Published on April 26, 2014
Introduction "Communications is the mechanism through which human relations exist and develop.”
Models help us understand complex phenomenon. Different communication models illustrate different aspects of communication. Models are never perfect.
Aristotle’s classical model Aristotle Aristotle proposed model before 300 B.C who found the importance of audience role in communication chain in his communication model.
Aristotle’s classical model (Cont.) This model is more focused on public speaking than interpersonal communication.
Aristotle’s classical model (Cont.) Speaker plays an important role in Public speaking. The speaker must prepare his speech and analysis audience needs before he enters into the stage. His words should influence in audience mind and persuade their thoughts towards him.
Aristotle’s classical model (Cont.) Example: Alexander gave brave speech to his soldiers in the war field to defeat Persian Empire. Speaker - Alexander Speech - about his invasion Audience - Soldiers
Lasswell Model Harold Dwight Lasswell states that a convenient way to describe an act of communication is to answer the following questions: 1.Who 2. Says what 3. In which channel 4. To whom 5. With what effect?
Lasswell Model (Cont.)
Lasswell Model of Communication (Cont.) • Given by sociologist Harold Lasswell in 1948 • One way process • Model says that communication is the process of transmission of messages. • It raises the issue of effect rather than ‘meaning’. • It urges that what are the effects seen, observed and measured in the receiver after the process of communication.
Assumptions: • In this model it is assumed that -the message that is passed by any medium chosen, reaches the receiver without any distortion or change. • For Example: - a letter, email, text message. Lasswell Model of Communication (Cont.)
How it Works: • In this model, information is passed from the sender to receiver with a proper flow and a proper medium. • The receiver passively receives the message. • And then receiver acts as directed or desired by the sender. Lasswell Model of Communication (Cont.)
Advantage of Lasswell model • It is Easy and Simple • It suits for almost all types of communication • The concept of effect Lasswell Model of Communication (Cont.)
Drawbacks • Linear model • A one way act • Model is not interactive • No feedback • Noise not mentioned Lasswell Model of Communication (Cont.)
• CNN NEWS – A water leak from Japan’s tsunami-crippled nuclear power station resulted in about 100 times the permitted level of radioactive material flowing into the sea, operator Tokyo Electric Power Co said on Saturday. • Who – TEPC Operator • What – Radioactive material flowing into sea • Channel – CNN NEWS (Television medium) • Whom – Public • Effect – Alert the people of Japan from the radiation. Lasswell Model of Communication (Cont.) Example
Shannon & Weaver Model of Communication •This model was created in 1949 by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver. •The basis for this model was a study of telephone conversations over a very lengthy two year time. •The team studied only what they deemed to be “important” or “significant” calls of some length. •Quick calls to a neighbor or a store were not considered for the study. •The focus was on the mechanics of the messages. Claude Shannon
Shannon & Weaver Model of Communication (Cont.)
Shannon & Weaver Model of Communication (Cont.) According to Shannon and Weaver's model, a message begins at an information source, which is relayed through a transmitter, and then sent via a signal towards the receiver. But before it reaches the receiver, the message must go through noise (sources of interference). Finally, the receiver must convey the message to its destination.
Example Suppose you have an idea in your head (information source) that you want to tell someone about. You must first move the idea from your brain to your mouth (transmitter). Since you cannot actually share your gray matter, you must select words for your transmitter to use. Once you speak, your voice (signal) is carried through the air toward the listener's ear (receiver). Along the way, your signal is joined by a myriad of other sounds and distractions (noises). The receiver then takes everything it receives and tries to maximum the message and minimize the noise. Finally, the receiver conveys its message to the other person's mind (destination).
Examples of noise • A loud motorbike roaring down the road while you’re trying to hold a conversation. • Your little brother standing in front of the TV set. • Smudges on a printed page.
NOISE CAN BE IN THE FORM OF: • DISTRACTION What happens when you communicate to a physically attractive person? • DIFFERENCES IN THE USE OF CODE Is there communication when you speak to an American person using the Chinese language?
