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Published on January 22, 2008

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Autonomy Architectures for a Constellation of Spacecraft:  Autonomy Architectures for a Constellation of Spacecraft Anthony Barrett Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Presented by Russell Knight Motivation:  Objective To control fleets/constellations of spacecraft with collective mission goals Why? Many proposals for such missions have recently appeared. Interferometers Plasma Physics Robotic colonies Motivation Outline:  Outline The 4 Components of Autonomy Architecture 1: Master/Slave Coordination Architecture 2: Teamwork Architecture 3: Peer-to-Peer Coordination Concluding Remarks Scientist to Spacecraft Connectivity:  Scientist to Spacecraft Connectivity Objective Let scientists directly command their spacecraft over the internet Motivations Lets scientists command spacecraft through internet. Gives scientists feedback by rapidly checking if a science plan is feasible. Facilitates migrating the process onto the spacecraft Scientist to Spacecraft Connectivity:  ASPEN/WITS Scientists generate a set of requests in WITS, and an automated path planner generates the path. Planner/Scheduler automatically validates mission plan against flight rules, and inserts maintenance activities (human intervention through GUI also allowed). Executive & Diagnostician macro expands activities into executable rover actions, feeding them to the rover’s reactive control, and interpreting the results. Scientist to Spacecraft Connectivity Technological Progression:  Technological Progression Autonomy for One:  Autonomy for One Description To migrate planning, scheduling, robust execution, and diagnostics onto a spacecraft. Motivation Faster: makes replanning more responsive to anomalies Better: facilitates missions to poorly understood environments Cheaper: reduces operations costs and increases efficient use of limited communications Slide8:  Deep Space 1 Remote Agent Experiment Slide9:  CASPER Continuous Planner Architecture Tightly Coordinated Autonomy:  Tightly Coordinated Autonomy Description To command a group of spacecraft where all spacecraft are tightly coordinated to achieve joint goals. Motivation To make missions with multiple tightly coupled spacecraft faster, better, and cheaper To enable missions with more spacecraft by reducing the communications per spacecraft requirements. Autonomous Agent Architecture (Master/Slave):  Autonomous Agent Architecture (Master/Slave) Three Spacecraft Interferometer:  The combiner S/C is the master and the collector S/C are the slaves. Each slave iteratively collects its sensor values into a packet, transmits the packet to the master, receives a control packet from the master, and distributes the packet’s bits to its actuators. Observation bandwidth  (# sensor bits)/(feedback latency) This approach does not scale well with the number of slaves or their complexity. Three Spacecraft Interferometer Autonomous Agent Architecture (Teamwork):  Autonomous Agent Architecture (Teamwork) Actuator Signals & Team State Changes Sensor feedback & Team State Changes Data Objectives Actuator Signals & Team State Changes Goals, Sensor feedback & Team State Changes Slide14:  Coordination for Multiple Spacecraft Benefits Teamwork localizes feedback loops to reduces bandwidth. Distributed operations utilizes parallel computing resources for diagnostics. Loosely Coordinated Autonomy:  Loosely Coordinated Autonomy Description To command a constellation where each spacecraft operates independently after getting its goals. Motivation To make missions with multiple spatially-isolated spacecraft faster, better, and cheaper To facilitate task migration between spacecraft as remote environmental conditions vary. Autonomous Agent Architecture (Peer-to-Peer):  Autonomous Agent Architecture (Peer-to-Peer) Loosely Coordinated Constellation Example:  Loosely Coordinated Constellation Example Concluding Remarks:  Concluding Remarks This talk described a 4 module anatomy of an autonomous spacecraft’s software and showed how to define 3 different constellation autonomy architectures by placing modules on spacecraft. These architectures are orthogonal. A constellation can have several peers that lead a set of followers, and they each can teleoperate several slaves. Contact Information:  Contact Information Anthony Barrett Artificial Intelligence Group Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology anthony.barrett@jpl.nasa.gov http://www-aig.jpl.nasa.gov/

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