceed $23 Billion in 2004 According to Dell'Oro Group 5 Year Forecast (Dell'Oro , Feb. 15 2000) Pioneerconsulting, 09/13/2000 5-year forecast (Multiservice SONET) North America $0.93 Billion by 2000 $6.30 Billion by 2004 Next-generation SONET (Multiservice SONET) AT&T, Allied Riser, Alidian Networks, Appian Communications, Astral Point Communications, ATG, Broadband Office, Broadwing, Centerpoint Broadband Technologies, Chromatis Networks, Ciena, Cisco Systems, Coriolis Networks, Cyras Systems, Extreme Networks, Fujitsu Network Communications, Global Crossing, Geyser Networks, Kestrel Solutions, Lantern Communications, Level3, Lucent Technologies, LuxN, Luminous Networks, Marconi Communications, Mayan Networks, Metro-Optix, Nortel Networks, Quantum Bridge, Qwest, Redback/Siara Systems, Sirocco Systems, Sprint, Terawave, Tropic Networks, WorldCom and Zaffire. ADVA, Alcatel, Alidian, Astral Point, Atmosphere/Ditech, Ciena, Cisco , Cyras, Ericsson, Kestrel, Lucent, Marconi, Mayan, NEC, Nortel, ONI , Quantum Bridge, Redback/Siara, Sorrento, Siemens, Sycamore/Sirocco, Terawave, Zaffire Acquisition Trend:  Acquisition Trend Acquisition spending for key optical systems companies totaled $37.8 billion in the last 18 months 2000년 9월 현재 Optical Metro Vendors ~ 30+ 99년 8월: Cerent(300)  Cisco Systems Inc. ($7 billion) 99년 11월: Siara Systems(206)  Redback Networks Inc. ($4.3 billion) 2000년 6월: Chromatis Networks Inc.(130)  Lucent, $ 4.5billion 2000년 6월: Sirocco Systems Inc.(65)  Sycamore ($2.88 Billion) 2000년 7월: Atmosphere (?)  Ditech ($ 88.5 Million) ( ): Employees Other Vendor ~ Initial Public Offering ~ 막대한 투자 (by Venture Capitals) 비고) 1999년 Hot acquisition  Gigabit/Terabit Router 1999년 4월: Ericsson, Torrent 인수 (규모) 1999년 6월: Siemens, Argon 인수 1999년 6월: Lucent, Nexabit 인수 1999년 6월: Tellabs, Netcore 인수 현재: 교통정리완료 Cisco  Juniper > Avici, Nortel, Ericsson, Pluris, Ironbridge, Charlotte New Metro Technologies :  New Metro Technologies IP IP Backbone Metro CO CO Contents User Business Residential LAN User Residential Metro Copper/Fiber IP (/MPLS) ATM SONET DWDM VT/SONET DWDM DWDM Current New Solution DPT DWDM GbE/ 10GbE DWDM ATM VP Ring DWDM Multiservice SONET VT/SONET 인터넷, 사설망 인터넷, 사설망 인터넷 (*) * Metro에서 Routing 수행 Metro POP Metro POP New Metro Technologies :  Metro POP Metro POP New Metro Technologies IP IP Backbone Metro CO CO Contents User Business Residential LAN User Residential Metro Copper/Fiber IP (/MPLS) ATM SONET DWDM VT/SONET DWDM DWDM Current New Solution DTM DWDM DWDM ATM VP Ring DWDM Multiservice SONET VT/SONET 인터넷, 사설망 인터넷, 사설망 인터넷 (*) * Metro에서 Routing 수행 GbE/ 10GbE Gigabit Ethernet Approach:  Gigabit Ethernet Approach 장점 Cheap Easy to maintain and operate Statistical multiplexing (cf. SONET) Scalability (10GbE) Fast/Dynamic Provisioning BW Granularity(++1M) 기존 Ethernet이 못 가지고 있었던 기술 Network Scalability (VLAN) QoS ~ comparable to ATM Survivability ~ comparable to SONET Ethernet의 장점:  Ethernet의 장점 94 % of installed LAN = Ethernet Large pool of trained network administrators SONET과는 달리 패킷 스위칭이므로 통계적 다중화 효과를 얻을 수 있다. 