W. Schramm Model Wilbur Schramm proposed the model of communication in 1971. Wilbur Schramm
Source Encoder Signal Decoder Destination
• Schramm emphasized the necessity of overlapping field of experience in communication through his model. • A breakdown in communication can also occur if the sender and receiver are not in the same wavelength. • This is true in human communication as well as in mass communication.
• The overlapping field of experience in communication is known as empathy. • The term “empathy” means the ability of an individual to project oneself into the role of another. • The overlapping field of experience or empathy is directly proportional to the extent of communication effectively.
For instance, a lecture on neurophysiology delivered to an audience of sixth graders may result in little or no communication. The lecturer has background knowledge of chemistry and biology, and beyond that very specialized knowledge of biochemical processes in the nervous system. The audience would lack the vocabulary, if nothing else, to make sense of the information.
OSGOOD- SCHRAMM CIRCULAR MODEL OF COMMUNICATION Wilbur Schramm Charles Osgood
OSGOOD- SCHRAMM CIRCULAR MODEL OF COMMUNICATION (CONT.) This Model of Osgood- Schramm evolved in 1954. It does not follow the conventional pattern of communication from source to receiver. It helps in reminding the process of interpretation which takes place whenever a message is decoded.
OSGOOD- SCHRAMM CIRCULAR MODEL OF COMMUNICATION (CONT.) It stressed that each participant in a communication process sends as well as receives messages and as such encodes, decodes and interpret messages. Thus it is a dynamic process in which there is an interactive relationship between the source and the receiver, where a person may be a source one moment, a receiver the next and again a source the following moment.
Significance Circular in form and meaningful Ongoing and dynamic in nature Natural process More preferred in dyad communication Bounded by good timing Verbal and non- verbal form of communication
David Berlo’s model In 1960, David Berlo expanded on Shannon and Weaver’s (1949) linear model of communication and created the SMCR Model of Communication
The Berlo S-M-C-R Model accounts for a variety of human variables that are present in person-to- person communication. When one is attempting to convey an emotionally complex message, the Berlo Model may be the more appropriate choice.
Looking at the sequence within the SMCR model, you can identify the basic structures of the modern perception of communication. The source represents where the information originates, the source of the communication. The message is the encrypted piece of information provided by the source. The channel, then, is the medium of transmission from the source to the receiver, and the receiver is the end recipient of the information.
Newcomb’s model (Cont.) It is a triangular model and represented chiefly interpersonal communication. It tries to introduce the role of communication in a society or a social relationship. According to it, communication maintains equilibrium within the social system.
Newcomb’s model (Cont.) For Example: Teachers introduce a new policy to increase the college timing from 6 hours to 8 hours. A – Teachers B – Students X – Policy or issue If both students and teachers are satisfied with this policy then the communication maintains its equilibrium status between them. Otherwise the flow of communication between “A” and “B” becomes trouble in the social system. If “A” or “B” is not ready to accept the policy then it will directly affect the social system and can’t maintain the equilibrium status. So teachers “A” can convince students “B” as much as possible. Otherwise they have to
Westley McLean’s model Bruce Westley (1915-1990) Malcolm S. MacLean Jr (1913- 2001)
Westley McLean’s model (Cont.) This model can be seen two contexts, interpersonal and mass communication. And the point of difference between interpersonal and mass communication is the feedback. In interpersonal, the feedback is direct and fast. In the mass, the feedback is indirect and slow. X1, X2, X3 and X4….—are news articles or information, Feedback (f), Clients (A), Reader or Audience (B) and Gate Keeper (c)
Westley McLean’s model (Cont.) Model: Westely and Maclean realized that communication does not begin when one person starts to talk, but rather when a person responds selectively to his/her physical surroundings. This model considers a strong relation between responds from surroundings and the process of communication. Communication begins only when a person receives message from surroundings. Each receiver responds to the message they received based on their object of orientation.
