Jan 26 Small Group Communication

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Information about Jan 26 Small Group Communication

Published on February 26, 2008

Author: Oxfordlibrary

Source: slideshare.net

Small Group Communication in Health Care

Small Group Communication A group of people who are dependent on each other to share information through a set of rules Example: ___________________

A group of people who are dependent on each other to share information through a set of rules

Example: ___________________

Group Communication Think about a group you have participated in: What are the goals of the group? Are the goals clearly defined and realistic? Why did you join the group? Does your group focus on achieving a common goal? Does your group focus on developing good relationships among group members? How big is the group? Is the group cohesive? What are some of the explicit or implicit rules of the groups? Is there a leader in the group? If so, is the leader effective? Why? Describe your role in the group. For example: Did you contribute a lot? Did you ask a lot of questions? Did you provide a lot of encouragement for others? Did you often attack others’ opinions? Did you follow the rules of the group? Describe other members in the group. What are they like?

Think about a group you have participated in:

What are the goals of the group?

Are the goals clearly defined and realistic?

Why did you join the group?

Does your group focus on achieving a common goal? Does your group focus on developing good relationships among group members?

How big is the group? Is the group cohesive?

What are some of the explicit or implicit rules of the groups?

Is there a leader in the group? If so, is the leader effective? Why?

Describe your role in the group. For example: Did you contribute a lot? Did you ask a lot of questions? Did you provide a lot of encouragement for others? Did you often attack others’ opinions? Did you follow the rules of the group?

Describe other members in the group. What are they like?

Content and Process Groups Content Process Task group: content focus Process group: focus on relationship among group members. Midrange group: focus on both content and relationship

Content Process

Task group: content focus

Process group: focus on relationship among group members.

Midrange group: focus on both content and relationship

Content or Process? Content Process 1 10 Sunday school Anti-war group Alcoholics anonymous Dental hygienist’s conference Community meeting at a retirement home Self-help group for veterans with PTSD Cat lovers club Income-tax training class English conversation circle

Content Process

1 10

Sunday school

Anti-war group

Alcoholics anonymous

Dental hygienist’s conference

Community meeting at a retirement home

Self-help group for veterans with PTSD

Cat lovers club

Income-tax training class

English conversation circle

Components of Small Groups Goals Norms Cohesiveness Leader Behavior Member Behavior

Goals

Norms

Cohesiveness

Leader Behavior

Member Behavior

Goals Provide rationale and motivation Individual and Group goals Incompatible goals lack of cooperation Examples: ____________________ Clear and realistic

Provide rationale and motivation

Individual and Group goals

Incompatible goals lack of cooperation

Examples: ____________________

Clear and realistic

Norms Rules of behavior shared by a group Overt versus covert: ___________________ _____________________________________________ Enabling versus restrictive: ___________________ ____________________________________________________

Rules of behavior shared by a group

Overt versus covert: ___________________

_____________________________________________

Enabling versus restrictive: ___________________

____________________________________________________

Cohesiveness (or We-ness) Benefits of High cohesiveness: ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Factors affecting cohesiveness: Clear goals Members share similar attitudes and behavior Cooperative rather than competitive Democratic leader Group activities that are within members’ capabilities Group atmosphere: respectful and enjoy one another Smaller group size

Benefits of High cohesiveness:

________________________________________

________________________________________

Factors affecting cohesiveness:

Clear goals

Members share similar attitudes and behavior

Cooperative rather than competitive

Democratic leader

Group activities that are within members’ capabilities

Group atmosphere: respectful and enjoy one another

Smaller group size

Groupthink: Too much cohesiveness in decision-making The tendency of members of highly cohesive groups to seek consensus so strongly that they ignore information inconsistent with their views and often make disastrous decisions Two factors High level of cohesiveness ______________________ Perceived infallibility ___________________________

The tendency of members of highly cohesive groups to seek consensus so strongly that they ignore information inconsistent with their views and often make disastrous decisions

Two factors

High level of cohesiveness ______________________

Perceived infallibility ___________________________

Leader Behavior Leadership: the process in which one person attempts to influence others in order to attain some mutual goal. Linear versus transactional

Leadership: the process in which one person attempts to influence others in order to attain some mutual goal.

Linear versus transactional

Leader Behavior Great Person Theory _____________________________________________ Kirkpatrik & Locke 1991 Self confidence, creativity, and leadership motivation (the desire to take charge and control over others) Zaccaro, 1991 Flexibility - the ability to recognize what actions or approaches are required in a given situation to act accordingly.

Great Person Theory

_____________________________________________

Kirkpatrik & Locke 1991

Self confidence, creativity, and leadership motivation (the desire to take charge and control over others)

Zaccaro, 1991

Flexibility - the ability to recognize what actions or approaches are required in a given situation to act accordingly.

Leadership style Autocratic style controlling, making all decisions VS Democratic style allowing participation and decision-making by members

Autocratic style

controlling, making all decisions

VS

Democratic style

allowing participation and decision-making by members

Leadership styles Peterson, 1997 Two types of directive leaders Process directiveness: _____________________________ Outcome directiveness: ____________________________ Procedures Participants were asked to play the role of an elite decision-making group facing an international crisis. The leaders of the groups were instructed to behave with either high or low process directiveness; and high or low directiveness.

Peterson, 1997

Two types of directive leaders

Process directiveness: _____________________________

Outcome directiveness: ____________________________

Procedures

Participants were asked to play the role of an elite decision-making group facing an international crisis. The leaders of the groups were instructed to behave with either high or low process directiveness; and high or low directiveness.

Leadership styles Procedures Condition 1: Low process + low outcome Condition 2: High process + low outcome Condition 3: Low process + High outcome Condition 4: High process + High outcome Results Participants in condition 2 and 4 rated their leaders to be more effective. Explanation Process directiveness is beneficial.

Procedures

Condition 1: Low process + low outcome

Condition 2: High process + low outcome

Condition 3: Low process + High outcome

Condition 4: High process + High outcome

Results

Participants in condition 2 and 4 rated their leaders to be more effective.

Explanation

Process directiveness is beneficial.

Leader Behavior In group therapy Emotional stimulation Caring Meaning-attribution Executive functioning (set limits, monitors rules, attends to various procedures to groups)

In group therapy

Emotional stimulation

Caring

Meaning-attribution

Executive functioning (set limits, monitors rules, attends to various procedures to groups)

Member Behavior Group task roles Group building and maintenance roles Individual roles See handout

Group task roles

Group building and maintenance roles

Individual roles

See handout

Therapeutic factors Instillation of hope Universality Imparting information Altruism Development of socializing techniques Imitative behavior Cohesiveness (belonging, acceptance) Catharsis Existential factors (recognition that life is not fair, pain cannot be escaped: terminally ill patient)

Instillation of hope

Universality

Imparting information

Altruism

Development of socializing techniques

Imitative behavior

Cohesiveness (belonging, acceptance)

Catharsis

Existential factors (recognition that life is not fair, pain cannot be escaped: terminally ill patient)

Phases of Small Group Communication Describe what goes on in the following phases (the relationships among members, the depth and nature of the communication, the leader’s role) Orientation Conflict Cohesive and Cohesive Termination

Describe what goes on in the following phases (the relationships among members, the depth and nature of the communication, the leader’s role)

Orientation

Conflict

Cohesive and Cohesive

Termination

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