Introduction to LTE/EPC (EPS) Network with Comparison with GPRS Core Network

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Information about Introduction to LTE/EPC (EPS) Network with Comparison with GPRS Core...
Technology

Published on February 4, 2014

Author: mustafagolam

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This presentation slides are intended to give detail introduction of LTE/EPC Network to the participants.

In this Tutorial, Participant will be getting introductory knowledge of Mobile Internet Core (GPRS) Network with lots of demonstrations and explanatory graphs of how Internet Works for Mobile Network and than with detail comparison of LTE/EPC Network.

The main focus being from LTE Access Network to EPC Core, however, IP route towards Boarder GW and ISP network can be included if required.

The presentation will help IP Back ground Audience to grasp Terminology of Mobile Internet (LTE/EPC) and help understand how does it works.

Mustafa Golam Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 1

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 Air Interface capacity  Modulation scheme (FM, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM)  Multiple Access Technology  Air Interface Bandwidth (Frequency in kHz, MHz,)  Node Capacity  Number of simultaneously users  Power support  Transport Network/Transmission  TDM/ATM/ETHERNET  Throughput Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 3

 1G FDMA (NMT, ect)  Analog, CS only  2G TDMA (GSM, ect)  Voice, SMS, CS data transfer  2.5G TDMA (GPRS)  CS,PS data~ 50kbps  2.75G TDMA (EGPRS+EDGE)  CS, PS data ~150-384 kbps  3-3.5G WCDMA (UMTS)  CS, PS ~14.4-42 Mbps  3.9G OFDMA (LTA/SAE=>EPS)  PS ~ 100 Mbps  4G IMT Advanced  PS ~350 Mbps Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 4

Standard Year Multiple Access Modulation Bandwidth NMT-450 1981 FDMA FM 25 kHz NMT-900 1986 FDMA FM 12.5 kHz ETACS 1985 FDMA FM 25 kHz AMPS 1983 FDMA FM 30 kHz JTACS 1988 FDMA FM 25 kHz NTT 1979 FDMA FM 12.5 kHz

Standard Year Multiple Access Modulation Bandwidth PCS (CDMAOne) 1993 CDMA QPSK/ BPSK 1.25 MHz GSM TDMA GMSK 200 kHz 1990

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Need an “all IP” system withCTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) capacity and higher speeds 9 Mustafa Golam, more efficiency, more 2/4/2014

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2100 Subscriptions (Millions) 1800 Mobile Broadband 1500 1200 900 Fixed Broadband 600 300 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Source: OVUM, Strategy Analytics & Internal Ericsson Mobile broadband growth: Broadband becomes personal 11 Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014

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LTE is the Global standard for Next Generation – FDD and TDD Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 16

 Freely downloadable from: http://ftp.3gpp.org/specs/html-info/36-series.htm Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 17

Downlink Uplink 50 Peak Data Rates [Mbps] 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 HSPA R6 2004 HSPA R7 2007 HSPA R8 2008 LTE 2x2, 5+5 MHz 2008 HSPA Evolution provides similar performance as LTE in 5MHz Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 18

Downlink Uplink Peak Data Rates [Mbps] 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 LTE 2x2, 5+5 MHz 2008 LTE 2x2, 20+20 MHz 2008 LTE 4x4, 20+20 MHz 2008 > 5 MHz trunking gainBDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 performance gives improved LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, 19

Base station located at x. L1 Throughput Max: 154 Mbps Mean: 78 Mbps Min: 16 Mbps UE Speed Max: 45 km/h Mean: 16 km/h Min: 0 km/h Sub-urban area with Lineof-sight: less than 40% of the samples Heights of surrounding buildings: 15-25 m Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 20

