Published on February 15, 2014
Patrick Grossetete Technical Marketing Engineer, Internet of Things Business Unit firstname.lastname@example.org © © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
Manufacturing Mining EnergyUtility Oil and Gas City Transportation Defense SP/M2M Plantwide Ethernet, Intelligent Transportation, Smart Cities, S&C Refinery, Smart Connected Vehicle, Smart Grid Routers WiFi AP SDK Embedded Services Router Fog Computing Data Center/Virtualization © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2
AMI Operations AMI Data Center: Destination of FAN AMI Traffic, source of AMI requests Network Management Operations Network Operation Center; Used to manage and secure The network components DA Operations Distribution Automation Control Center; Destination of critical SCADA traffic Cisco ASR 1000 series CGR 1240 NAN Tier CGR 1120 Cisco 1000 series Connected Grid Routers Protection and Control Networks RF Mesh or PLC Neighborhood Area Network WAN Tier Public or Private WAN Backhaul (Cellular, WiMAX, Fiber/Ethernet Work Force Automation AMI Metering / Transformer HAN Gateway Monitoring © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Distribution EV Charging Direct Outdoor Gas / Water Automation Infrastructure Load Lighting Meters Control Distributed Generation SCADA Direct Cellular Protection and Connect Control Network Assets Cisco Confidential 3
Application Layer Web Services, EXI, SOAP, RestFul,HTTPS/CoAP Metering IEC 61968 CIM, ANSI C12.22, DLMS/COSEM,… SCADA IEC 61850, 60870 DNP3/IP, Modbus/TCP,… Transport Layer UDP/TCP Network Layer IPv6/IPv4 DNS, NTP, IPfix/Netflow, SSH RADIUS, AAA, LDAP, SNMP,… (RFC 6272 IP in Smart Grid) IPv6 RPL Addressing, Routing, Multicast, QoS, Security 802.1x / EAP-TLS & IEEE 802.11i based Access Control Mgmt LLC Data Link Layer Security (DTLS/TLS) M A C Physical Layer 6LoWPAN (RFC 6282) IPv6 over Ethernet (RFC 2464) IPv6 over PPP (RFC 5072) IP or Ethernet Convergence SubL. IEEE 802.15.4e MAC enhancements IEEE 802.15.4 including FHSS IEEE P1901.2 802.15.4 frame format IEEE 802.15.4 2.4GHz, 915, 868MHz DSSS, FSK, OFDM IEEE P1901.2 NB-PLC OFDM IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 2G, 3G, LTE Cellular IEEE 802.16 WiMAX IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi 2.4, 5 GHz, Sub-GHz IEEE 802.3 Ethernet UTP, FO 2G, 3G, LTE Cellular IEEE 802.16 WiMAX 1.x, 3.xGHz • Open Standards – at all levels to ensure interoperability and reduce technology risk for utilities • Future proofing – common application layer services over various wired and wireless communication technologies © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4
Cisco Developer Network – IP Enabled Grid Devices: HW ref. model (PHY & MAC) + SW SDK library. Small footprint open standards IPv6-based communication stack • Application Layer • • Mgmt: CSMP Applications IPv6 protocol suite • • • • CoAP TCP/UDP Use case application from Vendor adopting the SDK Management is part of the SDK libraries (CoAP/CSMP), including firmware upgrade DHCPv6 (RFC 3315) for Address auto-configuration RPL (RFC 6206, 6550, 6551, 6553, 6554, 6719) for IPv6 routing IP QoS – 4 priority queues • • IPv6 IEEE 802.1x and 802.11i based security 6LoWPAN Header Compression (RFC 6282) • MAC layer: IEEE 802.15.4g or 1901.2 + IEEE 802.15.4e extensions Routing: RPL 802.1x / EAP-TLS based Access Control Solution Adaptation: 6lowpan (RFC 6282) • • • MAC: 802.15.4g or 1901.2 + 802.15.4e extensions PHY: IEEE 802.15.4g or 1901.2 PHY layer – IEEE 802.15.4g RF or 1901.2 PLC compliant • • • © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 15.4e: EB and EBR for network discovery 15.4e: Enhanced ACK for security and information carrying 15.4e: Information Elements (RSSI, Time synchronization) PLC – CENELEC A band in phase 1 RF – 902-928MHz or subset Cisco Confidential 5
