Introduction to User Experience and User Interface Design: A One-Hour Crash Course

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Information about Introduction to User Experience and User Interface Design: A One-Hour...
Design

Published on March 10, 2014

Author: jas0nh0ng

Source: slideshare.net

Description

A one-hour crash course on UX design and User Interface Design. I talk about methods for understanding users (contextual inquiry, diary studies, bodystorming), basic design principles (layout, color, mental models, grid), rapid prototyping (building user interfaces quickly, paper prototypes), and evaluation (heuristic evaluation).

©2009CarnegieMellonUniversity:1 Introduction to User Experience and User Interface Design A One Hour Crash Course Jason Hong

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:2 What is User Experience (UX)? Understand Design Build Evaluate

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:3 Understanding People • Let’s say we want to design a new web- based system for <insert here>_ • How can we understand what people do? • How can we understand what people want? • How can we understand what people know? • Rather than assuming we know the above, what can we do to quickly understand?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:4

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©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:8 Applying These Ideas • Most important takeaway here is to understand “you are not the user” – Being able to take a step back and try to put self in user’s shoes is a big step • Asking people what they want only goes so far – What people say vs what people do

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:9 What is User Experience (UX)? Understand Design Build Evaluate

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:10 Design • What are effective screen layouts? • What are good use of colors? • How can we leverage design patterns? • How to design to prevent errors? • How to match the way people think? • … much, much more

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:11 How Might You Fix This?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:12 Preventing Errors • Defensive Design

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:13 What’s Wrong Here?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:14 Preventing Errors http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pPKymEC_Hss

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:15 How to Prevent This Problem?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:16 Fitts’ Law • Things that are closer and bigger are faster and easier to hit (and vice versa) • Ex. Windows menus vs. Mac menus – Note different placing, what effect is there?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:17 Good Example of Fitts’ Law

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:18 Another Fitts’ Law Example

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:19 Example: Bad Use of Color • What does this image show?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:20 Example: Good Use of Color • Why is the left’s color choice poor? What makes the right side better?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:21 How Do People Believe How Things Work? • Mental models describe how a person thinks something works • Incorrect mental models can make things very hard to understand and use

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©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:23 Lighting Example at CMU

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:24 • Users create a model from what they hear from others, past experiences, and usage – interactions with system image Every System has Three Different Mental Models System Image (Your implementation) User Interactions System feedback Design Model (How you intend the system to work) User Model (How users think the system works)

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:25 Mental Models • People inevitably build models of how things work – Ex. me and my car – Ex. children & computers – Ex. maps of New York

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:26 Mental Models Impact Security • Ex. visibility in Facebook – Suppose you have a private Facebook album, but tag someone. Can that person see it or not? • Ex. app stores – All apps are vetted by Google, so they are all safe to download. Correct?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:27 Using Mental Models • Predictability most immediate criteria

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:28 Using Mental Models • Another unclear model. A lot of people probably hit the button under “Yes”. • That clearly doesn’t work, based on the drawn arrow.

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:29 Using Mental Models • CMU’s sign up page for emergency text alerts • What do you think happens if you hit “Enter”?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:30 Using Mental Models

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:31 Example: How to Login?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:32 Example: How to Login?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:33 Use Design Patterns • Basic idea: lots of well-known, good solutions already exist • Find that solution, don’t re-invent wheel • Examples for WAWF: – High-Visibility Action Buttons – Above the Fold

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©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:37 Navigation Bar Pattern

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:38 Advanced ecommerce Completing tasks Page layouts Search Page-level navigation Speed The mobile web Our patterns organized by group Site genres Navigational framework Home page Content management Trust and credibility Basic ecommerce Pattern Groups

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:39 Example: What’s Wrong Here?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:40 Example: What’s Wrong Here?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:41 Use a Grid to Align Things

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:42 Use a Grid to Align Things Example Grid – Amazon (1/3)

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:43

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:44 Example Grid (for print)

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:45 Example Grid (for print)

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:46 Applying These Ideas • Preventing errors (easy) – Defensive design, Fitts’ Law • Good use of colors (moderate) – Best tip: find existing color palettes • Mental models (moderate) • Design patterns (moderate) – Definitely do this, don’t re-invent wheel • Grid (moderate) – Even basic grid can improve things

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:47 What is User Experience (UX)? Understand Design Build Evaluate

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:48 Build • How can we build and test things faster? • Core idea: – Build and test cheap prototypes first – Find and fix bugs earlier in cycle – Fail fast • Almost every creative field does this

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:49 Early Nintendo Wii Prototypes

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:50 Early Nintendo Wii Prototypes

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:51 Early Nintendo Wii Prototypes

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:52 Rough Storyboarding

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©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:59 We Can Apply These Same Ideas for Interfaces

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:60

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:61 Avoid Pixel Perfect High- Fidelity Prototypes Early On • High-fidelity prototypes – tend to waste time on small details that aren’t important in early stages of design – people tend to focus narrowly on one design with high-fidelity tools – tend to get low-level feedback, again not useful in early stages of design