대량 생산으로 인한 칩셋 및 스위치 가격 하락 Ethernet: Cost-Effective Solution:  Ethernet: Cost-Effective Solution Source: Lantern Communication Average Selling Point for Gbps:  Average Selling Point for Gbps $950 $7,652 $485 $3,143 SP는 동일한 용량의 시스템을 구매하기 위해 예를 들어, Ethernet 장비 : $150,000 SONET 장비 : $1000,000 Source: Dell’Oro Group Ethernet이 MAN/WAN으로 나갈 때 문제:  Ethernet이 MAN/WAN으로 나갈 때 문제 기존 Ethernet이 못 가지고 있었던 기술 Network Scalability Long range optic: up to 70Km without transport equipments 이더넷 네트워크 확장 문제 (Segmentation 문제) VLAN, VMAN, VLAN SA Router/L3 switch MPLS 이더넷 네트워크을 MAN/WAN급으로 확장 가능 QoS ~ comparable to ATM Vendors redesign their Ethernet switch (not your Ethernet LAN switch) QoS/CoS guarantee Customer별 BW 보장, 응용별 BW 보장 MPLS 도입 (Connection 개념 도입, 자원예약/VPN/QoS 해결) ATM과 동일한 수준의 QoS 보장 가능 Survivability ~ comparable to SONET Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) : IEEE 802.17 원래는 Cisco의 DPT(SRP)임. IPS(Intelligent Protection Switching) 기능으로 SONET 레벨의 망복구 능력이 가능 1Gbps의 한계 10Gbps 표준화로 가능 Customer-Billing 99.999% availability VPN based on VLAN:  VPN based on VLAN 802.1q VLAN 802.1p priority queueing Concept of VLAN-based VPN Problem of VLAN-based VPN Insufficient VLAN number Spanning Tree Algorithm IEEE 802.1q VLAN:  IEEE 802.1q VLAN VLAN: A logical group of nodes, consists of clients and servers that reside in a common broadcast domain, without any router hops. Virtual의 의미: 단말들이 서로 다른 스위치 또는 서로다른 빌딩에 있어도 마치 물리적으로 하나의 LAN segment (Broadcast domain)에 속한 것처럼 인식된다. A B C D E F A B D C E F VLAN 1 member VLAN 2 member 등가 VLAN 1 VLAN 2 IEEE 802.1q VLAN:  IEEE 802.1q VLAN Pre src MAC dst MAC Type/ Length CRC 802.1q VLAN tag 8B 6B 6B 4B 2B 46-1500B 4B Pre src MAC dst MAC Type/ Length CRC 8B 6B 6B 2B 46-1500B 4B Ethernet Frame 802.1q Frame TPI Priority CFI VLAN ID Max 1518 B Max 1522 B 16 b 3 b 1 b 12 b TIF(Tag Control Information) TPID(Tag Protocol Identifier Field) = 8100 (Ethernet) Concept of VLAN-based VPN:  Concept of VLAN-based VPN MAC addr. A MAC addr. B Untagged port SA VLAN ID Port - 7 1 - 12 1 A 7 2 Z 12 3 Port 2 Manually configured Port 1 1. MAC frame 전달 2. AS1는 MAC B를 모르므로 VLAN에 속한 멤버에게 Broadcasting (즉, to Port1) 이때, Port 1은 Tagged port로 Access switch는 VLAN ID 7을 태킹하여 port1으로 전달한다. 3. CS1는 SAT을 보고 없으므로 - SAT에 {A, 7, 1}을 기록하고 - Port 2와 3로 브로드캐스팅한다. 4. CS2와 3는 B가 SAT에 없으므로 SAT에 기록하고 브로드캐스팅한다. 이때 CS2와 CS3간에 링크는 없는 것으로 인식되어(STP:loop 방지l) CS2와 3는 AS2와 3로만 프레임을 전달하며 서로간에는 전달하지 않는다. 5. AS2는 VLAN 7이 자신의 port 2에 정의되어 있으므로 Tag를 제거하고 Port 2로 전달한다. {A 7 1}학습 AS3는 도착 프레임을 폐기한다. AS1 MAC addr. M SA VLAN ID Port - 5 1 - 6 1 M 5 2 N 6 3 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 SA VLAN ID Port - 7 1 - 8 1 B 7 2 K 8 3 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 SA VLAN ID Port Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 SA VLAN ID Port CS1 CS3 CS2 AS2 AS3 Manually configured Manually configured 1 3 2 Concept of VLAN-based VPN:  Concept of VLAN-based VPN MAC addr. A MAC addr. A Untagged port Port 2 Port 1   AS1 MAC addr. H Port 1 Port 2 Port 3    Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 