Published on December 6, 2008
Slide 1: WELCOME All Delegates City Beautification An approach to Energy efficient street Lighting with case study .KNaveen General Manager Bajaj Electricals Ltd Slide 2: Road lighting To improve the visibility to facilitate the flow of traffic and pedestrian. Reduction in night accident. Provide visual cues and reveal obstacles. Prevention in crime and aid to police protection Enhance appearance of city at day and night Promotion of business Prime Objectives: Slide 3: Road not lighted Properly lighted road Slide 4: Road accidents at night is 3 times greater than the day time Accident rates can be reduced to 30% with properly Lighted road Slide 5: Good Lighting can prevent the crime Slide 6: Enhance appearance of city by night Slide 7: Helps to Promote the business Slide 8: The Relevance of City Architecture Kolkata New Delhi Bangalore Hydrabad No matter how big or small a town or city, residents and visitors carry a distinctive image or symbol of it in their mind. The lighting designer’s task is to highlight these features of the urban landscape so that people can identify with their surroundings and get inspired by them. Chennai Slide 9: In India Marine Drive at Mumbai Quality Criteria : Quality Criteria Illuminance Level Uniformity Glare Limitation Optical guidance Slide 11: Levels of Illumination (IS1944 Part 1 & 2 -1970- 1992) Slide 12: Horizontal Illuminance Why Luminance and not illuminance is the proper yard stick? : Why Luminance and not illuminance is the proper yard stick? Illuminance (lux) Luminance(cd/sq.mtr) As motorist sees an illuminated roadway surface from a very low angle, so luminance is RIGHT YARD STICK Slide 14: TAR ROAD CEMENT ROAD Slide 15: Semi cylindrical Illuminance Uniformity : Uniformity Overall Uniformity Longitudinal uniformity Transverse uniformity Surround ratio SR. Uniformity : Uniformity LONGITUDINAL UNIFORMITY U1= (Lmin/Lmax ) OVERALL UNIFORMITY U0 = ( Lmin /Lavg ) Glare : Glare DISCOMFORT- ‘G’ VALUE DISABILITY - THRESHOLD INCREAMENT IN % 10% 40% Glare : Glare Discomfort G value of 7 or more recommended for high speed roads G value can be 5 For minor roads from safety point of view Disability TI < 15% on high speed roads TI < 30 % in all other installations Slide 20: CIE Classification Of Luminaires Based upon three basic luminaire properties: The extent to which the light from the luminaire is distributed along a road: ‘Throw’ of the luminaire. The amount of sideways spread of light, across the road: the ‘Spread’. The extent of the facility for controlling glare from luminaire : the ‘Control ‘ of the luminaire. Slide 21: Urban Rural Glare control less restrictive Pedestrians more important Light background Stringent control of glare Mixed Traffic and devoid of lighted background Slide 22: Light pollution Another Dark Sky Issue: : Another Dark Sky Issue: Light Trespass Good Outdoor Lighting ? : Good Outdoor Lighting ? Not the brightest light No glare No light trespass No direct uplight No harsh shadows No steep transitions Slide 28: Road Junctions- Visual Guidance Giving the road surface at junction higher illuminance Using different colours of light for the junction lighting Using luminaires of different type and arrangement for the main and secondary roads. Slide 29: Visual Guidance Lighting Design : Lighting Design Determine roadway classification. Selection the lighting level and uniformity. Preliminary selection of several luminaires and light sources. Preliminary selection of one or more lighting system geometries, including mounting heights and lateral luminaire positions. Selection of Light loss Factors. Calculate the pole spacing for various luminaires and lamp combinations. Lighting Design : Lighting Design Selection of final decision for optimal design. Selection of Luminaire supports considering the safety, aesthetic, cost and maintenance. Prepare the MASTER PLAN Slide 32: Light Sources ARC LAMP INCANDESCENT FTL HPMV HPSV METAL HALIDE/ INDUCTION LAMP CFL/T5 LED Are nighttime lighting levels Mesopic? : Are nighttime lighting levels Mesopic? 