Published on March 12, 2014
INTRODUCTION TO NANJECT ATIF SYED INSTITUTE FOR INTEGRATED MICRO AND NANO SYSTEMS (IMNS) SCOTTISH MICROELECTRONICS CENTRE (SMC), KINGS BUILDINGS THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, EDINBURGH, EH9 3JF ZAKAREYA HUSSEIN DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS, LAB OF INVESTIGATIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS(LIVE), THE UNIVERSITY OF YORK HESLINGTON, YORK, YO10 5DD
MOTIVATION • 12.7 million new cancer related cases reported worldwide in 2008 by World Health Organization (WHO) and about 40% of them were lung, breast, prostate and stomach related cancer • 4 million cancer related cases were reported in Asia alone • About 7.6 million deaths reported by the American Cancer Society (ASC) • According to ASC, the treatment of cancer has cost about $895 billion (excluding any direct costs) in 2008 around the world which is about 1.5% of the world’s GDP • The current methods doesn’t give a cancer free guarantee • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy hampers the immune system as many healthy cells gets destroyed • Nausea, vomiting, infertility, brain and neurological effects, hair loss etc are some of the side effects due chemotherapy • About 40% of vaccines in the world are administered without being sterilized • Needle and pain phobia is a serious psychological issue
TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY • Medicine is engineered to target a specified region within the body • Only the required amount of drug is delivered directly to the effected area in the body Image reproduced with permission from: Zhu J. et al., Biomimetic Glycoliposomes as Nanocarriers for Targeting P-Selectin on Activated Platelets, Bioconjugate Chem., 18, pp 1366-1369. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society
WHAT ARE BIOSENSORS? • A biosensor is a device which can react in a particular way when exposed to any biological entity which helps us detect specific biological components. • It's basically regarded as a data analysis tool and it doesn't always have to include an electronics component. • It can be purely chemical and in this case the sensor gives either different colors or smell which can correspond to something. • It can be in vivo or in vitro
WHAT IS NANJECT? • It is an integrated biomedical sensor and a drug delivery tool • A novel technique to detect cancer cells through nanowires and treat cancer cells by using magnetic nanoparticles which can be targeted to a specific cell and/or part of the body. • The delivery of the magnetic nanoparticles will be through the hair follicles by using nano- needles. • The Nanject will look like just any other transdermal patch
HOW DOES IT WORK? Nanoneedles will be decorated with magnetic nanoparticles across it Syed A., Thesis-Targeted Drug Delivery by using Magnetic Nanoparticles, The University of York, 2013
HOW DOES IT WORK? Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subcutaneous_tissue • The magnetic nanoparticles will be sent to the bloodstream through the capillaries • Once inside the bloodsteam, the magnetic nanoparticles can be moved from an external magnetic field gradient Targeted drug delivery for cancer treatment Localized cancer Brain tumors, lung cancer etc Non-localized cancer Leukemia
HOW DOES IT WORK? The tip of the nano-needle will be small enough in order to fit into the hair follicle Image Source: http://www.proprofs.com/flashcards/upload/a11232965.jpg
HOW DOES IT WORK? • The magnetic nanoparticles will attack only those cells which are cancerous hereby leaving the healthy cells intact • In case of localized cancer, the nanoparticles can be moved (using external magnetic source) to the location of the tumor and use magnetic hyperthermia to destroy the cancer Source: www.about-cancer.org
NANO-NEEDLES Nano-needles = Etched-Nanowires Copyright: Atif Syed
MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES • Magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized and used • By having the nanoparticles very small (6-20 nm), Superparamagnetism (SPM) is being exhibited • Coating the nanoparticles with albumins (proteins) to make them biocompatible and antigens to tag cancerous cells • Frequencies more than 100 kHz will make the nanoparticles oscillate and generate heat • At 40
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