IR Sensor

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Information about IR Sensor
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Published on November 15, 2007

Author: Ming

Source: authorstream.com

Engineering Design: Sensor System:  Engineering Design: Sensor System Technical Goal:  Technical Goal Design an electronic sensor that: distinguishes between tile floor and electrical tape output compatible with a microcontroller Engineering Design Methods:  Engineering Design Methods Engineering Problem Common Steps in Design:  Common Steps in Design Specification planning & development Concept generation Product embodiment Insert: Reverse Engineering Reverse Engineering?:  Reverse Engineering? Observe an existing product “Dissassemble” the product Analyze and test function, form physical principles manufacturability Example: F150 Pickup:  Example: F150 Pickup 55 Years! 2004 F150 Improvements:  2004 F150 Improvements Stiffer frame New interior (length & appearance) +15% peak power (same size engine) outboard rear shocks, wider springs 2” deeper cargo box Tailgate Assist (easier to lift) 10 Reverse Engineering Steps:  10 Reverse Engineering Steps Predict product behavior Dissassemble (to experience it) Learn & document actual function Experience principles of the solution Identify special functionality/interaction Mathematically model the product Solve the model … (cont’d) 10 Reverse Engineering Steps:  10 Reverse Engineering Steps Create a variant product, or tweak something Adapt a subsystem, or redesign at a higher level of complexity Redesign the entire product Result: an original design Kristin L. Wood (UT-Austin) & Kevin N. Otto (MIT) Results?:  Results? May be an incremental improvement Ford F150 truck May be a whole new design Volkswagen New Beetle THEN: aircooled engine, rear engine/rear drive, manual transmission, lousy heat, inexpensive car for the masses NOW: watercooled engine, FWD, all comforts, expensive car for girls (flower vase) F150 SuperCrew:  F150 SuperCrew 2001-2004: clockwise from upper left Volkswagen Beetles:  Volkswagen Beetles Reverse Engineering: Ethics:  Reverse Engineering: Ethics See IEEE-USA Position Statement at course FTP site: IEEE_reverse.html www.ieeeusa.org/forum/positions/reverse.html Recognize value of intellectual property This is a fundamental tool Key: LAWFUL reverse engineering Basic Principles:  Basic Principles Do NOT reverse engineer if procurement contract forbids it. Use only data in public domain Do not use proprietary information. those who recently worked for competitor visiting or touring competitor’s site Maintain complete documentation Infrared Position Sensor:  Infrared Position Sensor Emitter Detector Principle: Reflected energy is a function of surface characteristic A Well-Known Solution:  A Well-Known Solution R1 limits diode current R2 affects output voltage Underlying Science: Emitter:  Underlying Science: Emitter Diode forward voltage drop is essentially constant VD = 1.7V @ 20 mA ? Kirchoff’s voltage law: VCC + (I  R1) + VD = 0 Choices: VCC and I Underlying Science: Detector:  Underlying Science: Detector Collector current IC related to IR energy VCE is governed by collector currrent and R2 VCE = VCC – (IC  R2) “dark current” is miniscule “ON current” is a few milliamps? Remaining Steps:  Remaining Steps Experimentation and Tweaking Analyze and test to understand diode and phototransistor behavior swap position of R2 and Q reverses input/output characteristic changes output impedance Remember to keep complete documentation of work. Typical Sensor Characteristic:  Typical Sensor Characteristic VCE position (mm) VCC Linear operating region Datasheets at FTP site:  Datasheets at FTP site Infrared Emitter Diode Kingbright L53F3C filename: IR_diode.pdf Infrared Phototransistor Kingbright L53P3C filename: IR_phototransistor.pdf Another Example:  Another Example Designing microcontroller program code: Acquire code example Dissect code Learn actual code functions Result: Variant, Adapted, or New Code Final Thought on Reverse Engineering:  Final Thought on Reverse Engineering “The Reason that I have been so successful is that I’ve stood on the shoulders of giants.” Thomas Alva Edison

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