Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanomaterials in Nature

50 %
50 %
Information about Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanomaterials in Nature
Education

Published on February 26, 2020

Author: mazin69

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1: University of Anbar College of Science Physics of Nanomaterials (I) Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 1 Slide2: What is the meaning of the term “ nano”? ." The term " nano " is derived from the ancient Greek word "nanos", means a dwarf, but in science, nano means 1 billionth or H H H H H H H H H H Si Si Si Si Si Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 2 Slide3: 1.7 m 1 cm Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 3 Slide4: Nanotransistor ≈ 90 nm Virus ≈ 90 nm Quantum dot ≈ (2-5) nm Nanotube with diameter ≈ 1.5 nm Bukyball ≈ 1nm Hydrogen atom ≈ 0.1nm Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 4 Slide5: Historical events The first documented use of nanoparticles was documented more than four thousand years ago by the Chinese Tien-Lcheu (2697) B.C. Romans, who empirically developed methods to stain glass with small inclusions of gold or silver. The Lycurgus cup that was manufactured in the 5th to 4th century B.C. In the start of the Crusades (1096 A.D.), Crusaders have been surprised by the swords of the Muslims of the Levant, in terms of strength and flexibility. These weapons were made from the steel with techniques that remained as secrets that were not disclosed until very soon. Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 5 Slide6: 1905, both hydrogen atom ( 0.1 nm) and sugar molecule ( 1 nm) diameters were determined by Einstein using the diffusion techniques 1952 L. V. Radushkevich and V. M. Lukyanovich got a first images of 50 nm diameter carbon nanotubes. There is plenty of room at the bottom At 1956, Richard Feynman gave a lecture in the annual meeting of the American Physical Society at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech ) ( Caltech's Engineering and science, Vol. , No. 5, p. p. 22-36) Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 6 Slide7: 1968, both A. Cho and J. Arthur developed the theoretical foundation of the processing surface in nanotechnology. Alfred Yi Cho is known as the father of   molecular beam epitaxy 1974, the first shown of term "nanotechnology" in the report ( On the basic of nanotechnology) by N. Taniguchi. The occurred processes in objects of size less than Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 7 Slide8: 1981, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been developed by G. Binnig and H. Rohrer 1985, R. Curl, H. Kroto and R. Smally discovered a molecule that resembles soccer ball and contains 60 carbon atoms, they called it (Fullerene). 1987, the French physicist Jean-Marie Lehn introduced the notions of “self-organization” and “self-assembly” 1986, G. Binning, C. Quate and Ch. Gerber invented the atomic force microscope (AFM)[12] Calvin Quate The decade of the 1980s is considered the most important windows, because of the emergence of techniques that helped to emerge and which are still the most important elements in any research work today. Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 8 Slide9: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 9 Nanotechnology and Nanoscience Nanotechnology De to the interdisciplinary nature of nanotechnology, there are many definitions to characterize this term, that, made this term a squishy term. The field considered the study of the micromaterials using the electron microscopes, growing and characterization of thin films. consider Bottom-Up methods in the preparation and manufacture of materials, such as self-assembly, biomineralization processes to convert the materials to hierarchical structures, delivery of drugs, the micro-electrochemical systems (MEMS), lab-on-a-chip and the thin films tests as the thin film sensors are also considered nanotechnology. Generally, Nanotechnology is design, fabrication and application of nanostructures or nanomaterials, and the fundamental understanding of the relationships between physical properties or phenomena and material dimensions (the National Nanotechnology Initiative) which the following defining features of nanotechnology were hammered out : " Nanotechnology involves research and technology development at the 1nm-to-100nm scale, nanotechnology creates and uses structures that have novel properties because of their small size, nanotechnology builds on the ability to control or manipulate at the atomic scale", or is “the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometer” Slide10: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 10 science Interested in studying the fundamental relationships between physical properties and phenomena and material dimensions in the nanometre scale. Nanoscience Nanoscience physics chemistry biology quantum mechanics Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales” Slide11: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 11 Nanomaterials as a term, which are substances that have at least one dimension within the nanoscale. Such as quantum dots (QDs), nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, thin Films, and nanostructure materials. Nanomaterials Slide12: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 12 Nanomaterials and Nanostructure in Nature Ribosome: made up of RNA is called ribosome RNA (rRNA) as well as protein Size of ribosome be found about 25 nm The mean role of the ribosome is the different proteins synthesis The ribosome machine can assemble proteins at a frequency of 20 Hz and an error rate of 10 −3 . The ribosomes can manufacture, with an accuracy greater than 99.9% Slide13: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 13 Photosynthesis At every reaction center which