Published on March 21, 2009
Management Functions Henri Fayol suggested that there are four primary functions of the manager: planning, controlling, directing and staffing. Since the early 1900s they have guided the actions of managers. While they still hold value today, they now mean different things in light of the current environment. Managers have always been required to engage in planning. Not so long ago, it was believed this planning varied by organizational level. That is, top management planned in the longest time horizon and engaged in more strategic planning. Middle managers planned in a medium time horizon and lower level managers engaged in more operational planning that was shorter term. Today, however, all managers are being asked to engage in strategic planning. The responsibilities for strategic management are being delegated down the organizational pyramid with all managers responsible for taking a long-term view of the organization. Staffing involves placing the right person in the right job within the organization. This staffing responsibility today also involves ensuring the person-job-organization fit is made. This means managers are not only concerned with staffing the position with the right person, but also ensuring the person quot;fitsquot; with the organization taking into account organizational culture. Two decades ago this fit was not part of the staffing decision-making process. Today, however, it is recognized certain personality types fit better with specific organizational types. For example, people that are more open and less rigid tend to be more comfortable in organic organizations. Employees who are more comfortable with rigid rules and procedures work best in mechanistic organizations and bureaucracies. The role of control has always been important to managers. Only by comparing actual performance to desired performance are gaps identified in order to take corrective action. Control today is tied to technology. The role of control has been changed with the technological advancements. Some of the control has even been quot;replacedquot; with computers, as they monitor employee performance on jobs that was once monitored by human managers. The role
of control has also been reexamined from an ethical perspective. That is, employees do not want to be controlled and the move is toward self-control on the part of employees. Of the four functions of management, perhaps the greatest changes have been seen in the directing function. Even the term directing itself seems archaic in terms of the changing environment. Astute managers today are more engaged in coaching and mentoring rather than the traditional directing. The traditional role of directing was more in line of Frederick Taylor's view of management responsibility in organizations. That is, the manager's responsibility was to determine the one best way to perform the job and the worker's responsibility was to perform the job in that one best way. The manager, then, directed the employee in how to perform the job. Much of the decision making was removed from the employee's hands.
Controlling Control is one of the managerial functions like planning, organizing, staffing and directing. It is an important function because it helps to check the errors and to take the corrective action so that deviation from standards are minimized and stated goals of the organization are achieved in desired manner. According to modern concepts, control is a foreseeing action whereas earlier concept of control was used only when errors were detected. Control in management means setting standards, measuring actual performance and taking corrective action. Thus, control comprises these three main activities. Definition According to Harold Koontz , “Controlling is the measurement and correction of performance in order to make sure that enterprise objectives and the plans devised to attain them are accomplished.” According to Henri Fayol , “Control consists of verifying whether everything occurs in conformity with the plan adopted, the instructions issued, and principles established. Its object is to point out weaknesses and errors in order to rectify them and prevent recurrence.” Characteristics of Control Control is a continuous process. 1. 2. Control is a management process. Control is embedded in each level of organizational hierarchy. 3. Control is forward looking. 4.
Control is closely linked with planning. 5. Controlling is tool for achieving organizational activities. 6. Importance of controlling:- 1. Facilitates achievement of targets. Facilitates regular consultation. 2. 3. Facilitates coordination and efficiency. Avoids deviation. 4. 5. Avoids wastages. 6. Provides remedial measures. 7. Objective oriented. 8. Introduces delegation and decentralization. 9. Removes weak points. Raises employees morale. 10.
An organization cannot work without effective control mechanism. Controlling is a regulatory activity. It is rightly treated as the soul of management process. Controlling enables an enterprise to move towards its objectives. To control means to see that there is no deviation between the expected result and the actual results. Control is used in all functional area of management such as production control, quality control, inventory control and so on. In controlling, managers evaluate how well the organization is achieving its goals and takes corrective action to improve performance. Managers will monitor individuals, departments, and the organization to determine if desired performance has been reached. Managers will also take action to increase performance as required. The outcome of the controlling function is the accurate measurement of performance and regulation of efficiency and effectiveness.
