Jan 29 Health Communication

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Information about Jan 29 Health Communication

Published on January 29, 2008

Author: Oxfordlibrary

Source: slideshare.net

Health Communication Models & Persuasion

Different Kinds of Health Communication Interpersonal Intrapersonal Group communication Public communication Mass communication

Interpersonal

Intrapersonal

Group communication

Public communication

Mass communication

Two approaches to communication Linear Approach (the Process Approach) It describes the process of communication, i.e., encoding and decoding of messages. HCP client Limitations __________________________ Transactional Approach A transactional process in which both participants in an interaction affect and are affected by each other HCP client See Textbook p. 16

Linear Approach (the Process Approach)

It describes the process of communication, i.e., encoding and decoding of messages.

HCP client

Limitations __________________________

Transactional Approach

A transactional process in which both participants in an interaction affect and are affected by each other

HCP client

See Textbook p. 16

Basic assumptions about communication Process Transactional Multi-dimensional (content and relationship base)

Process

Transactional

Multi-dimensional (content and relationship base)

Different Models of Communication Shannon-Weaver model Does this model develop from the linear or transactional approach? Why? Can you describe the process of communication? What does the noise source refer to? Hargie and colleagues’ model of interpersonal communication Does this model develop from the linear or transactional approach? Why? This model highlights some individual’s features. What are they? How may these features be relevant to health communication? (age, gender, education, knowledge, emotion; these are the aspects that may affect the professional-client relationship) Rosenstock’s health belief model What are the five factors that predict the likelihood of preventive health actions? Take the example of using condoms, what do you think the 5 factors may refer to? Rogers’ model of therapeutic communication What is the emphasis of Rogers’ model? Why is this model called the “client-centered model”? What are the conditions necessary to help clients to be better able to cope with their problems? Theory of Planned Behavior According to this theory, an individual’s intention is a strong predictor of behavior. What are the three factors that affect an individual’s intention to adopt a healthy behavior? Take the example of quitting smoking, what may the 3 factors refer to?

Shannon-Weaver model

Does this model develop from the linear or transactional approach? Why?

Can you describe the process of communication?

What does the noise source refer to?

Hargie and colleagues’ model of interpersonal communication

Does this model develop from the linear or transactional approach? Why?

This model highlights some individual’s features. What are they? How may these features be relevant to health communication? (age, gender, education, knowledge, emotion; these are the aspects that may affect the professional-client relationship)

Rosenstock’s health belief model

What are the five factors that predict the likelihood of preventive health actions?

Take the example of using condoms, what do you think the 5 factors may refer to?

Rogers’ model of therapeutic communication

What is the emphasis of Rogers’ model?

Why is this model called the “client-centered model”?

What are the conditions necessary to help clients to be better able to cope with their problems?

Theory of Planned Behavior

According to this theory, an individual’s intention is a strong predictor of behavior. What are the three factors that affect an individual’s intention to adopt a healthy behavior?

Take the example of quitting smoking, what may the 3 factors refer to?

Persuasion Efforts to change people’s attitudes through the use of various kind of messages

Efforts to change people’s attitudes through the use of various kind of messages

The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Persuasion can occur in either two ways: Central route involves systematic processing, careful consideration of message content, and the ideas it contains Peripheral route involves the use of rules of thumb or mental shortcuts, i.e., Beautiful people are kind; expensive things are good; experts can be trusted.

Persuasion can occur in either two ways:

Central route

involves systematic processing, careful consideration of message content, and the ideas it contains

Peripheral route

involves the use of rules of thumb or mental shortcuts, i.e., Beautiful people are kind; expensive things are good; experts can be trusted.

Two routes to persuasion When do we use the central route? _____________________________ When do we use the peripheral route? _____________________________ Central route persuasion is more durable, more resistant to change, and more likely to trigger a behavioral change.

When do we use the central route?

_____________________________

When do we use the peripheral route?

_____________________________

Central route persuasion is more durable, more resistant to change, and more likely to trigger a behavioral change.

Questions to consider Can you give an example of how your attitude was changed through the central route? Can you give an example of how your attitude was changed through the peripheral route? According to the EML (Elaboration Likelihood Model), if you want people to change behavior a permanently, should you use a long, well-reasoned argument, or a weak but impressive argument?

Can you give an example of how your attitude was changed through the central route?

