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Published on April 16, 2008

Author: Susann


Slide1:  Onion, Garlic, Leek: Horticulture and Human Health Irwin Goldman University of Wisconsin-Madison Slide2:  Garden of Eden Goldman Slide3:  Goldman Slide4:  Rice deters demons affecting fertility of the newlyweds Tomato was used to treat eye diseases Seeds from Apiaceae species were used to derive medicines Alliums were used for infections and to improve circulation Plant-Based Folklore Goldman Slide5:  Coincidence? Goldman Slide6:  Monomolecular Drugs Goldman Slide7:  Functional Foods? Goldman Slide8:  Functional Foods Similar in appearance to conventional food Demonstrated physiological benefit beyond nutritional value Example: antioxidant function of carotenoids, beyond Vitamin A nutrition Therefore, the molecule is multi-functional Goldman Slide9:  Dysfunctional Foods? Goldman Slide10:  Harper’s Bazaar, 1898 Harper’s Bazaar, 1998 Snake Oil: Steady Work for Over One Century Goldman Slide11:  Let your food be your medicine and your medicine be your food -Hippocrates Goldman Slide12:  Egyptian use of Alliums for heart ailments Olympic athletes use Alliums for circulation Blood clots in horses treated with onion and garlic Goldman Slide13:  Are Alliums functional foods? ? Goldman Slide14:  Defense Compounds Sulfur stored as ACSOs Tissue disruption initiates lysis of ACSOs Causing formation of thiosulfinates, other OSCs Organosulfur compounds deter many pests Sulfate ACSOs Pest resistance Thiosulfinates Alliinase Fenwick and Hanley, 1986 Goldman Slide15:  Chemical Composition of Garlic Water 620-680 Carbohydrates 260-300 Fiber 15 Protein 15-21 Amino Acids 10-15 OSCs 11-35 Vitamins 0.15 Minerals 7 Sulfur 2.3-3.7 Nitrogen 6-13 Lipids 1-2 Adenosine 0.1 mg/g FW ACSOs 6-19 g-Glut.Cyst. 5-16 Unique Featues: High OSC content Low moisture (65%) High fructans (65% of DW) High AA, arginine High S content High Se content Goldman Slide16:  Chemical Composition of Garlic Presence of Principal OSCs in Garlic ---------mg/g FW------- Whole Crushed ACSOs 6-17 0 g-GACs 5-15 5-15 Thiosulfinates 0 3-5 Goldman Slide17:  Cell bundle sheath cells Cytoplasm, mesophyll storage cells Goldman Slide18:  Distribution of Flavor Precursors Goldman Slide19:   Glutamyl-S-allylcysteine Alliin Cycloalliin  Glutamyl-S-t-1-propenlcysteine Methiin Whole Crushed Processed Alliinase Sulfenic Acids Allicin + Allyl methanethiosulfinate + Pyruvic Acid S-Allylcysteine Diallyl trisulfide 2-Vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin S-1-Propenylcysteine Diallyl disulfide 2-Vinyl-4H-1,2-dithiin Glutamic acid Allyl methyl trisulfide E-Ajoene Allyl methyl disulfide aqueous steam distillation oil or solvent incubation No change Transpeptidase Garlic Sulfur Compound Transformation-Redrawn from Lawson, 1998 Goldman Slide20:  Flavor and Medicine Thiosulfinates confer flavor to food Also mask other flavors Exhibit a range of unique bioactivities Including many of interest to human health Sulfate ACSOs Flavor, Medicine Thiosulfinates Alliinase Block, 1985, Lawson, 1998 Goldman Slide21:  Domestication Bulb onion progenitor unknown Perennial growth habit Selection pressure for apically-dominant bulb Large single bulb, biennial cycle Cluster Perennial Flower each year Brewster, 1994 Single Apical dominance Biennial Goldman Slide22:  History of Alliums as Medicine Recorded by Sumerians and in India Inscribed on Great Pyramid of Cheops Discussed in Codex Ebers, 1550 B.C.E. Eaten by pyramid builders Described in China by 500 C.E. Incorporated into Ayurvedic medicine by 500 C.E. Hippocrates recommended as remedy, 400 B.C.E. Dioscorides suggested medicinal properties Source: Lawson, 1998; Hahn, 1996 Goldman Slide23:  History of Alliums as Medicine St. Hildegard of Bingen, 1150 Suggested as cure for plague of London, 1665 Sydenham used to cure smallpox, 1650s Used to cure cholera in Europe, 1850s Pasteur showed antibacterial effect in 1858 Schweitzer used to cure typhoid in Africa Used in WW I in Europe to treat wounds “Russian Penicillin” from use