Guidance Guidance can be defined as: - “The act or process of guiding” or “The one who shows the way by leading, directing, or advising. “ or “The one who serves as a model for others, as in a course of conduct.” Good manager guide their employees to continually learn new skills and work toward organizational goals, while being sensitive to their needs. This kind of guidance gives employees a vested interest in their organization, which will affect the quality of their work. The good manager is a leader, not an order giver.
When a manager tells an employee what he want done, instead of giving an order, the manager give their employees the freedom to come up with their best way of getting that task done. It may not always be the best way, and the manager may have to do some monitoring and guiding, but there is also the chance that they will come up with something better than what the manager has planned. When an employee is given an instruction, they have to think. They have to think of ways to get the job done. They have to decide which is the best way. They have to invest a little of themselves in the solution. Also, when a manager give an employee an instruction, and lets his employees decide for themselves the best way to accomplish the task, they are more likely to get their buy-in and support. If they have made the decision about the best way to accomplish the task they are more likely to believe it is correct and valuable. They will defend it against others who question it. Guiding involves working with an employee to establish goals, granting them sufficient authority and responsibility to achieve the goals, often giving them substantial freedom in deciding how the goals will be achieved, remaining available as a resource to help them achieve the goals, assessing their performance (the quality of their effort and attainment of the goals). Guiding can sometimes be a major challenge for new supervisors to learn because they are concerned about giving up control or struggle to have confidence in the abilities of others. Managers that can effectively guide can free up a great deal of their own time, help their direct reports to cultivate expertise in learning, and can develop their own leadership skills -- skills that are critical for problem solving, goal attainment and learning. As a guider, a manager advises and assists employees. This does not mean controlling and issuing commands. The manager as guider requires the role be one of support. The manager provides guidance to the employees in an objective fashion. Good guidance can foster better relationships between managers and employees. The concept of guidance focuses on the developmental needs of employees. This requires the manager help employees tap into their full potential and improve flexibility. The focus is on means (not ends). That is, the move is
away from rigid rules and procedures. More flexibility is allowed in how the tasks are performed. The guider empowers employees. Rather than exerting control over workers, this manager sets employees up to manage themselves. This means giving up control. The guider in today's workforce is a listener. The directing manager exerted control through talking. Little listening was actually done. In addition, this new manager uses participative decision making. Autocratic decision making has no role in guiding. There are benefits for both employers and employees of guidance For employers: 1. Guidance may help identify training needs. 2. Guidance and lifelong learning can lead to the development of skills which are useful to the employer. 3. Guidance and participation in learning can improve team working. 4. Workers are likely to be more loyal and committed to their work if their employer is considerate of their needs and shows how much employees are valued. 5. Feeling valued by the employer reduces staff turnover. 6. Offering guidance or help with guidance improves the company image. For employees: 1. Access to guidance increases knowledge and the range of options; 2. Guidance can increase self-confidence and self-esteem; 3. Learning as an adult can restore confidence in the ability to learn, both on formal courses and in the workplace; 4. Learning may lead to valued qualifications which assist in career progression within the firm; Workers can reflect on their work situation within a guidance 5. setting.
The best guider is sincere and open. This helps create a climate of trust and mutual respect where employees can take risks without fear-such as trying new ideas. Yet employees in this environment are comfortable recognizing the ownership of their decisions. This mentoring manager serves as a role model and a teacher. This manager gently guides the activities of others. Contrary to earlier theories suggesting managers had to be strong and in control, today's managers must be caring and show concern for their human resources. Managers as guiders help employees become more proactive. Case study Computer Angels is a multicrore enterprise with its production units located at Nashik, Indore and Gurgaon. Its head office is situated at Delhi. The company adopted budgetary system with main emphasis on production and expenses budget. The budget targets are based on the analysis of production facilities and production operations. Nashik and Indore plants were performing well but the plant at Gurgaon performed below the targets. The company transferred Aditya Sood from Indore to Gurgaon as plant manager with the clear instruction to raise production and productivity. Sood
enjoyed the reputation of being a democratic leader but disciplinarian. On joining Gurgaon plant he convened meeting of supervisory staff and workers separately. After having established basic acquaintance he stressed the need to increase production by twenty percent. From the very next day Sood reached very early and remained in the office till late hours. This infused ready discipline and workers could not avoid work. Sood asked the supervisor to submit report to him about the progress of work every two hours. It was possible for him to note deviation and suggest remedies. He spent least time in the office and kept moving from one plant to another. His presence in the premises brought automatic control. From the very first month production started increasing. At the end of the first year management could see that the target of twenty percent increase in the production was achieved and neither break-down in the production nor major compliant were received.