• Adaptation layer for IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4 (RFC 4944, 6282) – No IPv4 equivalent! • Also adopted for IEEE 1901.2 PLC, etc Mesh + Fragmentation Mesh Address Frame Fragmentation Mesh (L2 Routing) Frag. 6LoWPAN Compressed Hdr Payload Frag. 6LoWPAN Compressed Hdr Payload Mesh Address 6LoWPAN Compressed Hdr Payload 6LoWPAN PHY Preamble SPD Header Frame Control Data Seq. Nbr Addressing DSP + IPHC Auxiliary Security Header Other 6LoWPAN Payload Hdr field IEs Header & Payload DSP Payload FCS 0 0 X DST DST MAC PAN ID Address SRC SRC MAC PAN ID Address Header Dispatch (DSP) – understand what is coming © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Not a LoWPAN frame 0 1 LoWPAN IPv6 addressing Hdr 1 0 LoWPAN mesh Hdr 1 1 LoWPAN fragmentation Hdr Cisco Confidential 6
IP WAN DHCPv6 Relay DHCPv6 Solicit Routable IPv6 Address DHCPv6 Reply DHCPv6 Solicit forwarded over UDP DHCPv6 Reply forwarded over UDP DHCPv6 Server DHCPv6 Solicit relays by CGR 1000 to DHCPv6 Server DHCPv6 Reply sent from DHCPv6 Server DHCPv6 Server assigns an IPv6 address based PAN IPv6 prefix allocated to this CGR 1000 • Scalable and Standard-based IPv6 Address allocation • Reduced traffic – Rapid Commit option • Deliver additional information through options, i.e. Application’s server’s addresses, etc © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
• RPL is a new Distance Vector routing protocol standardized by the IETF, specifically designed for Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) IETF RoLL WG defined a collection of RFCs (6550, 6551, 6553, 6554, 6206, 6217) to cover all identified use cases Adapted to nodes running over LLNs with little CPU and memory resources, low bandwidth network interface, potentially battery powered • RPL runs over IPv6-only as “Route Over”, guaranteeing the use of a variety of data links and route re-distribution with other IPv6 routing protocols New routing metrics: Energy, latency, link reliability, node state, link color,… • Support of various traffic flows Multi-Point to Point – ie: meters to Head-end servers – upstream route Point-to-MultiPoint – ie: Head-end servers to meters – downstream route Utility Point-to-Point – ie: Sensor to Actuator Facilities RPL Domain © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. IP WAN Cisco Confidential 8
4 hops © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 409 414 333 317 382 359 421 1443 340 ???? Cisco Routers RM2288 56914386 1562 357 RM006 3144 366 354 328 205? 368 362 385 Cisco Confidential RM006 RM032 8783 410 RM032 3157 415 786 RM533 1986 1657 1363 679 369 1466 1466 387 1577 1577 RM832 8914 1492 1589 Cisco Node 390 1510 1510 RM231 1838 RM032 8253 Cisco Node Cisco Node 419 1685 1608 1432 351 298 1598 416 Cisco Node 709 709 1544 1544 352 570 420 RM006 P856344 1725 1725 1539 1539 353 5 361 1419? 384 976 RM008 7838 mini pillar 749 RM021 7394 331 Transformer 1576 395 1629 370 1677 321 RMB45 7860 1479 398 RM032 9710 881 881 379 RM514 7729 3 hops 1584 1491 1512? 1 hop 561 322 1651 337 869 381 RM227 9049 725 725 mini pillar 367 RM005 8061 2 hops 431 431 RM006 9543 320 1361 Green Hse 397 RM047 3137 1592 152 Cisco Node 1602 392 Cisco Node 451 347 1478 RM510 5160 407 RM228 1039 Rugby Club 373 504 348 315 363 365 334 341 CGR 9
AMI Head-End Servers, DB Cisco CG-NMS Server, DB • FAN applications can leverage IPv6 Multicast services when addressing a group of end-points. In example: o End-points firmware upgrade o AMI Head-end applications o Demand reset messages o Demand response messages o Targeted pings Group of meters with same read time/cycle ASR 1000 • IPv6 Multicast has to be integrated in network design of Utility NOC and WAN • On CG-Mesh, Field Area Router can act as MLD proxy, therefore broadcasting the Multicast packet at Layer-2 on the Mesh Public or Private IP WAN PAN #1 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. PAN #2 PAN #3 Cisco Confidential 10