33 It is normally assumed that when luminances exceed 3 cd/m², conditions are photopic, and rarely is the luminance of a roadway as high as 3 cd/m². Designs performed to international standards are likely to have lighting levels in the general range of 0.3 to 2.0 cd/m². Therefore, mesopic effects can be detected when light levels are typical of roadway lighting systems. In the United States of America, the recommended average luminance for major commercial roads is1.2 cd/m² . For local residential roads, the average level is 0.3 cd/m² Other roadway classifications fall within this range. A survey of actual roadway luminance values conducted in Albany and Troy, New York, USA, showed a range from 0.74 to 0.013 cd/sq.m. It is clear, therefore, that roadway lighting levels fall in the range of luminances which are classified as mesopic. ) Slide 34: Scotopic Photopic Mesopic S/P ratio is key in night vision : 35 S/P ratio is key in night vision The S/P ratio is the Scotopic eye sensitivity divided by Photopic sensitivity S/P= V’(λ)/V(λ) S/P = vision factor at night The higher the S/P ratio, the better the night vision Slide 36: Selection of Luminaires Optics :Reflector System Compactness Light Source E / T Mechanical Strength Degree of Protection Aesthetic Easy to install & maintain Slide 37: LUMINAIRE SELECTION CRITERIA CONSTRUCTIONAL SINGLE PIECE SHEET ALUMINIUM 2 PIECE CONSTRUCTION SINGLE PIECE DIE CAST ALUMINIUM Evolution of IP : I IP 55 IP 65/66 Evolution of IP IP 43 Slide 39: Appearance Of Luminaire Luminaire Aesthetic: Luminaire is not a mere product but an integral part of road architecture. Aesthetics is a fusion of shape, contour, colour & above all finish. Industrial designing becomes part & parcel of luminaire development process like any other consumer durable. Slide 40: CONVENTIONAL MAINTENANCE FROM DOWN Slide 41: MAINTENANCE FROM TOP- PROVIDE TABLE TOP COMFORT AT SITE Slide 42: What is a GLASKOTE Finish? The GLASKOTE finish is a thin transparent, flexible coating of very high quality, chemically and heat cured glass which has been bonded to an aluminum reflector surface Thickness Anodising : 30 Microns GLASKOTE: 2 Microns Reflector System - GLASKOTE Comparison of Glaskote & Anodising : Comparison of Glaskote & Anodising GLASKOTE Easy Maintenance – can be cleaned using soap water thus the illuminance level is maintained Longer life Resistance to heat, chemicals and humid conditions Reduction in number of luminaires up to 15% ANODISING The reflectivity suffers once dust gets collected thus the illumination level drops down Less than that of Glaskote This is not suitable for the said conditions. VE reflector has to be used. Slide 44: Road width 6mtr, Mounting height 7mtr., 8 LUX Slide 45: Road width 10 mtr, Pole height 9 mtr , 20 LUX Selection of Mounting height : Selection of Mounting height Spacing Luminaire type and distribution Lighting Level Uniformity Glare Access to servicing Trees Aesthetic appearance. Slide 47: Single - Sided Arrangement When width of road is = or < MH Slide 48: Staggered Arrangement When width of road is = Between 1 or 1.5 times MH Slide 49: Opposite Arrangement When width of road is greater than 1. 