Published on February 25, 2014
Introduction to Cooperative Learning Principles of Teaching Payam Shoghi http://payamshoghi.com/
Cooperative Learning? * Definition * “An instructional arrangement in which small groups or teams of students work together to achieve team-success in a manner that promotes the students’ responsibility for their own learning as well as the learning of others. [Mercer & Mercer, 2001]
What is Cooperative Learning? Superior to individual/competitive learning Students work together in small groups to maximize their own and each other’s learning Provides students the opportunity to practice skills or learn content given by teacher Largest empirical and research base of any educational innovation
What Cooperative Learning is NOT? Any group-work is NOT cooperative learning. If not done well… Groups get into conflicts and power struggles A member sits quietly, too shy to participate One member does the work, while the other members talk about unrelated things A more talented member comes up with all the answers, dictates to the group, or works separately, ignoring other group members
Cooperative Learning needs to be Structured It does not occur by chance Facilitate learning; don’t allow things to just happen Cannot be based on the assumption that all students have proper social and learning skills Occurs best only when essential components for each cooperative learning activity are ensured Need to be learned, practiced and mastered
Three Standards of Cooperative Learning Active Listening Happy Talk Everyone Participates
Teaching Methodology in Cooperative Learning Explain Demonstrate Practice
Six Key Elements of Cooperative Learning Teams Classroom Management Will to Cooperate Skill to Cooperate Four Basic Principles Cooperative Learning Structures
Concept 1: Teams What is a Cooperative team? Strong, positive team identity among students Four members (preferably) Endures over time Heterogeneous Teams learn to learn together
Concept 1: Teams… How are teams formed? Based on friendships or interests? – Can have discipline problems; exclusivity: leaving others out Random teams? – Can end up with four low achievers on the same team Teacher assigned heterogeneous teams?–Maximize the probability of peer tutoring and improving diverse-background and cross-gender relations
Concept 1: Teams… How big should teams be? Four per team: Allows pairs work which doubles participation Teams of more than four do not allow for enough participation and are harder to manage
Concept 2: Management Room and Seating Arrangement Quiet Signal Class Rules and Consequences Giving Positive Attention Teacher and Student Modeling Blackboard Management
Concept 3: Will to Cooperate Three ways in which the will to cooperate is created and maintained: Teambuilding Classbuilding Task and reward structures, including recognition systems
Concept 3: Will to Cooperate… Teambuilding and Classbuilding Team and classbuilding provide unique learning experiences not offered by traditional methods that focus only on academic content Found in workplace–should be in classrooms too
Concept 4: Skill to Cooperate Developing Social Skills (a defining characteristic of Cooperative Learning) Modeling Defining Reinforcing Role-playing Structures Reflection (debriefing)
Concept 5: Basic Principles Four Basic Principles of Cooperative Learning Positive Interdependence Individual Accountability Equal Participation Simultaneous Interaction
Concept 5: Basic Principles… Positive Interdependence The success of every team member is not possible without success/contributions of each The success of a team is not possible without success or contribution of each member
Concept 5: Basic Principles… Individual Accountability Each student is responsible for a unique portion of a team’s learning product Whatever the form of individual accountability, the contribution of each individual is valuable to the team
Concept 5: Basic Principles… Equal Participation Every student is actively involved in the learning process No passive learners Success of the team depends on participation of all team members
Concept 5: Basic Principles… Simultaneous Interaction Discuss Topics: All students discuss views in pairs Share Answers: All students engage in choral response Receive Help: Students ask a teammate and receive immediate help
Three Basic Types of Structures Mastery Thinking Skills Information Sharing
Examples of Cooperative Learning Structures Agreement Circles Blind Sequencing Circle-the-Sage Corners Fan-N-Pick Find My Rule Find Someone Who Find the Fib Flashcard Game
Cooperative Learning Structures… Formations Four “S” Brainstorming Idea Spinner Jigsaw Problem Solving Line Ups Match Mine Mix N Match One Stray Pairs Check
Common Cooperative Learning Structures Inside/Outside Circle Numbered Heads Together Round Robin Think-Pair-Share Timed-Pair-Share Think-Pair-Write-Share Pair-Discussion Pair-Discussion-Share Group Discussion
Benefits of Cooperative Learning Teambuilding and cooperation Breaking down of differences Development of social skills Provides for more than one “teacher” Mastery Higher Order Thinking skills Communication skills Better comprehension and longer retention Children enjoy learning Enhanced classroom discipline Students motivated as effort is acknowledged
Superior to Traditional Approaches Cooperative Group Traditional Group Positive interdependence No interdependence Individual accountability No individual accountability Heterogeneous Random/Homogeneous Shared leadership One leader Responsible to each other Responsibly only for self Task and effort emphasized Only task emphasized Social skills directly taught Skills assumed or ignored Active teacher supervision Teacher teaches content Group processing occurs No group processing Mutual assistance Individual/competitive work
From traditional to Cooperative Learning “A good class is • “Learning involves a quiet class.” healthy noise.” “Do your own • “Help your partner work.” learn/solve.” “Sit quietly.” • “Get up and look at what the others did.”
Cooperative Learning supports the Learning Principle I Hear I See I Do I Discover – – – – I Forget I Remember I Learn I Understand Cooperative Learning ensures the students are using all their faculties while learning and therefore learn better. Thus, students benefit not only from WHAT they are learning but also from HOW they learn.
Cooperative Games Same principles as Cooperative Learning Not just any game is ‘Cooperative Game’ These are specific games designed after years of experimentation and observation Help teach children cooperation and key moral values Nobody wins or loses in these games Care should be taken not to make these games competitive
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