 Cdma2000  EvDO Rev A  3.1Mbps DL, 1.8Mbps UL  EvDO Rev B  4.9Mbps (64QAM)  Multicarrier 14.7Mbps in 5MHz  with MIMO 29Mbps!  HSPA  14Mbps DL and 5.8Mbps UL  Evolved HSPA  With MIMO  28Mbps DL  With 64QAM 21Mbps DL  Combined 42Mbps DL, 11Mbps UL (16QAM) DL UL LTE 1.4 9.2Mbps 2.2Mbps LTE 3 25Mbps 7.1Mbps LTE 5 42.2Mbps 12.2Mbps LTE 10 85.4Mbps 27.3Mbps LTE will provide high data rate user experience

 Release99 (DCH Channels)  384 kbps  Introduce HSDSCH (HSDPA channel)  Access technology CDMA  Air interface bandwidth 5Mhz  Modulation Schemes  QPSK/16QAM/64QAM  First higher data rates  2005 (P4)  QPSK, 5 codes, HSDSCH => 2Mbps  16QAM, 5 codes HSDSCH => 3.6Mbps  Follow the race  P5 =>7.2 Mbps and 14.4 Mbps  10 codes or 15 codes with 16QAM  P7 => 21 Mbps using 64 QAM Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 22

168 84 42 4 Carrier- Multi Carrier Rel-9 :Multi Carrier + MIMO Rel-8: Multi Carrier, 64QAM+MIMO 21/28 Rel-7: 15 codes, 64QAM, MIMO+16QAM 14 Rel-6: 16QAM, 14 Mbps DL Peak rates in Mbps Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 23

42 Mbps Physical layer (L1) peak rate: 42.2 Mbps First carrier Second carrier Adjacent 5 MHz carriers One receiver with 10 MHz bandwidth combines traffic from two carriers  Benefits: – Up to 42 Mbps peak rate – Higher bit rates in whole cell – Higher capacity Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 24

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What is Different in LTE? Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 26

 LTE stands for Long Term Evolution which is introduced by 3GPP to define a new high-speed radio access method for mobile communications systems.  LTE offers a smooth evolutionary path from other cellular systems. GSM EDGE WCDMA Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) HSPA 2/4/2014 LTE 27

LTE GSM EDGE LTE WCDMA LTE Non 3GPP Technologies Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) LTE 2/4/2014 28

 High data rates  Downlink > 100Mbps  Uplink > 50Mbps  Cell edge data rates 2-3 X HSPA Rel6 (2006)  Low Delay/latency  User Plane RTT < 10ms RAN RTT (fewer nodes, shorter TTI)  Channel set up < 100ms from IDLE to Active (fewer nodes, shorter messages, quicker node response  High spectral efficiency  Initially 3X HSPA release6  Spectrum flexibility  Operation in wide range of spectrum (New, existing)  1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 Mhz (flexibility)  FDD or TDD mode form start  All over IP (end to end) Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 29

 Cost affective and simple (CAPEX/OPEX)  Less signaling  Auto configuration E-NodeB  Self optimization  Fewer Nodes (low latency, reduced RTT)  Easy migration from GSM/WCDMA  Less signaling  One domain, IP domain (No separate CS domain)  Flattening architecture (common Packet Core)  Possibility of Reuse/share equipment  Focus on services from PS domain Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 30

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 Packet Data Gateway (P-GW)  Serving Gateway (S-GW)  Mobility Management Entity (MME)  e-UTRAN (eNodeB) Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 34

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 S-GW and P-GW functions:  Implemented on common node  Called SAE-Gateway  Realized with Red-back Smart-Edge 1200 router in Ericsson Solution Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 38

 Charging, Packet filtering (QoS), PCEF (QoS)  IP PoP  EPS Bearer Handling  Not seen by terminal  Mobility anchoring Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 39

 Packet filtering (QoS)  Termination of U-plane packets for paging reasons  Switching of U-plane for support of UE mobility Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 40

 MME functions are added in the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN-MME 2009B release).  Handles security  Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA)  Idle state mobility handling  EPS Bearer control/management (QoS)  UE attach/detach handling (registration ect)  IRAT handover Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 41

