Islamic and western world contributions in field of psychology

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Information about Islamic and western world contributions in field of psychology

Published on March 7, 2014

Author: sajid93


Palwasha Nazar Presented to : Ma'am Asma Bashir

Topic ‘’Islamic And Western World Contributions In Field Of Psychology’’

• Roots Of Psychology • Schools Of Psychology • Approaches Of Psychology • Western Famous Contributors • Islamic World Famous Contributors • Common Concepts Given By Both Worlds • Summary

Roots of psychology Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Components:  Behavior – Anything that you do that can be observed.  Mental Processes – Internal experiences such as: thoughts, feelings, sensations, and perceptions.  Systematic Study: Systematic collection and examination of data (empirical evidence) to support or disprove hypotheses (predictions) rather than depending on common sense.

Historical Roots of Psychology Two historical roots of psychology are the disciplines of:  Philosophy and chemistry  Philosophy and physiology  Philosophy and physics

Plato and Aristotle  Greek philosopher that believed that who we are and what we know are innate (inborn).  What we know are acquired from experience.  Mind body relationship  Body-mind duality

Rene Descartes  The French philosopher / mathematician  Invented the Cartesian system of coordinates (the coordinate geometry)  Believed in the body-mind duality. But he was open enough to consider that there is an uninterrupted transaction between the body and the mind.

John Locke  The body-mind duality  „Clean-slate mind‟ (tabula rasa)  Knowledge comes from observation, and what we know comes from experience.

Nature vs. Nurture Controversy The debate about the extent to which our behavior is inborn or learned through experience is called the nature vs. nurture controversy. „‟Men are made, not born „‟

Schools And Approaches To Psychology 1. School of Structuralism 2. School of Functionalism 3. Gestalt psychology

School of Structuralism  First school of psychology  Focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components  Wilhelm Wundt helped found the school of structuralism which aimed to focus on the structure of the mind and identify the basic elements of consciousness.

School of Functionalism  Formed as a reaction to the theories of the Structuralism school  Instead of focusing on the mental processes themselves, functionalist thinkers were instead interested in the role that these processes play.

Gestalt psychology  Formed as a reaction to the over emphasis of reductionist methods in psychology  Against blind reliance on analysis and reductionism  The gestalt psychologists believed that you must look at the whole of experience as each person has a completely different experience when viewing the world

Eight Approaches To Psychology  Behavioral Approach  Psychoanalytic approach  Psychodynamic Approach  Humanistic Approach  Biological Approach  Cognitive Approach  Evolutionary Approach  Socio-cultural Approach  Eclectic approach

IBN SINA (980-1037)  Qur'an and the Arabic classics  Neurosciences  Psychophysiology and psychosomatic medicine  Studied senses

AL-KINDI (803-873)  Pioneer in experimental psychology  Cognitive method to combat depression  Music therapy  Spiritual (nafsani)

AL-FARABI (870-950)  Causes of dreams  Worked on Social Psychology He stated that "an isolated individual could not achieve all the perfections by himself, without the aid of other individuals."

IMAM GHAZALI (1058-1111) He described the self using four terms: 1) Qalb (heart) 2) Ruh (spirit) 3) Nafs (soul) 4) 'Aql (intellect).

Continued… He stated : "The self has an inherent yearning for an ideal, which it strives to realize and it is able with qualities to help realize it."

Continued… He further wrote that impulse resides in the muscles, nerves, and tissues, and moves the organs to “fulfill the partialities.” Partialities may include hunger, thirst, and sexual craving, rage, indignation and revenge.

ASHRAF ALI THANVI (1873-1943)  Referred to by many south Asian Muslims as „physician of the Muslims„ and „Reformer of the Nation‟  Thanvi believed in individual potentialities and qualities of human beings.

Continued … Ashraf Ali Thanvi divided his therapies into two kinds: 1. Reading therapy 2. Communication therapy

Prophet Muhammad {SAW} -(570-632) Focused on:  Superiority and inferiority complex  Wisdom  Manners  Good health  Spiritual elevation and purity  Clarity of thoughts  Positive thoughts  Building of character  Meditation

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