contains on 10000 atoms and 200 pigments How the photosynthesis is?. Chloroplasts lens-shaped are, 10 –3 μm in diameter and 10 –3 μm thick Each chloroplast, contains hundreds of light-sensitive pigments are thylakoids. The thylakoid contains on globular particles ( about 9 nm) in diameter, they are gathered in a section thicker than 40 nm Why the mimicking this configuration is still an immense challenge?. Because of the 10,000 atoms in the reaction center are configured in such a way that excited electrons can jump from molecule to molecule without decaying to the old orbital. As a result, photosynthesis moves electrons to the outside of the thylakoid membrane, leaving positively charged ions inside. In other words, a battery powered by the sun is formed, generated by the membrane potential, which is then used to drive chemical reactions Slide14: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 14 Abalone and Marine Mollusk Shell: The shells look like a brick (CaCO 3 ) separated by protein as a mortar The formation of the abalone shell starts with the secretion of proteins, which self-assemble into “room walls” with a distribution of negatively charged sites. Inside each “room” there is seawater filled with calcium and carbonate ions, which are attracted to the walls and eventually form crystals of CaCO3. The end result is a shell that exhibits twice the toughness of our best high-tech ceramics. Slide15: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 15 The Fixing and Moving Techniques The mussel This technique is very useful in the made up of the rubber glues composites. Filaments (byssus) proteinous mangle self-assemble to form a plaque thread length is 30–40 % of the shell length of each species and in diameter A secreted liquid proteins to harden strong adhesive Slide16: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 16 Lizards and insects each bristle is about 200 nm in diameter, and produces force of . an extremely strong adhesive force of half million of tiny bristles ( as high as ). some insects have the same property that lizards have too these bristles can bend to take the topographic shape of the flat surface such as glass This technique have been exploited to synthesis stickers work in the same manner of geckos Slide17: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 17 Several geometrical effects affect in the adhesion force of the device, such as : multiple contact formation. the high aspect ratio of single contact structures. peeling prevention using spatula-like tips of single contact elements that are responsible for the generation of a strong pull-off force in such attachment device. Slide18: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 18 The Strength and Elastic natural Materials spider net properties were exploited to develop fibers and rubbery substances by reinforcing with nano-clay platelets, metal nanoparticles in many applications such as body- armor components, packaging films, medical devices and biological sensors. Spider net Slide19: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 19 Rhino's Horn the polymeric matrices that are reinforced by nano (wires and tubes) are the typical productions of this mimic. Slide20: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 20 A Self- Healing The ability to self-repair and conform to the surrounding environment that is what characterizes natural materials, by contrast synthetic materials. Bones Collagen + Apatite Bio-composite Collagen is fibers of about in diameter and (5-10) long, are aggregated from long and around thick which are consisted by the bone-forming cells into the extrafibrils space and self- assemble into fibrils   Slide21: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 21 Collagen molecules are arranged close to gather along the axial direction by D=64 nm a gap zone with 35nm length is generated and overlap zone with 32nm length with the fibril. The apatite crystalline nanoplates with thickness of (1.5-4.5)nm in the bones of mammalian are inserted at orderly intervals along the fibrils, with repeat distance of 67nm is the same gap between the adjacency collagen molecules D=64 32nm Slide22: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 22 Bones have contradiction properties due to, 1. the hierarchical configuration. 2. that rigid and flexible . 3. light and solid. 4. mechanically strong and porous. A biological contributive part on the self- healing in the bones is the osteoblast. Mechanism of Self-healing in The Bones starts by 2- the blood supply is allowed 1- blood prohibition to the damaged region until cells are died for destruction and removal from the region 3- cartilage and fibrous tissue and new bone will produced by osteoblast. Slide23: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 23 Skin as A Natural Self-System When the skin is damaged, the healing process starts with blood clotting to avoid further hemorrhage and prevent the entry of undesirable substances. Then networks of blood vessels start to grow with diameters ranging from ( 8-10) μm to deliver blood to the affected area and achieve the division and cellular growth. Slide24: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 24 smart materials Self- repairing materials intrinsically polymers nano-capsules nanotubes Self- repairing processes smart coating active surfaces self- fixing cracks There are two approaches to develop smart surface: Synthesis an active composite- layered system. This system which is consisted with alternated of layers of a passive coating matrices and active coating components such as anticorrosion, drug, vitamin or lubricant. Integration nanoscale containers loaded with active composites into traditional coating. Slide25: Physics of Nanomaterials ................. Introduction........... Dr. Mazin A. Alalousi 25

Add a comment

Related presentations