 All ready existing MBPN solution can be utilized  Zain well positioned for this convergence (Using Juniper routers switches in MPBN)  MPLS nodes in the 2G/3G access (LTE can share)  Different aggregation levels are to expect  L2 equipment or L3 equipment or combination of it can be used Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 42

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 Terminates all user plane functions seen by the terminal (including security)  Radio Resource Management  Radio Bearer Control  Radio Admission Control  Connection Mobility Control  UL/DL scheduling  IP header compression and encryption of user data streams  Measurement and measurement reporting Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 44

LTE RADIO Interface Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 45

• Downlink: Adaptive OFDMA – Adaptation in time and frequency domain • Uplink: SC-FDMA with dynamic bandwidth – Higher power efficiency, reduced interference • Adaptive complex modulation – DL = QPSK,16QAM, 64QAM – UL= QPSK, 16QAM • Multi-Antennas, both RBS and terminal – MIMO, beamforming, TX and RX diversity  Flexible bandwidth  <5 MHz bandwidths up to 20 MHz • Both FDD and TDD supported Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 46

 From 1.4 up to 20 MHz spectrum allocations  Compare WCDMA 5MHz  Support both FDD and TDD modes  Supports use of MIMO multiple antenna configurations  OFDM in DL  SC-FDMA in UL Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 47

15kHz Frequency …  The available Bandwidth is divided into 15 KHz Sub-carriers. After data is mapped to these carriers, they are multiplexed and Transmitted to the users.  One sub-carrier gives a low speed, but a number multiplexed together will give a higher speed. Users are assigned sub-carriers in groups of twelve Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 48

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 LTE radio access  Downlink: OFDMA  Uplink: SC-FDMA OFDMA SC-FDMA  Advanced antenna solutions  Diversity  Multi-layer transmission (MIMO)  Beam-forming TX TX  Spectrum flexibility  Flexible bandwidth  New and existing bands  Duplex flexibility: FDD and TDD Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 1.4 MHz 2/4/2014 20 MHz 51

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 Downlink: Multi-layered OFDM  Channel-dependent scheduling and link adaptation in time and frequency domain  Uplink: Single Carrier-FDMA  Higher uplink system throughput  Improved coverage and cell-edge performance  Lower terminal cost and improved battery life Uplink Downlink User 1 User 2 User 3 frequency frequency Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 53

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12 subcarriers * 15KHz = 180 KHz Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 55

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FDM OFDM  Orthogonal: all subcarriers zero at sampling point (an integer number of cycles for one symbol for all subcarriers)  Subcarrier spacing is 15 kHz (7.5 kHz for MBMS)  Implemented in practice using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 59

 Resistance to the damaging effects of multipath delay spread  Robust against ISI Time-frequency fading, user #1 data1 data2 data3 data4 Time-frequency fading, user #2  Scalable system bandwidth  Adopts easy to frequency and phase distortions in the received signal  Reference signals are used for the correction (coherent detection)  Ability to easily manipulate User #1 scheduled phase and frequency makes it suitable for MIMO or beamforming  Easy to implement Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) User #2 scheduled 2/4/2014 60

 The consequence of multi-path propagation is the time dispersion  Time-adjacent symbols start to overlap and generate inter-symbolinterference (ISI)  Symbol is prolonged by adding a guard time between the symbols  Adding an “empty” guard time destroys the orthogonality and introduces inter-carrier interference (ICI)  To maintain the orthogonality the prefix is made cyclic  Prefix time must be longer than the longest excess delay Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 61

 Normal CP is 5.21/4.69 μs  Provides for a time delay caused by multi-path of up to 1.4 km  Adequate for most coverage scenarios  Extended CP of 16.67 μs  Covering an excess delay of up to 5 km  Use of extended CP provides 6 symbols per slot  It is possible on the downlink to combine the extended CP with half inter-carrier distance (7.5 kHz) to increase the robustness against long delays  Multi-path channel measurements on 900 MHz and 1.7 GHz showed that for urban areas the delay spread (DS) in 90 % of the cases were below 0.7 μs  For different rural environments, the DS values could be between 5 and 20 μs in 90 % of the cases  These kinds of environments are more challenging Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 62

