Published on August 6, 2007
Personality Correlates of Responses to Associative Mismatch and to Stimuli Associated withReward or Punishment: Personality Correlates of Responses to Associative Mismatch and to Stimuli Associated with Reward or Punishment Alan Pickering Department of Psychology Collaborators: Collaborators Patricia Brady Institute of Psychiatry James Jeffs Luke Jones St George’s Hospital Medical School Outline: Outline Summarise Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) of personality Note mixed results in existing literature Present new studies addressing basic issues from scratch Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST): Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) Bottom-up theory of fundamental personality dimensions Psychopharmacological and lesion studies in animals identify two basic systems Basic Systems of RST: Basic Systems of RST Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) Behavioural Activation System (BAS) BIS Characteristics: BIS Characteristics Inputs: see next slide Outputs: inhibition and arousal Corresponding personality trait: anxiety Neural substrate: septo-hippocampal system BIS Activating Inputs: BIS Activating Inputs Aversive secondary reinforcers: i.e. conditioned stimuli associated with punishment or frustrative nonreward Novel stimuli: i.e. where an associative mismatch occurs Innate fear stimuli BAS Characteristics: BAS Characteristics Inputs: see next slide Outputs: arousal Corresponding personality trait: impulsivity (sensation seeking) Neural substrate: dopaminergic projection systems BAS Activating Inputs: BAS Activating Inputs Appetitive secondary reinforcers: i.e. conditioned stimuli associated with reward or relieving nonpunishment Existing Studies: Existing Studies Extensive literature since 1970 Several reviews (e.g., Pickering et al, 1997) Usually significant results Conflicts across studies Typical Experiment: Typical Experiment Take healthy volunteers Measure their trait anxiety and/or impulsivity Expose to BIS and/or BAS activating stimuli Measure behavioural effects of 3 and correlate with scores from 2 Confusing Findings: Confusing Findings Effects of 'wrong' personality trait Unexpected direction of correlations Variations of traits that correlate Nature of reinforcers used varies Unrealistic/complex reinforcers used Misunderstanding of theory by other researchers Some parts of theory untested Unexpected effects of gender New Studies 1: New Studies 1 Associative mismatch stimuli Stimuli associated with ecologically valid punishments (EVPs) Verbal instructions warning of EVPs Investigated behavioural effects and personality correlates of the following: New Studies 2: New Studies 2 Additivity of effects Associated neural activations via fMRI Other issues explored were: Basic Paradigm: Basic Paradigm Choice reaction time (RT) task Warning stimuli manipulated to create BIS and BAS inputs Key stimuli presented to Ss incidentally while doing choice RT Standard Trial Sequence: Standard Trial Sequence +: + A: A AssociativeMismatch Sequence: Associative Mismatch Sequence +: + L: L SecondaryReinforcer Sequence: Secondary Reinforcer Sequence +: + A: A Choice RTTask Measures: Choice RT Task Measures Mean RT and % errors on: critical trials (associative mismatch or secondary reinforcer) compared with immediately preceding standard trials BIS (Trait Anxiety) Questionnaires: BIS (Trait Anxiety) Questionnaires Eysenck’s Neuroticism Scale: EPQ-N Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: STAI-Y2 Cloninger’s Harm Avoidance Scale: HA Carver and White’s BIS Scale: BIS Study One: Overview: Study One: Overview Investigated effects of Associative Mismatch (AM) 30 healthy volunteers (M/F) Trait anxiety measures used: STAI-Y2; BIS; HA 140 choice RT trials (1-40 practice), including 12 AM trials Study One: Correlations: Study One: Correlations RT Difference (AM – Standard) Measure Corr. p-value Y2 -0.30 0.1 HA -0.14 ns BIS -0.35 0.06 Comb. -0.32 0.09 Study One: AM RTs By Anxiety Median Splits: Study One: AM RTs By Anxiety Median Splits Study Two: Overview: Study Two: Overview Investigated effects of AM and secondary reinforcers (SRs), both aversive and appetitive 40 healthy volunteers (male medical students) Used preconditioning procedure to create secondary reinforcers 350 choice RT trials (1-50 practice), including 6 AM and 24 SR trials Study Two: Questionnaires: Study Two: Questionnaires Trait anxiety measures used: STAI-Y2; BIS; HA; EPQ-N A range of measures of BAS-related traits (impulsive sensation seeking) Study Two: BAS Questionnaires: Study Two: BAS Questionnaires Eysenck’s Extraversion and Psychoticism Scales: EPQ-E/P Eysenck’s Impulsiveness Scale: I7-IMP Cloninger’s Novelty Seeking Scale: NS Carver and White’s BAS Scale: BAS Introvertive Anhedonia: IAN Study Two: Preconditioning : Study Two: Preconditioning Fully counterbalanced design Associates 4 neutral geometric symbols (A-D) with reinforcing events Subject immerses hand in ice-water for 'unknown period' (actually 45 secs) Subject watches award of 'random prize' in 50 pence units (actually £3.50) Study Two: Preconditioning Symbols: Study Two: Preconditioning Symbols Study Two: Overall RTs: Study Two: Overall RTs Study Two: AM & BIS Correlations I: Study Two: AM andamp; BIS Correlations I RT Difference (AM – Comparison) Measure Corr. p-value Y2 -0.05 ns EPQ-N -0.04 ns HA -0.28 0.08 BIS -0.23 ns HA+BIS -0.28 0.08 Comb. -0.18 ns Study Two: AM & BIS Correlations II: Study Two: AM andamp; BIS Correlations II RT Difference (Rew – Comparison) Measure Corr. p-value Y2 -0.04 ns EPQ-N -0.11 ns HA -0.20 ns BIS -0.30 0.06 HA+BIS -0.27 0.09 Comb. -0.19 ns Study Two: Rew Regression Results: Study Two: Rew Regression Results DV= RT Diff (Rew – comparison) Ist Block: Anxiety (HA+BIS) 2nd Block: BAS traits Final model: DV= K – 0.35*Anx – 0.32*EPQ-E Study Two: Pun & BIS Correlations: Study Two: Pun andamp; BIS Correlations RT Difference (Sym-B – Comparison) Measure Corr. p-value Y2 0.28 0.08 EPQ-N 0.35 0.03 HA 0.14 ns BIS 0.42 0.008 HA+BIS 0.31 0.06 Comb. 0.36 0.02 Study Two: Pun RTs By Anxiety Median Splits: Study Two: Pun RTs By Anxiety Median Splits Conclusions: Conclusions Anxiety is related more strongly to the arousal, than to the inhibition, produced by associative mismatch (AM) Anxiety is related more strongly to the inhibition, than to the arousal, produced by secondary reinforcers associated with punishment (SR-Pun) The anxiety measures correlating with AM and SR-Pun effects may differ Conclusions (continued): Conclusions (continued) The arousal effect, produced by secondary reinforcers associated with reward (SR-Rew), is: associated with extraversion-impulsivity measures additive to the arousal effect produced by AM
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