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Investigating the Pedagogical Push and Technological Pull of Computer Assisted Formative Assessment

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Published on August 13, 2008

Author: DeniseW

Source: slideshare.net

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Discussion of computer assisted formative assessment projects at The Open University.
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Investigating the Pedagogical Push and Technological Pull of Computer Assisted Formative Assessment Denise Whitelock The Open University, Milton Keynes [email_address] DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

Behaviourist prescriptions for assessment: wolves in sheep's clothing DMW Learning for Life Workshop March 2008

Don’t forget the human reaction DMW Learning for Life Workshop March 2008

DMW Learning for Life Workshop March 2008 www.storiesabout.com www.storiesabout.com/creativepdp [email_address]

Formative Assessment Black & Wiliam (1998) improvement 0.4 to 0.7 on standardised tests MacFarlane-Dick (2006) empower students as self regulated learners Feedback and assessment – moving forward DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

Black & Wiliam (1998)

improvement 0.4 to 0.7 on standardised tests

MacFarlane-Dick (2006)

empower students as self regulated learners

Feedback and assessment – moving forward

Collaborative Formative Assessment CSCL …. on task talk Predict Look and Explain Collaborative problem solving find a complex problem Tools to support distance students to communicate, find a partner Appropriate simulation DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

CSCL …. on task talk

Predict Look and Explain

Collaborative problem solving find a complex problem

Tools to support distance students to communicate, find a partner

Appropriate simulation

BuddySpace Automatic map construction to show locations Automatic roster (‘buddy list’) construction using OU login authentication… so it knows which workgroup or tutorial group I’m in Many views: map, timelines, etc. Plug-ins for future enhancements DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

Automatic map construction to show locations

Automatic roster (‘buddy list’) construction using OU login authentication… so it knows which workgroup or tutorial group I’m in

Many views: map, timelines, etc.

Plug-ins for future enhancements

DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology BuddySpace

DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology “ State of mind” goals, plans, intentions devices user profiling

“ State of mind”

goals, plans, intentions

devices

user profiling

DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Automatic Map Generation Smart inset chosen, depending on actual data

DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Automatic Map Generation Right-click to ‘drill down’into ‘cluster’ nodes (provides scaleability)

BuddyFinder DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Who else is facing a similar problem? Where can I find complementary approaches? Has anyone found contrary evidence? Generally: “Find me the person who can really help me now .” More specifically:

Who else is facing a similar problem?

Where can I find complementary approaches?

Has anyone found contrary evidence?

DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Arbitrary keywords at user’s discretion BuddyFinder

DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Easy search

DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Matches ‘ light up’

DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Invokes Google’s Web Service behind the scenes, if requested, and auto-highlights within user’s own map! BuddyFinder

Finding an appropriate science application Complex problem solving with Global Warming 7 variables for manipulation Solar constant, CO 2 , H 2 O, Aerosol content, albedo, ice & snow, cloud cover Immediate effects of manipulation displayed as graphical output DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

Complex problem solving with Global Warming

7 variables for manipulation

Solar constant, CO 2 , H 2 O, Aerosol content, albedo, ice & snow, cloud cover

Immediate effects of manipulation displayed as graphical output

Global Warming DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

Global Warming DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

Next: ‘Yoked’ apps via BuddySpace DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Student A Student B (‘yoked’, but without full screen sharing required!)

Global Warming: Simlink Presentation DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

Debate with SIMLINK More questioning Explanation became more important Socio emotive communication more evident Some couples separated for a while and then came back together DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

More questioning

Explanation became more important

Socio emotive communication more evident

Some couples separated for a while and then came back together

What is Open Comment? Automated formative assessment tool Free text entry for students Automated feedback and guidance Open questions, divergent assessment For use by Arts Faculty DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

Automated formative assessment tool

Free text entry for students

Automated feedback and guidance

Open questions, divergent assessment

For use by Arts Faculty

Causal models of explanation First step: Identification of question types where students exhibit causal reasoning Looked for questions with: Salient variables Description of these variables Identification of trends Identification of relationship between the variables i.e. causality DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

First step:

Identification of question types where students exhibit causal reasoning

Looked for questions with:

Salient variables

Description of these variables

Identification of trends

Identification of relationship between the variables i.e. causality

Three common types of question types were selected for Open Comment in History Analysis of statistics, usually presented to the student as a table Comprehension of a set text Identifying similarities and differences for a given event DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

Analysis of statistics, usually presented to the student as a table

Comprehension of a set text

Identifying similarities and differences for a given event

Knowledge elicitation/ethnography DW and SW acted as students Answered all three question types C grades Improved only when an “answer model” elicited DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

DW and SW acted as students

Answered all three question types

C grades

Improved only when an “answer model” elicited

 

 

 

 

Open Comment components A Java-based feedback system A web service shell A graphical interface for testing A Moodle-based question type A forms-based editing tool DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

A Java-based feedback system

A web service shell

A graphical interface for testing

A Moodle-based question type

A forms-based editing tool

Pedagogical models: checking them out with you now! List the activities that tutors engage with when they are marking a script. What things are they looking for e.g. error detection. Categorise the activities into a scheme or stages from which you could build instructions for a robot to mark the scripts. DMW, IET, Managing Assessment SIG, June 2008

List the activities that tutors engage with when they are marking a script.