SA VLAN ID Port A 7 1 B 7 2 (학습) Port 1 Port 2 Port 3  CS1 CS3 CS2 AS2 AS3 SA VLAN ID Port A 7 1 B 7 3 (학습)  1 3 2 SA VLAN ID Port - 7 1 - 12 1 A 7 2 Z 12 3 B 7 1 (학습) SA VLAN ID Port - 7 1 - 8 1 B 7 2 K 8 3 A 7 1  Concept of VLAN-based VPN:  Concept of VLAN-based VPN MAC addr. A MAC addr. A Untagged port Port 2 Port 1 AS1 MAC addr. M Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 CS1 CS3 CS2 AS2 AS3 1 3 2 VLAN 7 SA VLAN ID Port A 7 1 B 7 2 SA VLAN ID Port A 7 1 B 7 3 SA VLAN ID Port - 7 1 - 12 1 A 7 2 Z 12 3 B 7 1) SA VLAN ID Port - 7 1 - 8 1 B 7 2 K 8 3 A 7 1 본사의 라우터와 지사의 라우터간에 Ethernet VPN (Ethernet MAN상의 두 라우터간에 VLAN) 생성됨. Virtual Path (ATM, MPLS와 유사한) 제공 MAC addr. + VLAN ID  Label SA VLAN ID Port - 5 1 - 6 1 M 5 2 N 6 3 Ethernet VPN security:  Ethernet VPN security MAC addr. A MAC addr. A Port 2 Port 1 AS1 MAC addr. M Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 CS1 CS3 CS2 AS2 AS3 1 3 2 SA VLAN ID Port A 7 1 B 7 2 SA VLAN ID Port A 7 1 B 7 3 SA VLAN ID Port - 7 1 - 12 1 A 7 2 Z 12 3 B 7 1 SA VLAN ID Port - 7 1 - 8 1 B 7 2 K 8 3 A 7 1 SA VLAN ID Port - 5 1 - 6 1 M 5 2 N 6 3 Port 3 MAC addr. Z Port 1과 Port 2는 서로 다른 VLAN 이므로 1) 건물내 다른 회사로 access 차단! 2) 다른 건물의 타 회사에서 access 불가! Ethernet VPN security:  Ethernet VPN security MAC addr. A MAC addr. B Port 2 Port 1 AS1 MAC addr. M Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 CS1 CS3 CS2 AS2 AS3 1 3 2 SA VLAN ID Port A 7 1 B 7 2 SA VLAN ID Port A 7 1 B 7 3 SA VLAN ID Port - 7 1 - 12 1 A 7 2 Z 12 3 B 7 1 SA VLAN ID Port - 7 1 - 8 1 B 7 2 K 8 3 A 7 1 SA VLAN ID Port - 5 1 - 6 1 M 5 2 N 6 3 Port 3 MAC addr. Z 다른 건물의 타 회사에서 access 불가! Port 2는 untagged port이므로 사용자가 VLAN ID12를 태킹하여 보내도 태그값을 버리므로 역시 다른 회사로 access불가 MAC addr. K Ethernet QoS:  Ethernet QoS Pre src MAC dst MAC Type/ Length CRC 802.1q VLAN tag 8B 6B 6B 4B 2B 46-1500B 4B 802.1p/q Frame TPI Priority CFI VLAN ID Max 1522 B 16 b 3 b 1 b 12 b Priority Field 체크 Highest Priority Lowest Priority Priority Field Ethernet QoS:  Ethernet QoS MAC addr. A MAC addr. A Port 2 Port 1 AS1 MAC addr. M Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 CS1 CS3 CS2 AS2 AS3 1 3 2 SA VLAN ID Port - 7 1 - 12 1 A 7 2 Z 12 3 B 7 1 SA VLAN ID Port - 7 1 - 8 1 B 7 2 K 8 3 A 7 1 SA VLAN ID Port - 5 1 - 12 1 M 5 2 N 12 3 Port 3 MAC addr. Z VLAN 12 Priority class A VLAN 7 Priority class B MAC addr. N Problem of VLAN-based VPN:  Problem of VLAN-based VPN L2 flat Network에서 지원가능한 VLAN의 수 802.1q의 VLAN ID는 12 bits 4096개의 VLAN 정의 가능, 즉 최대 4096가입자 수용가능  insufficient for Metro Service ! Vendor Solutions Nortel Networks(L2): VLAN ID를 24비트로 확장. 17M개 VLAN정의 가능. 표준화 준비중 Extreme Networks(L2): VMAN Foundry(L2): VLAN Super Aggregation Riverstone(L2.5): MPLS Spanning Tree Algorithm의 long convergence time VPN based on MPLS:  VPN based on MPLS Riverstone Foundry QoS:  QoS Ethernet QoS (L2): 802.1p/q IP QoS (L3): Diff-serv, Int-serv MPLS QoS (L2.5) H/W queueing architecture Scalability: 10GbE:  Scalability: 10GbE IEEE 802.3ae schedule 10 GEA’s View:  10 GEA’s View End-to-end Ethernet Fiber availability:  Fiber availability 빌딩 지하통신실로 