Westley McLean’s model (Cont.) Example: A Daily News Papers will receive many Press releases from Many Public Relations Agencies on behalf of their clients. In this case, News paper will publish the selected Press release due to the space constraints. Then, Readers can directly respond to the client or they can respond to the News daily which published in the Newspaper. If Readers responded to daily News paper, it will communicate the feedback to concern PR Agency. X1, X2 and X3—are Press Release, Feedback (f), Clients (A), Reader (B) and Daily News Paper (Gate Keeper) (c) 1. Feedback Loop between Reader (B) and News Paper (C) – fBC 2. Feedback Loop between News Paper(C ) and Client (A)- fCA 3. Feedback loop between Reader (B) and Client (A)- fBA.
Westley McLean’s model (Cont.) Example: Advertisement given through Television A Television will receive many advertisement from their clients. In this case, Television will broadcast the selected advertisement due to the time constraints. Then, viewers can directly respond to the client or they can respond to the television which broadcast in the television. If viewer responded to television, it will communicate the feedback to client./agency X1, X2 and X3—are advertisement, Feedback (f), agency (A), Reader (B) and television/media (Gate Keeper) (C)
Westley McLean’s model (Cont.) Merits 1.This model accounts for Feedback. 2.It can account for both interpersonal communication and Mass communication. 3.It is a predictive model of communication and very descriptive also. 4.Westley and Maclean communication model is Two Dimensional. Demerits It cannot account for multi dimensions; this means this model will not be applicable for typical communication events that involve broader context and wide range of communication messages.
George Gerbner’s model
George Gerbner’s model (Cont.)
George Gerbner’s model (Cont.) In 1956, Gerbner attempted the general purpose of communication models. He stressed the dynamic nature of communication in his work and also the factor which affecting the reliability of communication. (Note: This model can be best understood when read along with the diagram beginning at E – Event.)
George Gerbner’s model (Cont.) (i) Perceptual Dimension: An ‘E’ is an event happens in the real life and the event content or message is perceived by ‘M’ (Man or a Machine). After Perceives the message from “E” by “M” is known as “E1”. E1 is not same as like ‘E’. Because any man or machine can’t perceives the whole event and they perceives only the part of the event (E1). This is known as “Perceptual Dimension”. These 3 factors are involves between ‘E’ and ‘M.M (man or machine) cannot perceive the entire content of the event “E”. So M selects the interesting or needed content from the entire event and filtering the others. The context occurs in the event and Availability is based on ‘M’s attitude, mood, culture and personality. (For eg. How a journalist perceives the messages from the event and also can’t focus the whole event so they filter the unwanted or unrelated content from the event. This filtered content is not same as like the actual event content because the journalist edits the content based on his attitude, mood and cultural background or press policies).
(ii) Means and Controls dimension: E2 is the event content which is drawn or artified by M. Here M becomes the source of a message about E to send someone else. M creates a statement or signals about the message and Gerbner termed its Form and content as “SE2”. S (Signal or Form) it takes and E2 (Man’s content). Here Content (E2) is structured or formed (S) by ‘M’ and it can communicate in a different ways or based on the structured ways. M has to use channels (or media) over to send the message which he has a greater or lesser degree of control. The question of ‘control’ relates to M’s degree of skill in using communication channels. If using a verbal channel, how good is he using words? If using the Internet, how good is he at using new technology and words? George Gerbner’s model (Cont.)
Important Note: Message at every level is altered or changed. Example: In case of news reporting, E can be any event that has happened and the reporter (M) selects a particular part of event (E1) that may be provide his channel higher TRP ratings or the news may boost the particular party which his channel supports. This SE2 is sent through a medium to the mass audience. Then the audience distributed the message (SE2) and he (M1) sends to his friends with his interpretation and the process continues.
Media Dependency Model
Media Dependency Model Ball-Rokeach and Defleur’s dependency model, shows the interdependence between society, mass media, audience and effects (after Ball-Rokeach and Defleur) (McQuail and Windahl, 1981). The dependency model of media effects formulated by Ball- Rockeach and DeFleur (1976, 1982), views audience effects in the context of the complexity of the larger social structure in which the individuals become more dependent on the media for information about, and orientation to, the larger social world. The model seeks to explain effects in terms of the historical conditions of society and its media. Ball-Rockeach and DeFleur are suggesting that it is the societal conditions that determine the power and type of media effects.
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