High PAPR Sensitive to Doppler and frequency errors Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 63

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› Highest order modulation is chosen based on radio channel conditions (SINR) › Different order modulations allow for sending more bits per symbol › System can flex to the actual fading conditions 20 MHz, PB3, 2x2 MIMO Network design that maximizes both coverage and SINR is required Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 65

› › 14 OFDM symbols per 2 slots (1ms sub frame) per subcarrier 12 subcarriers per resource block Maximum symbol rate = 14 * NRB * 12 Maximum bit rate = Maximum symbol rate * bits/symbol * coding rate * MIMO gain Maximum channel rate (Mbps) for SISO Channel banwidth (Mhz) Transmission bandwith configuration NRB QPSK 1/2 QPSK 1 16 QAM 1/2 16 QAM 1 64 QAM 1/2 64 QAM 1 1.4 6 1.008 2.016 2.016 4.032 3.024 6.048 3 15 2.52 5.04 5.04 10.08 7.56 15.12 5 25 4.2 8.4 8.4 16.8 12.6 25.2 Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 10 50 8.4 16.8 16.8 33.6 25.2 50.4 2/4/2014 15 75 12.6 25.2 25.2 50.4 37.8 75.6 20 100 16.8 33.6 33.6 67.2 50.4 100.8 66

Throughput vs. Relative Distance to Cell Border 160000 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz 140000 Throughput [kbps] 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Relative Distance to Cell Border “average” user experience region  RLC, HARQ, TCP, Application overheads etc.  Interference and cell loadings are key factors Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom)  Good cell plan is very important 2/4/2014 67

 Single-carrier FDMA  Single-carrier  Improved power amplifier efficiency  Reduced terminal power consumption and cost and improved coverage  FDMA  Intra-cell orthogonality in time and frequency domain  Improved uplink coverage and capacity  High degree of commonality with LTE downlink access  Can be seen as pre-coded OFDMA  Same basic transmission parameters (frame length, subcarrier spacing, …) SC-FDMA OFDMA User 1 User 2 User 3 frequency Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) frequency 2/4/2014 68

2.5xR Mbps OR Improved coverage ( > 60% improvement ) R Mbps Higher data rates ( > 2.5 times improvement ) Reduced power consumption Longer battery life Single-carrier transmission in uplink enables low PAPR that gives more than 4 dB better linkMustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 budget and reduced power consumption compared to OFDM 69

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Directivity Diversity Multiplexing Antenna/Beamforming gain “Reduce fading” “Capacity multiplication” Example Example Example Channel knowledge (average/instant) Transmit the signal in the best direction Transmit the signal in all directions Transmit several signals in different directions › Different techniques make different assumptions on channel knowledge at RX and TX › Many techniques can realize several benefits › Realized benefit depends on channel and interference properties Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 71

› Better data rate coverage –Directivity and diversity improves link budget › Potential for higher data rates –Spatial domain provides extra dimension –Spatial multiplexing in certain scenarios at high SINR Higher Spectral efficiency! 2/4/2014 Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 72

 Channel capacity: C  log2(1+SNR)  Low SNR regime: log2(1+SNR)  SNR  Increase SNR => Transmit Diversity Capacity (bps) SNR NSNR  High SNR regime: log2(1+SNR)  log2(SNR)  Increasing SNR does not give higher rate => Increase number of transmitted layers (symbol streams) = MIMO Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 73

 Space-time Code (STC): Redundant data sent over time and space domains (antennas) Space c b a c b a MOD Time Time Code Space c’ b’ a’  Capacity (max data rate): MOD Decoder c b a

 Data is not redundant – less diversity but less repetition  Transmit rmax parallel symbol streams rmax = min(NR, NT)  Provides multiplexing gain to increase data rate NT e c a NR Space MOD Time fedcba f d b MOD fedcba Decoder  Capacity: MIMO Gain vs. C/(I+N) C = BW * rmax * log2(1+(CINR/rmax)) 1.9 1.8 1.7 MIMO Gain 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 C/(I+N) 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37