Fiber 인입 구간이 문제 빌딩 구내 배선 문제 Multi-tenant Office Building Long-haul GE (GBIC) Ethernet Switch (L2/L3) GbE/10GbE MAN Core Basement UTP Cat 5 Fiber CPE: Router or L3 switch 10% of MTU (US) 15% of MTU (US) MFN, OnFiber Vendor Solution:  Vendor Solution Metro Ethernet Vendors Riverstone Networks (http://www.riverstonenet.com) Extreme Networks (http://www.extremenetworks.com) Foundry (http://www.foundrynetworks.com) Cisco (http://www.cisco.com) Atrica (http://www.atrica.com) VIPswitch (http://www.vipswitch.com) Lantern Communications (http://www.lanterncommunications.com) Luminous Networks (http://www.luminousnetworks.com) World Wide Packets (http://www.worldwidepackets.com) Nortel Networks (http://www.nortel.com) Sycamore (www.sycamorenet.com) Riverstone의 Optical Ethernet MAN solution:  Riverstone의 Optical Ethernet MAN solution RS’s Optical Ethernet MAN Solution: High Speed Business Internet Access and secure VPN 100 Mbps / tenant QoS, Customer Billing, BOD(Bandwidth On Demand) Metro access platform: RS3000, RS8000 Metro aggregation platform: RS8600, RS32000 Ethernet and MPLS Ethernet: cost effective, bandwidth rich MPLS: control over L2 connectionless network MPLS VPN MPLS QOS Core Technologies MPLS (VPN, QoS, ASP, CSP, DBSP) HRL (Hardware Rate Limiting) Multi-Field Packet Classification eQoS (4 Priority queueing: WRED, SPQ, WFQ) Billing (Customer Billing) Riverstone의 Optical Ethernet MAN solution:  Riverstone의 Optical Ethernet MAN solution Metro Backbone Metro ISP POP ISP POP CO CO Business Business Global Internet or Other ISP RS3000 RS8000 RS8600 RS32000 MTU MTU ASP/CSP network ISP POP Metro access Metro Core (aggregation) Long-haul GE (70Km) /ATM/POS/WDM /T1/T3 32 Ethernet (E/FE) Ethernet Long-haul GE (70Km) WDM/10GbE/ ATM/POS/TDM Riverstone의 Optical Ethernet MAN solution:  Riverstone의 Optical Ethernet MAN solution Metro Aggregation Platform: RS32000 Features up to 128Gbps nonblocking SF up to 90 Mpps forwarding rate IP routing protocol/ MPLS (LSR) HRL (H/W rate limiting), QoS Interface 960 FE ports, 240 GE ports 60 POS OC48c ports 240 T1/E1, 120 T3/E3 ports ATM WDM/10GbE Cost System = 120 GbE ports fully configured  < $ 2,000 / GbE port Cf) Cisco GSR POS $ 29,000 / OC12 (622Mbps) $ 97,000 / OC 48 (2.5 Gbps) Riverstone의 Optical Ethernet MAN solution:  Riverstone의 Optical Ethernet MAN solution Metro Access Platform: RS 3000 (CPE) Features 8 Gbps nonblocking SF 9.5 Mpps forwarding rate MPLS LER HRL (H/W rate limiting), QoS NAT Interface 32 E/FE ports (to customers) 2 expansion module slot - GE (max 70km) - POS, ATM, WDM 1 Multi-rate WAN module (CSU, DSU내장) Cost: $ 8,995 Riverstone의 Optical Ethernet MAN solution:  Riverstone의 Optical Ethernet MAN solution RS3000 RS8000 RS8600 RS32000 MTU MTU ASP network ISP POP Metro access Metro aggregation ISP ASP CSP Metro Core Long-haul GE (70Km) /ATM/POS/WDM /T1/T3 32 Ethernet (E/FE) Ethernet Long-haul GE (70Km) WDM/10GbE/ ATM/POS/TDM UrbanMedia (09/25/00) Telseon (09/18/00) IntelliSpace (09/18/00) Telseon Core Technologies:  Core Technologies Priority Queueing (4) Classification