during WW II Source: Lawson, 1998; Hahn, 1996 Goldman Slide24:  Greeks and Romans “A garlic breakfast will make you hotter for fighting” (Aristophanes) “Our fathers and great-grandfathers were rather courageous men, though their words had a crude odor of garlic and onions.” (Varro) “…If you ever…should partake of this plant, then may your beloved resist your kiss and remain far from your hugs and flee to the lowest couch.” (Horatius) Goldman Slide25:  Greeks and Romans Pliny the elder (23-79 C.E.) commented that exposure turns Allium leaves black Concluded the plant attracts evil Romans believed snakebite transferred evil demons Connection made with treating evil Pompeiian ruins demonstrate painting of garlic on walls to deter evil Goldman Slide26:  Spread to Europe Romans brought Alliums to Celts, Germans Benedictine Monks helped to distribute Alliums Met with mixed results in England Much beloved in Spain Balkans enjoyed, Northern Europeans disliked Used as curative for plague In 1721, looters in Marseille used garlic to stay alive Vinaigre des quatres voleurs! Goldman Slide27:  Protection from Evil Spirits Many cultures still use Alliums as protection from demons Royalty in France annointed with garlic oil to repel evil spirits Farm animals and crops protected with Alliums Used to disinfect areas after death to prevent haunting by the human spirit Connection with vampire lore Goldman Slide28:  Alliums and Human Well-Being Goldman, World Vegetables Goldman Slide29:  Functional Properties of Alliums Lipid Lowering Most thoroughly studied Placebo-controlled, dose-consistent 4%-30% decrease in cholesterol and triglycerides over 3-8 week feeding period Highest reduction with fresh cloves Meta-analyses reveal 9-12% reduction with 0.5-1 clove per day Equivalent reduction to bezafibrate in Germany Mechanism is increased triglyceride catabolism Goldman Slide30:  Functional Properties of Alliums Antithrombotic Reduction in platelet aggregation In vitro and in vivo studies suggest thiosulfinates Intake reduces thromboxane Thiosulfinate-derived oils also active in vitro Very striking effect of fibrinolysis with intake Increases in clotting time and flow rate Also thiosulfinate-determined Surgeons warning to patients Goldman Slide31:  Functional Properties of Alliums Blood Pressure Placebo-controlled studies Reductions of up to 7% over 6 months Meta-analysis: useful in hypertension Not due to thiosulfinates May be associated with fructans and adenosine Mechanism may be stimulation of NO synthetase Goldman Slide32:  Functional Properties of Alliums Anticancer Significant epidemiological data from 6 countries 79% of studies show protective effect for GI cancer Similar percentage for green veg. and Brassicas Shangdong Province study and stomach cancer Thiosulfinates kill nitrate-reducing bacteria Iowa Women’s Health Study: colon cancer risk Thiosulfinates and other compounds responsible Sulfides studied extensively Benefits conferred even with cooked Alliums Goldman Slide33:  Flavonoids in Alliums Quercitin at high concentration in onion (280-480 mg/kg) Hertog et al., Lancet, 342, 1993 Unique and abundant in red onion Fossen et al., Phytochem., 47, 1998 Variability among accessions Patil et al., 1995 Reduce carcinogen activity Leighton et al., 1992 Inhibit tumorigenesis Leighton et al., 1992 Function as antioxidants Arai et al., Lipids, 30, 1995 Quercitin and derivatives Goldman Slide34:  Functional Properties of Alliums Antioxidant Decreases in lipid peroxidation Increased free radical scavenging Increases in glutathione Thiosulfinates can be pro-oxidants in vitro Appear to be antioxidants in vivo Mostly due to thiosulfinates Other compounds active at very high doses Goldman Slide35:  Functional Properties of Alliums Antimicrobial Perhaps longest-known medicinal effect Effective against gram Positive and Gram negative More effective against human pathogenic bacteria No bacterial resistance reported to thiosulfinates Due to thiosulfinates and to oils Thiosulfinates react with SH groups of cysteine Goldman Slide36:  