Can you give an example of how your attitude was changed through the peripheral route?

According to the EML (Elaboration Likelihood Model), if you want people to change behavior a permanently, should you use a long, well-reasoned argument, or a weak but impressive argument?

Factors affecting Persuasion The communicator Emotional Appeal: Arousal of fear Personal versus media influence

The communicator

Emotional Appeal: Arousal of fear

Personal versus media influence

Discussion Questions What makes an effective, persuasive communicator? Are you more affected by emotional or rational arguments? Do you think that fear-arousing ads are useful (i.e., smoking kills!) How effective is using emotionally arousing pictures in advertising? (I.e., color photo of a smoky lung on cigarette package) On a 1 to 10 point scale, how much are you influenced by ads? On a 1 to 10 point scale, how much is the public influenced by ads? Are you more easily affected by personal or media influence?

What makes an effective, persuasive communicator?

Are you more affected by emotional or rational arguments?

Do you think that fear-arousing ads are useful (i.e., smoking kills!)

How effective is using emotionally arousing pictures in advertising? (I.e., color photo of a smoky lung on cigarette package)

On a 1 to 10 point scale, how much are you influenced by ads?

On a 1 to 10 point scale, how much is the public influenced by ads?

Are you more easily affected by personal or media influence?

The communicator Credibility Perceived expertise Perceived trustworthiness Attractiveness

Credibility

Perceived expertise

Perceived trustworthiness

Attractiveness

Credibility Perceived expertise Olson & Cal 1984 Participants received a message from a) Dr. Jim Rundle of the Canadian Dental Association; b) Jim Rundle, a local high school student who did a project his classmates on dental hygiene Results: Explanation:

Perceived expertise

Olson & Cal 1984

Participants received a message from a) Dr. Jim Rundle of the Canadian Dental Association; b) Jim Rundle, a local high school student who did a project his classmates on dental hygiene

Results:

Explanation:

Credibility Perceived Trustworthiness Eagly et al, 1978 Participants were undergraduates who were presented with a speech attacking a company’s pollution of a river. Some participants were told that the speaker was a politician with business background; others were told that the speaker was a pro-environment politician. Results: _________________________ Explanation: ______________________________

Perceived Trustworthiness

Eagly et al, 1978

Participants were undergraduates who were presented with a speech attacking a company’s pollution of a river.

Some participants were told that the speaker was a politician with business background; others were told that the speaker was a pro-environment politician.

Results: _________________________

Explanation: ______________________________

Credibility Perceived Trustworthiness Participants were undergraduates who eavesdropped on graduate students’ conversation. It was actually a recording. Some were told that the speakers were unaware that someone else was listening; others were told that the speakers were aware that someone else was listening. Results ________________________________ Explanation ___________________________________

Perceived Trustworthiness

Participants were undergraduates who eavesdropped on graduate students’ conversation. It was actually a recording.

Some were told that the speakers were unaware that someone else was listening; others were told that the speakers were aware that someone else was listening.

Results

________________________________

Explanation

___________________________________

The effect of arousing fear Wilson et al, 1987, 1988 Participants were smokers who received a letter from doctors. Some received a positively framed message (If you quit smoke, you could live longer.); the other received a negative framed message (If you continue to smoke, you could die sooner.) Results: _____________________________ Conclusion: __________________________

Wilson et al, 1987, 1988

Participants were smokers who received a letter from doctors. Some received a positively framed message (If you quit smoke, you could live longer.); the other received a negative framed message (If you continue to smoke, you could die sooner.)

Results: _____________________________

Conclusion: __________________________

Personal versus Media Influence Farquhar’s Field Experiment (1977) Researchers tried to reduce the number of heart disease cases in 3 Californian cities - Tracy, Gilroy, Watsonville. In Tracy, people received no persuasive messages. In Gilroy, people received a two year multimedia campaign about heart disease. In Watsonville, media campaign and personal visits to some people in the high risk group. Results: Conclusions:

Farquhar’s Field Experiment (1977)

Researchers tried to reduce the number of heart disease cases in 3 Californian cities - Tracy, Gilroy, Watsonville.

In Tracy, people received no persuasive messages.

In Gilroy, people received a two year multimedia campaign about heart disease.

In Watsonville, media campaign and personal visits to some people in the high risk group.

Results:

Conclusions:

Two-step flow of communication The process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence others.

The process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence others.

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