Is Controlling Important Or Guidance? Change is indeed the order of the day. As we move toward networked organizations, a global society and knowledge workers, the organizations are changing. And these changes require managers change as well. The role of managers within our organizations is drastically different than it was just ten years ago. And what's more, we are just beginning to see the start of these changes. As the structures within our businesses are altered, the processes by which the work is performed are also altered. The role of the manager within our organizations has indeed changed in response to the times. As organizations move toward the autonomous work group, empowered employees and the self-managed team, the very nature of quot;directingquot; the work of others has changed. This function now means managers need to be coaches and mentors-not directors. The command and control manager is a dinosaur. There is no longer a place in our progressive organizations for this manager. Instead, our businesses need managers that can fill the new need for these new roles - those of coach and mentor. Most managers today were trained in the old management styles. This is the environment in which today's managers matured and this is what they imitate. Many traditional managers aspired to the command and control manager. Now that they are there, they find these management skills are obsolete. These skills do not fit today's organizations. It is time to move on and accept the need to change. This requires, then, that managers consciously decide to acquire new skills and set aside the quot;oldquot; skills no longer appropriate given the environment existing in business today. The most basic foundation of a good guider, as a manager, is the belief this is the best approach to managing employees. To be a good guider requires hard
work, but the benefits of improved performance by employees are great - for the manager, the employee and the organization. The job as a manager is to get things done. However, it also means getting things done through others. When you give orders, you limit the group to your level of expertise. When you guide your employees, you let the employees contribute whatever they can. However, it also might be better than your idea. When that happens, the managers have an employee who feels involved and motivated and you look smarter. In controlling, managers evaluate how well the organization is achieving its goals and takes corrective action to improve performance. Managers will monitor individuals, departments, and the organization to determine if desired performance has been reached. Managers will also take action to increase performance as required. The outcome of the controlling function is the accurate measurement of performance and regulation of efficiency and effectiveness. Whereas the guider empowers employees. Rather than exerting control over workers, this manager sets employees up to manage themselves. This means giving up control. This helps create a climate of trust and mutual respect where employees can take risks without fear-such as trying new ideas. So hence, a manager must study the situation and then decides whether to guide the employees or to have a control over the employees. If the employees are highly skilled then he need not have a control over them. Hence both plays a important role in the organization and without which the organization cannot achieve its objectives.
REFERENCES Management and Organization - Louis Allen Principles of Management – Koontz and O’Donnell www.managementhelp.com www.csupomona.edu www.employeefactor.com
Active Implement Guidance utilizes the Application Controller 1100, ... Ag Management Solutions; Commercial ... Active Implement Guidance automatically ...
With AutoTrac™ Controller, ... Ag Management Solutions; Commercial Worksite Products; Commercial; Residential; Motorsports; Used Equipment; Parts & Service;
Guidance for Review and Certification of Defense ... DBSs Investment Management Process Guidance February 2015 ... controlling, and evaluating IT ...
Course name Instructors Management and Controlling Prof. Dr. Christian Armbruster ... Controlling you will be introduced to the differences between the ...
... Financial Reporting & Controlling ... Management Financial Reporting & Controlling. ... Guidance and Control Systems ...
Implementation Guide (Guide) ... by providing interpretive guidance and ... committee for purposes of this regulation at the election of the controlling ...
It is a hidden force which binds all the other functions of management. ... directing and controlling. ... instructions & guidance to the subordinates ...
CASE STUDY: Overcoming Challenges Involved with Removal ... Expiry Date Management ... use of IXRS in clinical trials provides guidance on