Functional Properties of Alliums Boosting Immune Function Immune system stimulation with Allium intake Increased lymphocytes, antibody production Antidiabetic Reduce blood glucose, increase insulin 4 week intake, reductions of 13% Antiaging Studies with senescence-accelerated mice Goldman Slide37:  Toxicological / Negative Effects Anemia in animals Abdominal hemorrhage Internal bleeding in animals? Acid reflux and heartburn Erratic opening of stomach-esophagus valve Blockage of COX and LIPOX in Arachidonic acid met. LF, reduction by NADPH in nerve cell membrane Breath: OSCs in blood to lungs Goldman Slide38:  Cardiovascular Health Lipid lowering Blood pressure lowering Antioxidant Antithrombotic or Antiplatelet AHA, 2000 Goldman Slide39:  Cardiovascular Health Healthy coronary artery Goldman Slide40:  Plaque in coronary artery Goldman Slide41:  Platelets in coronary artery Goldman Slide42:  Platelet aggregate in coronary artery ...Heart attack and stroke Goldman Slide43:  A major cause of heart attack and stroke Approximately 25% of US public has some form of cardiovascular disease Preventive measures: aspirin Preventive measures: diet? Preventive measures: onion? Aggregating Platelets Goldman Slide44:  Medicine: John Folts, Cardiology Medicine: Bradford Schwartz, Hematology Food Science: Kirk Parkin, Chemistry Horticulture: Mike Havey, Genetics Horticulture: Irwin Goldman, Plant Biology Collaborative Effort Goldman Slide45:  Whole Blood Aggregometry Cuvette Blood Electrical wires Saline + Collagen As platelets aggregate after collagen is added, resistance is measured across wires Goldman Correlations Phenotypic / Genetic From F3 families derived from BYG x Ailsa Craig cross Traits measured at 90 days postharvest:  Correlations Phenotypic / Genetic From F3 families derived from BYG x Ailsa Craig cross Traits measured at 90 days postharvest Goldman et al., 1996 Galmarini and Havey, 2000 Goldman Slide47:  S Fertility Greenhouse-grown onion, 4 accessions Orvis, 1997 Goldman Slide48:  S Fertility Field-grown onion, 4 accessions Orvis, 1997 Goldman Slide49:  Postharvest Bulb storage for long periods common Certain genotypes show OIAA increases All generally increase from 0-90 days Debaene, 1999 Goldman Slide50:  Life Cycle Umbel Flower Stalk Leaves Bulb Goldman Slide51:  Life Cycle Bulb, no inhibition Scape, no inhibition Umbel inhibits Sprout inhibits Briggs, 2000 Pro Anti 0 10 12 14 16 18 20 Weeks postharvest Goldman Slide52:  Life Cycle Umbel Flower Stalk Leaves Bulb ACSO cycling Lancaster et al., 1986 Goldman Slide53:  You are what you eat -mom You are what you don’t excrete -modern medical science Goldman Slide54:  Cooking >1 minute of boiling eliminates all in vitro OIAA Suggests volatility of OSCs, heat-killing of alliinase Kopelberg and Goldman, 1995 Goldman Slide55:  Fresh vs. Cooked Bunching Onion Chen et al. (2000): reduction in platelet aggregation with feeding of Welsh onion juice Rats fed 28 days Boiled Welsh onion juice had no effect, and in some cases promoted aggregation Goldman Slide56:  Pungency Paradox More pungent = more efficacy More pungent = more difficult to eat raw But cooking eliminates OIAA So the best onion is the weakest onion Goldman Slide57:  Impedance (ohms) More Potent than Aspirin in Vitro Briggs, 2000 Goldman Slide58:  Canine Measure blood flow through constricted coronary artery Folts’ in vivo Coronary Thrombosis Model Goldman Slide59:  EKG - CCA Flow - Aortic BP - X X 1cc onion juice A dosage of 1cc juice given intravenously inhibited CFRs within 5 minutes Also inhibited intragastrically at 2 g/kg Onion Inhibits Platelet Aggregation in vivo Briggs, 2000 Goldman Slide60:  French Paradox 1991 piece on CBS’ 60 Minutes French eat up to 15% of calories from saturated fat, yet 40% lower incidence of heart disease than U.S. Has been explained by French wine consumption, among other things Goldman Slide61:  Spawned herbal supplements containing grape seed / grape skin extracts Reflects ‘magic bullet’ approach to health Goldman

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