CGR 2010 (Raw TCP Server) SCADA SCADA SCADA/DMS server • Raw TCP: natively or through IP/ Serial Redirector SW • Native IPv4 SCADA protocol Raw TCP Sessions for Serial protocols Standard-based IPv4 over IPv6 - IETF MAP-T IP WAN CGR 1000 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11
SCADA Server NAT44 IP WAN CGR 1000 MAP-T CPE MAP-T Border Relay IPv4 Local address 10.1.0.60 Default Gateway 10.1.0.22 Private IPv4 address, i.e. 192.168.0.2 Private IPv4 address, i.e. 192.168.0.1 IPv6 WPAN address, i.e. 2013:DB8:9999:8 888:5D03:8DE7:5 74F:9E86 MAP IPv4 address, i.e. 188.8.131.52 MAP IPv6 address i.e. 2031:6f8:147e: 10fe:99:a0a:fe00:0 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. IPv6 route entries S 2013:DB8:9999:8888::/64 [1/0], tag 1 via Virtual-Access1, directly connected S 2031:6F8:147E:10FE:99:A0A:FE00:0/128 [1/0], tag 1 via Virtual-Access1, directly connected S 2610:D0:1200:CAFE::/64 [1/0] via ::184.108.40.206, NVI0 IPv4 route entries 220.127.116.11/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets S 18.104.22.168 [1/0] via 22.214.171.124, NVI0 WPAN IPv6 RPL entries [2013:DB8:9999:8888:207:8108:B8:1CC5] (1/2) --- 2013:DB8:9999:8888:5D03:8DE7:574F:9E86 (1) --- 2031:6F8:147E:10FE:99:A0A:FE00:0/128 # IPv6 route entries C 2013:DB8:9999:8888::/64 [0/0] via Wpan3/1, directly connected L 2013:DB8:9999:8888:207:8108:B8:1CC5/128 [0/0] via Wpan3/1, receive C 2031:6F8:147E:10FE:99:A0A:FE00:0/128 [0/0] via Wpan3/1, directly connected S 2610:D0:1200:CAFE::/64 [1/0], tag 1 via Tunnel1, directly connected Cisco Confidential 12
SCADA/DMS server & application Native Raw Socket or IP/Serial Redirector SW (Raw TCP client) CGR 2010 (Raw TCP Server) • IPv6 routes to be known on CGR1K and ASR1K • static or dynamic routing • dynamic routing required for PAN migration SCADA SCADA asr1K# show ipv6 route …… S 2013:DB8:9999:8888::/64 [1/0], tag 1 via Virtual-Access1, directly connected S 2031:6F8:147E:10FE:99:A0A:FE00:0/128 [1/0], tag 1 via Virtual-Access1, directly connected S 2610:D0:1200:CAFE::/64 [1/0] via ::126.96.36.199, NVI0 IP WAN CGR 1000 pat1#show wpan 3/1 rpl atr ============================= WPAN RPL TREE FIGURE  ============================= [2013:DB8:9999:8888:207:8108:B8:1CC5] (1/2) --- 2013:DB8:9999:8888:5D03:8DE7:574F:9E86 (1) --- 2031:6F8:147E:10FE:99:A0A:FE00:0/128 # RPL TREE: Num.DataEntries 2, Num.GraphNodes 3 (external 1) © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
In addition of IPv4 address space depletion and traditional ICT transition • A huge address space accommodating any expected multi-millions meter’s deployment, thousands of sensors (DA) over the hundred thousands of secondary substations and additionally all standalone meters. • IPv6 addressing standard – future proofing (10-15 years lifetime) • De facto IP version support for meters communication over RF Mesh IEEE 802.15.4 – as well as G3-PLC – since the standardized adaptation layer – IETF 6LoWPAN WG – only defines IPv6 as protocol version. No IPv4 standard equivalent has been specified BUT must support IPv4 and non-IP applications/ devices • De facto IP version for the standardized IETF Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) – IETF RoLL WG – as it is an IPv6-only protocol. • Flexibility of address set-up for zero-touch configuration, such as DHCP Individual address configuration + Prefix Delegation + Stateless IPv6 configuration • Leverage Network Services and Transition mechanisms easing application’s deployment • IP brings all knowledge about open standards, interoperability, application’s development, management, security and knowledgeable workforce to IOT © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
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