5 times MH Slide 50: Central,Twin Bracket When luminaires are located above central verge only Slide 51: designers bracket Slide 52: LIGHTING DESIGN Lighting Design Softwares : Lighting Design Softwares AGI32 Dialux Relux Lumen micro Ray front Micro lux Lumen designer Customized software like Bliss, Photolux…….. ……… Slide 54: Photolux Slide 56: Curves Spacing function of radius of curve Smaller the radius closer is the spacing Spacing vary from 0.5 to 0.75 times spacing of straight road Appearance and environmental aspects : Appearance and environmental aspects Pole Height in relation to the surrounding buildings and trees. Pole Location. Design of poles. Complexity of lighting arrangement Design of luminaires. Environmental aspects : Environmental aspects Slide 59: Maintenance Schedule for cleaning the Acrylic Covers/Reflectors Replacement of Accessories including Light sources Regulate the Voltage ( Provide the right Supply). Schedule for Regular Energy Audits Road Surface Upgradation THE LIFE TIME COST OF A LUMINAIRE : THE LIFE TIME COST OF A LUMINAIRE we can replace 400w old street luminaire with 250w New generation luminaire without compromising the Illumination levels. Dynamic Lighting : Dynamic Lighting Slide 62: High Wattage Low Wattage Slide 64: Magic Box, an innovation from Bajaj Electricals Limited, is a versatile and state-of-the-art concept in energy conservation. Magic Box is an attachment which can be used along with multi tap ballast for all existing roadway and other outdoor lighting installations, without any major modification in the luminaire. Magic Box is extremely useful in outdoor applications, eg. Highway and Multi-level Junctions, Roads and Flyovers, Commercial and Residential Complexes / Security lighting. etc. Slide 65: Magic Box Slide 66: MINIMUM 25% ENERGY SAVING DURING NON-PEAKHOURS MICROPROCESSOR BASED REAL TIME CLOCK PROGRAMMED ACCORDING TO GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION ILLUMINATION UNIFORMITY IS MAINTAINED ENERGY SAVING THROUGH INPUT VOLTAGE REDUCTION GSM TECHNOLOGY (CELLULAR PHONE) BASED HIGHLY RELIABLE SYSTEM AUTOMATIC CONTROL AND REMOTE OPERATION FROM CONTROL STATION REMOTE OPERATION THROUGH MOBILE PHONES AT ZONAL LEVEL CONTINUOUS MONITORING & RECORDING OF ALL ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS ENERGY SAVING PANEL WITH SCADA SYSTEM Slide 67: ENERGY SAVING PANEL WITH SCADA SYSTEM Slide 68: KHARGHAR STREET LIGHTING A CASE STUDY Objective : Objective World class unique installation with minimum Energy consumption and easy maintenance without compromising the quality. Master Plan : Master Plan Discussion with Different Utilities such as Drainage, water supply, … Simulation of selected stretch of road at Day and night. Importance for visual guidance, position of pole. Illumination of other structures related to road lighting KHARGHAR STREET LIGHTING : KHARGHAR STREET LIGHTING Total road Length --- 30 km Road width -- 10 +3 mtr Type of road -- Central verge Illumination Level --- 20lux Uniformity ----0.4 Pole height -- 10 Mtr Bracket Length – 2 mtr Type of Lamp - 250w HPSV+ Junctions : Junctions Type of lamp -----Metal Halide Illuminance Level -- 30 Lux. Pole height -- 12 mtr. Foot path -- 10 lux Uniformity ---- 0.4 KHARGHAR STREET LIGHTING : KHARGHAR STREET LIGHTING Momentum Slide 77: COMPARISON Slide 78: DISADVANTAGES OF PAINTED POLES RUSTING EXTERNAL JB& ELELCTRICAL CONNECTIONS Slide 80: MID HINGED MAST Hinged poles Slide 81: Voltage Control Principle: Reduction in applied voltage reduces power consumption with reduction in Lumen Output without reducing uniformity. Example: A 250W HPSV lamp when run on approximately 205 Volts instead of rated 240 Volts consumes approximately 150W. The lumen output reduces by approximately 50%. This arrangement can be implemented during non-peak working hours when reduced lux level is acceptable without sacrificing on uniformity. Slide 82: Voltage Control Typical saving on a street lighting installation. Assuming a stretch of 50 poles with double sided arrangement No. of fittings – 100 nos. each of 250W HPSV. Total load at rated voltage of 240V incl Ballast losses – 282x100=28.2KW Power consumption at reduced voltage of approx. 