What things are they looking for e.g. error detection.

Categorise the activities into a scheme or stages from which you could build instructions for a robot to mark the scripts.

Stages of analysis by computer of students’ free text entry for Open Comment: advice with respect to content (socio-emotional support stylised example) STAGE 1a: DETECT ERRORS E.g. Incorrect dates, facts. (Incorrect inferences and causality is dealt with below) Instead of concentrating on X, think about Y in order to answer this question Recognise effort (Dweck) and encourage to have another go You have done well to start answering this question but perhaps you misunderstood it. Instead of thinking about X which did not…….. Consider Y DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

STAGE 1a: DETECT ERRORS E.g. Incorrect dates, facts. (Incorrect inferences and causality is dealt with below)

Instead of concentrating on X, think about Y in order to answer this question Recognise effort (Dweck) and encourage to have another go

You have done well to start answering this question but perhaps you misunderstood it. Instead of thinking about X which did not…….. Consider Y

Computer analysis continued STAGE 2a: REVEAL FIRST OMISSION Consider the role of Z in your answer Praise what is correct and point out what is missing Good but now consider the role X plays in your answer STAGE 2b: REVEAL SECOND OMISSION Consider the role of P in your answer Praise what is correct and point out what is missing Yes but also consider P. Would it have produced the same result if P is neglected? DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

STAGE 2a: REVEAL FIRST OMISSION

Consider the role of Z in your answer Praise what is correct and point out what is missing Good but now consider the role X plays in your answer

STAGE 2b: REVEAL SECOND OMISSION

Consider the role of P in your answer Praise what is correct and point out what is missing Yes but also consider P. Would it have produced the same result if P is neglected?

Final stages of analysis STAGE 3:REQUEST CLARIFICATION OF KEY POINT 1 STAGE 4:REQUEST FURTHER ANALYSIS OF KEY POINT 1 (Stages 3 and 4 repeated with all the key points) STAGE 5:REQUEST THE INFERENCE FROM THE ANALYSIS OF KEY POINT 1 IF IT IS MISSING STAGE 6:REQUEST THE INFERENCE FROM THE ANALYSIS OF KEY POINT 1 IF IT IS NOT COMPLETE STAGE 7:CHECK THE CAUSALITY STAGE 8:REQUEST ALL THE CAUSAL FACTORS ARE WEIGHTED DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

STAGE 3:REQUEST CLARIFICATION OF KEY POINT 1

STAGE 4:REQUEST FURTHER ANALYSIS OF KEY POINT 1 (Stages 3 and 4 repeated with all the key points)

STAGE 5:REQUEST THE INFERENCE FROM THE ANALYSIS OF KEY POINT 1 IF IT IS MISSING

STAGE 6:REQUEST THE INFERENCE FROM THE ANALYSIS OF KEY POINT 1 IF IT IS NOT COMPLETE

STAGE 7:CHECK THE CAUSALITY

STAGE 8:REQUEST ALL THE CAUSAL FACTORS ARE WEIGHTED

Feedback 5 main categories Praise Developing/expanding Presentation and structure essay Misunderstanding Advice – concept linking, analysis DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

5 main categories

Praise

Developing/expanding

Presentation and structure essay

Misunderstanding

Advice – concept linking, analysis

What have we learnt? Mixed Methodology Analysis tutor feedback of 200 plus TMAs Ethnographic study Rules of the Game Moving students into the relational zone of proximal development ( Hasse 2001) Knowing what to do helps you play with ideas i.e. Learn All applications based on pedagogical PUSH Open Source Tools New question type for Moodle DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

Mixed Methodology

Analysis tutor feedback of 200 plus TMAs

Ethnographic study

Rules of the Game

Moving students into the relational zone of proximal development ( Hasse 2001)

Knowing what to do helps you play with ideas i.e. Learn

All applications based on pedagogical PUSH

Open Source Tools

New question type for Moodle

No longer learning about X but reflecting about X Students are able to find facts similar to X Know how X might be disputed Are able to make predictions about X Know how to use X in an argument Know how far X can be pushed Supported with tools and strategies DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

Students are able to find facts similar to X

Know how X might be disputed

Are able to make predictions about X

Know how to use X in an argument

Know how far X can be pushed

Supported with tools and strategies

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