Introduction to Nanject

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Information about Introduction to Nanject
Health & Medicine

Published on March 12, 2014

Author: AtifSyed1



A brief introduction about Nanject and its potential application in diagnosis and treatment of cancer.


MOTIVATION • 12.7 million new cancer related cases reported worldwide in 2008 by World Health Organization (WHO) and about 40% of them were lung, breast, prostate and stomach related cancer • 4 million cancer related cases were reported in Asia alone • About 7.6 million deaths reported by the American Cancer Society (ASC) • According to ASC, the treatment of cancer has cost about $895 billion (excluding any direct costs) in 2008 around the world which is about 1.5% of the world’s GDP • The current methods doesn’t give a cancer free guarantee • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy hampers the immune system as many healthy cells gets destroyed • Nausea, vomiting, infertility, brain and neurological effects, hair loss etc are some of the side effects due chemotherapy • About 40% of vaccines in the world are administered without being sterilized • Needle and pain phobia is a serious psychological issue

TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY • Medicine is engineered to target a specified region within the body • Only the required amount of drug is delivered directly to the effected area in the body Image reproduced with permission from: Zhu J. et al., Biomimetic Glycoliposomes as Nanocarriers for Targeting P-Selectin on Activated Platelets, Bioconjugate Chem., 18, pp 1366-1369. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society

WHAT ARE BIOSENSORS? • A biosensor is a device which can react in a particular way when exposed to any biological entity which helps us detect specific biological components. • It's basically regarded as a data analysis tool and it doesn't always have to include an electronics component. • It can be purely chemical and in this case the sensor gives either different colors or smell which can correspond to something. • It can be in vivo or in vitro

WHAT IS NANJECT? • It is an integrated biomedical sensor and a drug delivery tool • A novel technique to detect cancer cells through nanowires and treat cancer cells by using magnetic nanoparticles which can be targeted to a specific cell and/or part of the body. • The delivery of the magnetic nanoparticles will be through the hair follicles by using nano- needles. • The Nanject will look like just any other transdermal patch

HOW DOES IT WORK? Nanoneedles will be decorated with magnetic nanoparticles across it Syed A., Thesis-Targeted Drug Delivery by using Magnetic Nanoparticles, The University of York, 2013

HOW DOES IT WORK? Image source: • The magnetic nanoparticles will be sent to the bloodstream through the capillaries • Once inside the bloodsteam, the magnetic nanoparticles can be moved from an external magnetic field gradient Targeted drug delivery for cancer treatment Localized cancer Brain tumors, lung cancer etc Non-localized cancer Leukemia

HOW DOES IT WORK? The tip of the nano-needle will be small enough in order to fit into the hair follicle Image Source:

HOW DOES IT WORK? • The magnetic nanoparticles will attack only those cells which are cancerous hereby leaving the healthy cells intact • In case of localized cancer, the nanoparticles can be moved (using external magnetic source) to the location of the tumor and use magnetic hyperthermia to destroy the cancer Source:

NANO-NEEDLES Nano-needles = Etched-Nanowires Copyright: Atif Syed

MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES • Magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized and used • By having the nanoparticles very small (6-20 nm), Superparamagnetism (SPM) is being exhibited • Coating the nanoparticles with albumins (proteins) to make them biocompatible and antigens to tag cancerous cells • Frequencies more than 100 kHz will make the nanoparticles oscillate and generate heat • At 40

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