Port# DSCP(diffserv) 802.1p interClass - SPQ - WFQ WRED Drop Pass/ reprioritization Rate Limiting Priority Queueing (4) interClass - SPQ - WFQ WRED Ingress (Customer) line card Egress (MAN) line card Wire-Speed Packet Classification Hardware Rate Limiting eQoS (priority queueing) Billing MPLS Flow Classification:  Flow Classification Control packets Voice flows FTP flows HTTP flows Classification (classify flows) Rate Limiting (Per-flow RL) 4 priority queues Multi-Field Flow Classification:  Multi-Field Flow Classification MAC IP 0800 IPX 8138 RARP 8035 ARP 0806 VLAN ID VLAN Tag UDP 17 TCP 06 RSVP 46 IGMP 02 ICMP 01 Telnet 23 HTTP 80 FTP 20 SMTP 25 DNS 53 RTP 5004 8B 6B 6B 4B 2B  1B 4B 4B 1B  2B 2B  Ethernet Layer2 IP Layer3/4 TDP/UDP Layer4/7 802.1p/Q     HRL (H/W Rate Limiting):  HRL (H/W Rate Limiting) Physical port speed 100Mbps Up 5 Mbps 5 Mbps Down Customer A 5 Mbps 15 Mbps Customer B 15 Mbps 15 Mbps Customer C MAN port GbE PRL (Port Rate Limiting) Customer에게 물리적인 port는 FE이나 GE port를 주고 customer가 사용가능한 BW를 임의로 조절해줄 수 있는 기능 (H/W: rate limiting기능을 H/W로 구현함으로써 performance degradation이 없음을 강조) RS3000 HRL (H/W Rate Limiting):  HRL (H/W Rate Limiting) ARL (Aggregate Rate Limiting)  특정 customer로부터 온(그 customer로 갈) aggregate traffic의 rate을 제한(보장)  특정 customer의 트래픽 중 특정 응용의 aggregate traffic의 rate을 제한(보장) (예, 회사 A로부터 유입되는 VoIP aggregate traffic= 1Mbps로 제한/보장해줌 ) Pre src MAC dst MAC Type CRC TOS User data Packet Filter 10 Mbps 1Mbps (PRL) (ARL) Traffics from Medialincs (순간적으로 15Mbps) Voice aggregate traffic src port number dst port number src IP dst IP Protocol ID Shaped Traffics from Medialincs (Total: 10Mbps VoIP: 1Mbps) HRL (H/W Rate Limiting):  HRL (H/W Rate Limiting) 얻을 수 있는 효과 Customer별/application별/flow별로 BW 할당 및 보장과 Billing이 가능 Asymmetric allocation: Internet access의 특성을 반영 (Up: 1Mbps, Down: 10Mbps) HRL (H/W Rate Limiting):  HRL (H/W Rate Limiting) 어떻게 구현 하나? Hardware Credit Bucket Scheme Credit count: 현재 credit의 수 Replenish rate (): credit을 refill하는 rate Packet 도착 Credit이 있으면: Packet pass Decrease credit count (-1) 없으면: Drop, Reprioritizing (rewrite TOS)     Up Down Line Card Key parameters : Replenish rate : credit pool size Riverstone proprietary algorithm (not announced) ATM의 UPC개념 도입 eQoS:  eQoS Priority Queueing (4) Classification Port# DSCP(diffserv) 802.1p Drop Pass/ reprioritization Rate Limiting Priority Queueing (4) Ingress (Customer) line card Egress (MAN) line card Wire-Speed Packet Classification Hardware Rate Limiting eQoS (priority queueing) Billing MPLS interClass - SPQ - WFQ WRED interClass - SPQ - WFQ WRED MLPS in MAN:  MLPS in MAN RS3000 RS8000 RS8600 RS32000 MTU MTU ASP network ISP POP Metro access Metro aggregation ISP ASP CSP GE, POS GE, POS Ethernet Ethernet MPLS VPN (VPN IDLSP) LSP #3 BW: 20Mbps QoS: premium VLAN 1 VLAN 2 Extreme Networks:  Extreme Networks Extreme’s view: The key remaining link between LAN and WAN – the metropolitan network (MAN) Current MAN architecture New convergence -optimized architecture Data IP Voice TDM/SONET Optic Data Voice Ethernet (GE) WDM IP CircuitPacket (BW efficiency BW flexibility Transparent Ethernet) BW multiplier VoIP Extreme’s MSP solution:  Extreme’s MSP solution Metro Backbone Metro ISP POP ISP POP CO CO Business Business Global Internet or Other ISP Access Ring Metro Core Ring CWDM (4GE) LX-70 GBIC (70Km) MSP’s POP ISP’s ADM Ethernet Switch (32-64Gbps) CWDM port (4  1GE) LX-70 GBIC (1GE) POS port Co-location Multi-tenant Building Business Park Campus Features of Ethernet switch:  Features of Ethernet switch Alpine 3803/3804, BlackDiamond 6808, Summit IP TDM Bandwidth by the slice Per-bit billing Integrated WDM Virtual MAN Long-range optics MSP based on Ethernet (ESP):  MSP based on Ethernet (ESP) Telseon (www.telseon.com) Yipes (www.yipes.com) Cogent (www.cogentco.com) Vitts Intellispace (www.intellispace.com) Sigma networks (www.sigmanetworks.com) UrbanMedia (www.urbanmedia.com) FiberCity (www.fibercitynetworks.com): Everest BB (www.everestbroadband.com) FiberNet (www.fiber.net) Bell Nexxia of Bell Canada CompleTel Europe Stream Intelligent Networks XO communication ESP/MTU-SP/FLEC/EtherLEC/ELEC ESP Comparison:  ESP Comparison ESP Comparison:  ESP Comparison ESP Comparison:  ESP Comparison Telseon:  Telseon Telseon GbE/10GbE MAN Co-location ASP CSP Enterprise Enterprise ISP Target B2B : enterprise private network, communication with business partner B2SP: Application service provider, Internet service provider, Data backup service provider Telseon:  Telseon Telseon의 주장 WAN: long-haul high-speed IP-based backbone ~ link=2.5G/10G/40G, Router=GSR/TSR, Optical=OS/OXC=Tbps (Qwest, Level3, Williams,…)  Fast ! LAN: Gigabit Ethernet ~ Full duplex, L2/3 switch  Fast ! MAN, where LANs and long-haul backbone networks converge. Comparatively slow speed, inflexible, and high cost current SONET TDM based MAN has been a bottleneck ! Telseon says, the problems of SONET TDM based MAN are ….:  Telseon says, the problems of SONET TDM based MAN are …. LAN과 new BB WAN에 비해서 느리다 DS0(64Kbps)-T1(1.544Mbps)-T3(45Mbps)-OC3(155Mbps) Expensive: T1/$1,500/month SONET TDM is Circuit-switching (사용에 무관히 고액의 정액요금) SONET 장비(ADM, DCS)가 비싸다. BW provisioning takes weeks, often months (새로운 링크 제공, 또는 기존 고객의 링크에 BW추가시에) Manually provisioning, not dynamically provisioning Telseon’s Solution:  Telseon’s Solution LogicalWire IP service MAN Infra: Ethernet + Fiber Optics Tunneling (Connection over Ethernet networks): VLAN, MPLS Logical wire connection Point-to-point connection Point-to-Multipoint connection Multipoint-to-multipoint connection {connection type, CoS and BW profile} Service BW: 1M ~ 100Mbps, ++1Mbps $2,500 / 100Mbps / month DS-3 configuration from a ILEC or a CLEC in a metro = $5,000/month) Customer-controlled Provisioning Telseon’s Network:  Telseon’s Network L3 SW or Router SIU Access Switch Core Switch Fiber or DWDM Customer Brows Provisioning & Reports Server To the Internet (Verio) CO CO POP CP Metro access Metro Core Ethernet switch (Riverstone, Foundry) 10/100 (/1G) Fully-meshed Layer 3 switch, interconnected via CWDM equipment Dark fiber of Level3 Co-location ASP databackup 