Introduction to Statistics (Web)

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Information about Introduction to Statistics (Web)

Published on January 17, 2018

Author: mhclark


Introduction to Statistics: Introduction to Statistics Module 1 Terminology: Population Group of all individuals of interest Sampling Frame Subset of the population who the researcher has access to test Sample Subset of the population who actually participant or provide data for a study Variable Characteristic that has different values for each person Constant Characteristic that does not vary depending on the person Terminology Terminology: Descriptive Statistics Summarize characteristics Inferential Statistics Make generalizations about populations Often make claims between two or more variables Correlational Study Examines the relationship between variables Experimental Study Examines causal relationships between variables Terminology Terminology: Terminology Independent variable Manipulated to represent cause Factor levels Conditions of the independent variable Experimental or Treatment group Those who get the treatment Control or Comparison group Those who do not get the treatment Dependent variable What is expected to change; effect Terminology: Terminology Confound An uncontrolled variable that varies systematically with the independent variable Prevents us from knowing true cause Construct Hypothetical concept that describes an event, characteristic or behavior Operation specific way of measuring or defining a construct Example: Example Smoking marijuana makes people more generous than consuming alcohol. Students were recruited if they were 21 and had previously smoked marijuana They were randomly assigned to consume alcohol or marijuana to intoxication They asked ambiguous questions and rewarded correct answers with money Those giving more money were perceived as being more generous Example: Example Population = upper level college students Sample = specific students who were intoxicated as part of the study and completed the tasks Independent variable = type of intoxication Factor levels = alcohol and marijuana Dependent variable = generosity Operational dependent variable = giving participants money or credit for answer Treatment group = both Scales of Measurement: Scales of Measurement Categorical Nominal: labels without quantitative value Eye color Football jersey numbers Social security numbers Presence or absence of a characteristics Ordinal: relative value, but varied intervals Olympic medals Prizes in a baking competition Beauty pageant rankings TripAdvior rankings 8 Scales of Measurement: Scales of Measurement Continuous Interval: placed on a number line, equal interval between values, and meaningfully partitioned Calendar year Temperature Attitude or Cognitive tests Ratio: same as interval, but has meaningful zero Elapsed time Money D istance Count data Equal interval, but not partitioned Treated as either ratio or ordinal Number of siblings, awards, spouses 9

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