205V – 175x100=17.5kW. Considering working of 12 hours from 6pm to 6am, Power consumption without energy saving = 28.2KW x 12Hrs = 338.4kWH Considering working in saving mode during non-peak hours from 12 midnight to 6am, the Energy consumption will be 28.2kWx6Hrs+17.5kWx6Hrs = 274.2kWH. % Saving = (338.4 – 274.2) / 338.4 x 100 = 19%. Effective saving is around 18.5% considering coil losses in panel. Slide 86: Before After conclusion Slide 87: In india Lighting Furniture Slide 89: AT JAPAN Slide 90: Lumega GERMANY Slide 91: AT GERMANY Slide 92: Jalisco, maxico Mississippi, USA Slide 93: Victoria Canada Eiffel Tower, Italy Near twin towers, NEWYORK Slide 94: GEOGIA,USA Port land,OREGON,USA Golden gate bridge USA Slide 95: Jalisco Mexico River front UK GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE,USA Slide 96: Thames river, uk PIER SEVEN, USA COLUMBIA ,Canada Slide 97: LED for Road Lighting Slide 98: BUYER Consultant/ Contractor Utilities Manufacturer Guidance Proper Voltage The Right Luminaire Recommendations Slide 99: Light is :……….. Celebration, Emotion, Happiness, Joy and Growth & Development Thanks for your kind attention 9 POINT METHOD OF ROAD LIGHTING MEASUREMENT:- : 9 POINT METHOD OF ROAD LIGHTING MEASUREMENT:- Contd… : Contd… P1+ P2 +P4+ P5 Average Illuminance G1= ----------------------- 4 P2+ P3+ P4+ P5 Average Illuminance G2= ----------------------- 4 P4+ P5+ P7 +P8 Average Illuminance G3= ----------------------- 4 P5+ P6+ P8+ P9 Average Illuminance G4= ----------------------- 4 Average Illuminance of road = G1+ G2+ G3+ G4 P1 +P3 +P7 +P9 P2 + P4+ P6 +P8 P5 = ------------------------ + ------------------------- + -------- 16 8 2 COMPARISION BETWEEN HPS & METAL HALIDE SYSTEMS IN PHOTOPIC & MESOPIC LUMINANCES : COMPARISION BETWEEN HPS & METAL HALIDE SYSTEMS IN PHOTOPIC & MESOPIC LUMINANCES Less light, more sight : 103 Less light, more sight Visibility at clear moon light Mesopic light How do the different lamp compare? : How do the different lamp compare? Slide 105: Calculation grid Slide 106: Maintenance CIE Classification : CIE Classification Basic parameters : Basic parameters Mounting height Overhang Tilt Spacing Mesophic vision : Mesophic vision 109 Scotopic Mesopic Photopic <0,01 cd/m² |0,01 cd/m² 3 cd/m² | > 3cd/m² Mesopic light is adapting to the eye : 110 Mesopic light is adapting to the eye Human eye is more sensative to blue at night (Purkinje shift) Using yellow requires higher wattages to provide good vision Slide 112: Visual Guidance Slide 114: In India Glare Ramifications : Glare Ramifications General Safety Comfort Consideration for an ageing population Need more light for given tasks Basic arrangements : Basic arrangements Single sided Staggered Opposite Central verge Catenary type Combined type New trends in Lighting : New trends in Lighting Conflicting evidence Colour of Light Security and Light RUE (rational use of energy) and environmental issues Dark sky policy Lighting master plan Revolution of LED Glare : Glare Discomfort Glare Induces Visual discomfort Dependent on Luminaire Design & Design of Installation Disability Glare Impairs Vision Function of Source Luminance & the Luminance of Background Slide 120: Curves Slide 121: Crossing of major and minor roads
内容提示： KARNATAKA STATE CENTREVision 2010 ... 2008Vision 2010 was organised by ISLE KSC around the theme of better Lighting with less energy and ...