1G SMF/MMF Service Interface Unit (SIU):  Service Interface Unit (SIU) Functions of SIU Traffic shaping and policing: customer의 트래픽이 계약한 data rate(현재 1Mpbs-100Mbps 가능)을 준수하도록 강요 Security: 모든 프레임의 {source Router MAC addr, destination Router MAC addr}를 필터링하여 authorized S/D pair인 경우에만 access switch로 전달하고 그렇지 않은 경우 폐기 (leak proof) Traffic prioritization: SIU maps from IP-based DiffServ CoS packet markings to 802.1p priority tagging {현재 2 class 지원: Standard forwarding(best-effort), Expedited Data service(e.g, VoIP traffic)} Fault tolerance:한 SIU가 두 개 이상의 Access switch로 링크를 설정한다. Router, Layer-3 switch, or Host Service Interface Unit 1G SMF/MMF 10M/100M (/1G) Category 5 UPT cabling Access Switch CP CPE, Telseon installs and manages Ethernet Connection:  Ethernet Connection Customer Brows Provisioning & Reports Server To the Internet CO POP CP 현재, Ethernet VLAN technology를 이용하여 Ethernet Connection을 제공해줌. Company A가 Point-to-point conenction (Ethernet 전용회선) 두개를 설정하고 싶다. 지사 또는 파트너사와 연결용 인터넷 액세스용 VLAN 10 VLAN 11 Company A Company A의 지사 또는 파트너사 Ethernet Connection:  Ethernet Connection Customer Brows Provisioning & Reports Server To the Internet CO POP CP MPLS를 적용하여 LSP를 SIU간에 설정해줌으로서 MPLS VPN (MPLS 전용회선)구현 예정 VLAN의 확장성문제, QoS제공의 한계, Traffic Engineering안됨 LSP#3 BW: 20Mbps QoS: Best Effort LSP #5 BW: 30Mbps QoS: Premium Company A Company A의 지사 또는 파트너사 Telseon 망 진화 계획:  Telseon 망 진화 계획 Router SIU AS CS CS AS SIU Router Enterprise or Service Provider Enterprise or Service Provider Telseon MAN 현재) Pure L2 Ethernet Flat Network: Ethernet L2 VPN, 802.1 priority 2001) MPLS over Ethernet: MPLS VPN, Traffic Engineering, MPLS QoS Optical Core Network: Optical Switching, MPS OXC/DWDM LER LSR LSR LSR LSR LER LER LER LSR LSR E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E CWDM CWDM Yipes:  Yipes MegaPOP GigaPOP Metro/Regional Ring Local access ring (city street) Level3 Qwest UUNET PSTN GigaPOP MegaPOP Metro/Regional Ring Local access ring (city street) MTU Yipes Service:  Yipes Service Fiber IP GbE Yipes delivers both Business-to-Business and Business-to-Internet IP networking services. ATM SONET IP Fiber Why so cheap ?:  Why so cheap ? 망구축 및 운영 비용 Conclusion (1):  Conclusion (1) Network Trends: LAN/WAN  MAN (current networking bottleneck ~ sipping straw) Current MAN: TDM-based SONET/SDH Alternatives to TDM/SONET: ATM Ring, MSPP, DPT, GE GbE solution = GbE + VLAN + MPLS + 10GbE + CWDM + DWDM + RPR Low-cost network infrastructure High BW to customer Low price to customer Carrier class reliability Carrier class availability(99.999%) Carrier class restoration (<50msec) CoS/QoS Rate-limiting real-time BW provisioning Usage Based Billing Backbone Metro CO CO Enterprise Metro Global Internet or Other ISP New Startup, Fiber-rich, Data-Oriented Service Provider에 최적 Enterprise Metro POP Metro POP Conclusion (2):  Conclusion (2) Metro Backbone Metro CO CO Business Residential Residential Business Only Ethernet solve this problem ? Reference: www.netmanias.com Metro POP Metro POP

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