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:62 The Basic Materials for Low-Fi • Large, heavy, white paper (11 x 17) • 5x8 in. index cards • Post-its • Tape, stick glue, correction tape • Pens & markers (many colors & sizes) • Overhead transparencies • Scissors, X-acto knives

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:63 from “Prototyping for Tiny Fingers” by Rettig

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©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:65 ESP

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:66 Good Tool: Balsamiq • Create and test UI wireframes quickly • Can’t focus on fonts, alignment, colors

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:67 Good Tool: Balsamiq

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:68 Applying These Ideas • Don’t start with code • Don’t start with photoshop – Takes too long to build, hard to make changes • Goal: Build and test interfaces cheaply, quickly, and effectively – Fail fast – Rapid iteration

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:69 What is User Experience (UX)? Understand Design Build Evaluate

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:70 Evaluate • How can we tell if our designs are working? • Before deploying – User tests – Heuristic evaluation – Cognitive walkthrough – Sensors – more • After deploying – QA feedback – Log analysis – A/B testing – more

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:71 Case Study: Game Testing for Fun in Halo 3 • http://www.wired.com/gaming/virtualworlds/maga zine/15-09/ff_halo

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:72 Case Study: Game Testing for Fun in Halo 3 After each session Pagulayan analyzes the data for patterns... For example, he produces snapshots of where players are located in the game at various points in time — five minutes in, one hour in, eight hours in — to show how they are advancing. If they're going too fast, the game might be too easy; too slow, and it might be too hard.

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:73 Case Study: Game Testing for Fun in Halo 3 He can also generate a map showing where people are dying, to identify any topographical features that might be making a battle onerous. And he can produce charts that detail how players died

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:74 Case Study: Game Testing for Fun in Halo 3 • At first the designers couldn't figure out how to fix this problem. But then Griesemer stumbled on an elegant hack: He made the targeting reticule turn red when enemies were in range, subtly communicating to players when their shots were likely to hit home. It worked. • Last week 52 percent of players gave the Jungle level a 5 out of 5 rating for "fun," and another 40 percent rated it a 4.

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:75 Where People get Lost in Halo

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:76 Heuristic Evaluation • Cheap, fast, effective in practice – My personal favorite • Basic idea: review a user interfaces, look at list of heuristics, and see where interface does (or not) comply – Which heuristic it violates less important than finding a (potential) usability problem

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:77 Heuristics H2-1: Visibility of System Status searching database for matches • Keep users informed what is going on • Example: response time – 0.1 sec: no special indicators needed, why? – 1.0 sec: user tends to lose track of data – 10 sec: max. duration if user to stay focused on action – for longer delays, use progress bars

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:78 Heuristics H2-2: Match Bet. System & Real World • Speak the users’ language • Follow conventions • Old example: Mac desktop – Dragging disk to trash • Deletes it or ejects it? • Fixed in Mac OS X

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:79 Heuristics H2-2: Match Bet. System & Real World

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:80 Heuristics H2-2: Match Bet. System & Real World

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:81 Heuristics H2-2: Match Bet. System & Real World

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:82 Heuristics H2-3: User Control and Freedom • Make it easy to fix mistakes – Exits for mistakes, undo, redo • Example: Wizards – must respond to question before next step – good for infrequent task (ex. network config) – not for common tasks

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:83 Heuristics H2-4: Consistency and Standards • Consistent with self? • Consistent with platform standards?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:84 Heuristics H2-5 Error Prevention H2-6 Recognition over Recall • Recall – Info from memory • Recognition – Ex. menu items – Ex. icons – Ex. labels – Ex. examples

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:85 Heuristics H2-5 Error Prevention H2-6 Recognition over Recall Make objects, actions, options, and directions visible or easily retrievable

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:86 Heuristics H2-7: Flexibility and efficiency of use • Accelerators for experts – Ex. gestures, keyboard shortcuts • Allow users to tailor frequent actions – Ex. macros

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:87 Heuristics H2-8: Aesthetic and Minimalist Design • Elements should be aligned and grouped • No irrelevant information • (Use a grid)

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:88 Heuristics H2-9: Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors • Error messages in plain language • Precisely indicate the problem • Constructively suggest a solution

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:89 Heuristics H2-9: Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:90 Heuristics H2-9: Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:91 Heuristics H2-10: Help and documentation • Easy to search • Focused on the user’s task • List concrete steps to carry out • Not too long

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©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:93 Recap of Heuristics • H2-1: Visibility of system status • H2-2: Match between system & real world • H2-3: User control & freedom • H2-4: Consistency & standards • H2-5: Error prevention • H2-6: Recognition rather than recall • H2-7: Flexibility and efficiency of use • H2-8: Aesthetic and minimalist design • H2-9: Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors • H2-10: Help and documentation

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:94 Most Important Ideas • Understand – You are not the user • Design – Mental models – Use design patterns, don’t re-invent • Build – Build and test cheap prototypes • Evaluation – Heuristic Evaluation

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:95 Other Resources

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:96 Other Resources

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:97

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:98 Why is Good Design Important?

©2014CarnegieMellonUniversity:99 Good Example of Fitts’ Law

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