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Published on June 17, 2007

Author: Lilly

Source: authorstream.com

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Chapter 10::  Chapter 10: Marriage and Alternative Family Lifestyles What to Expect in This Chapter...:  What to Expect in This Chapter... Defining the Family Functions of the Family Family Structures Aspects of Marriage The Changing Family Alternative Lifestyles Defining the Family:  Defining the Family Distinguishing between household and family A household refers to all individuals who share a common dwelling, regardless of kinship or economic ties A family is defined by anthropologist George Murdock as a social group having a common residence, economic ties and reproduction, consisting of two adults of the opposite sex and their children Sociologists today find this definition restrictive; there are single parent families, childless families, etc. Functions of the Family:  Functions of the Family Family Structures: Family Form:  Family Structures: Family Form Nuclear Family—the most basic family form comprised of a married couple and their children Extended Family—includes additional generations beyond nuclear family, comprising grandparents, aunts/uncles, etc. living in the same household Family Structures: Marriage Form:  Family Structures: Marriage Form Monogamous marriages —marriage patterns that involve one male and one female Polygamous marriages —marriage patterns that involve one central individual of one sex and two or more individuals of the opposite sex. Polygamous marriages take two forms: Polygyny —marriage pattern involving one central male married to two or more females Polyandry—marriage pattern involving one central female married to two or more males Family Structures: Lineage Systems:  Family Structures: Lineage Systems Lineage refers to the way in which the generations trace their identity There are three ways in which families trace their lineage worldwide: Patrilineal systems—lineage is traced through the males of the family Martilineal systems—lineage is traced through the females of the family Bilateral systems—lineage is traced through both males and females Family Structures: Systems of Authority:  Sociologists distinguish between patriarchal and matriarchal authority structures Patriarchal structures are those in which the major affairs of the family are dominated and controlled by men Matriarchal structures are those in which family affairs are dominated by women In the United States, power is generally shared by both men women. This is sometimes called a bilateral authority structure Family Structures: Systems of Authority Aspects of Marriage:  Aspects of Marriage Defining Marriage:  Defining Marriage Marriage is the '...socially recognized, legitimized, and supported union of individuals of opposite sexes.' Marriage differs from other unions or partnerships in the following ways: The marriage ceremony takes place in a public manner Sexual intercourse is explicitly recognized as an element in the relationship It provides the basis for legitimizing offspring It is intended to be a stable and enduring relationship Romantic Love:  Romantic Love Romantic love is seen as the basis for marriage in American and many western societies Romantic love can be defined in terms of 5 elements; Idealization of the loved one Idea of a 'one and only' Love at first sight Love winning out overall Indulgence of personal emotions In many societies, romantic love is not seen as a necessary part of marriage Choice of Partner:  Choice of Partner All societies have two types of rules for choosing marriage partners Rules of endogamy—stipulate that an individual must marry within certain social groups, such as one’s own social class or race Rules of exogamy—stipulate that one must marry outside of certain social categories, such as one’s own family or sex. It is common for people to marry people similar to themselves, tendency that is referred to as homogamy Marital Residence:  Marital Residence Most societies have strong norms about where a couple should live, commonly called marital residence rules Patrilocal residence calls for the new couple to live with the husbands family Matrilocal residence calls for the new couple to live with the wife’s family Bilocal residence allows the couple to live with either the husband’s or the wife’s family Neolocal residence, characteristic of the United States, encourages the couple to establish independent residence The Changing Family: Extended to Nuclear Family:  The Changing Family: Extended to Nuclear Family The Industrial Revolution was instrumental in the shift from the extended family to the nuclear family Industrialism demands that workers be geographically mobile Industrialism also requires social mobility which is not compatible with the more traditional extended family Nuclear family emphasizes bilateral inheritance and descent, encouraging women to become part of the workforce The Changing Family: Changes in the Marriage Rate:  The Changing Family: Changes in the Marriage Rate Sociologists examine trends in marriage in three ways: Calculating the total number of marriages Examining the marriage rate (number of marriages per 1,000 population) Examining the marriage rate of unmarried women aged 18-44 The latter has been a preferred statistic because it identifies trends in first time marriages As the chart on the next page shows, marriage is less popular among single women Slide16:  Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1997 The Changing Family: Cohabitation:  The Changing Family: Cohabitation Cohabitation, or 'living together' out of wedlock, has increased nearly eightfold since 1970 More than 40% of women have been in an unmarried domestic partnership at some time in their lives The Changing Family: Childless Couples and Changing Household Size:  The Changing Family: Childless Couples and Changing Household Size Since 1984, there have been more couples without children than those with children Some are 'pre-parents:' couples who intend to have children Others are 'empty-nesters:' children have already left Still others are childless by choice or fertility problems In 1790, the average household size was 5.8 members; in 1998, the average size was 2.6 members. Several factors account for this: Elderly parents not as likely to live with children Higher divorce rates Later marriages/less children The Changing Family: Women in the Labor Force:  The Changing Family: Women in the Labor Force WWII marked a turning point in women entering the labor force Nearly 65 million women had paying jobs in 1999—up more than 200% in 50 years Occupational segregation is still present, but lessening as revealed in the following table Slide20:  The Changing Family: Family Violence:  The Changing Family: Family Violence Spouse and child abuse occur in all sectors of society. The following categories are most at risk, however: Urban, lower class families Families with more than 4 children Families that are socially isolated Some studies suggest that family violence may be decreasing The Changing Family: Divorce and Remarriage:  The Changing Family: Divorce and Remarriage Divorce rates have risen considerably since 1970 A major reason is a shift in divorce laws in most states allowing for 'no fault' divorce The divorce rate is now leveling off High divorce rates do not necessarily signify a rejection of marriage. Most people who divorce eventually remarry This typically involves the blending together of two families, called 'step- families' or 'blended families' Sociologists refer to the pattern of divorce and remarriage as 'serial monogamy' Alternative Lifestyles:  Alternative Lifestyles The following trends, which represent a shift from the traditional nuclear family have been observed

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