 LTE provides spectrum flexibility for operation in differently sized spectrum 1.4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz › LTE supports paired and unpaired spectrum on the same HW platform FDD TDD fDL/UL fDL fUL Highest data rates for given bandwidth and peak power Unpaired spectrum Maximum commonality between FDD and TDD Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 76

FDD TDD Band ”Identifier” Frequencies (MHz) Band ”Identifier” Frequencies (MHz) 1 IMT Core Band 1920-1980/2110-2170 33,34 TDD 2000 2 PCS 1900 1850-1910/1930-1990 1900-1920 2010-2025 3 GSM 1800 1710-1785/1805-1880 35,36 TDD 1900 1850-1910 1930-1990 4 AWS (US & other) 1710-1755/2110-2155 37 PCS Center Gap (1915)1910-1930 5 850 824-849/869-894 38 2570-2620 6 850 (Japan) 830-840/875-885 IMT Extension Center Gap 7 IMT Extension 2500-2570/2620-2690 39 China TDD 1880-1920 8 GSM 900 880-915/925-960 40 China TDD 2300-2400 9 1700 (Japan) 1750-1785/1845-1880 10 3G Americas 1710-1770/2110-2170 11 UMTS1500 1428-1453/1476-1501 12, 13, 14 US 700 698-716/728-746 776-788/746-758 788-798/758-768 Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 77

 700MHz  Band 13 (Upper C)  10MHz FDD  Band 12 ( Lower 700)  C+B  5 & 10 MHz A B C  A+B  5 & 10MHz 806 698 MHz 704 710 716 722 728 734 740 746 752 758 764 770 776 782 788 794 800 MHz  New players  Cdma2000 tier3 players 52 53 54 D E A B C 55 56 57 58 Lower 700 MHz 59 Public Public C A D Safety B C A D SafetyB 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 Upper 700 MHz  AWS  A or B or F  10MHz  C or D or E  5MHz  1900MHz, 850MHz  1.4MHz, 3MHz  spectrum constraint  5,10MHz  available spectrum LTE provides solution for many spectrum scenarios Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 78

 SC-FDMA  Low peak to average power ratio  Cheaper power amplifier in the UE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 79

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 Mobility management for idle UEs  UE Authentication  EPS bearer management  Configuration and control security  Paging initiation for idle UEs Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 81

 Broadcast of system information  Establish, release and maintain calls  Mobility  Inter-cell handover  IRAT  selection and reselection Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 82

 Header compression and decompression of IP data flows  Transfer of data  Integrity protection of control plane data  Maintenance of sequence numbers for Radio bearers Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 83

 Unacknowledged Mode (UM)  Acknowledged Mode (AM)  RLC transparent mode  Segmentation & Concatenation of RLC SDUs Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 84

 HARQ  Priority handling (scheduling)  Transport format selection  DRX control (Discontinuous reception)  prolong the mobile's battery life  The mobile station listens only to the paging channels within its DRX group  network will only page the mobile in that group of paging channels  Intended to maintain continuous transmission Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 85

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 Intra-LTE mobility  Inter-LTE mobility  ECM_CONNECTED mode mobility  Inter RAT HO (to 3G/2G)  Inter MME (pool) HO (to 3G/2G)  Intra LTE HO (within one MME pool) intra/inter eNB  ECM_IDLE mode mobility  Cell reselection with TA update Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 87

 No LA  No RA  TA controlled by MME  TA list exists in the MME Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 88

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 Collocation with separate antenna system  Collocation with dual diplexer and shared mast feeder  Collocation with shared antenna Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 90

 Add another antenna system for LTE  Simplest way to collocate LTE with existing technology  Make sure antenna separation either vertically or horizontally  When vertically work with tilting  When horizontally work azimuth Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 91

 Shared feeder and separate antennas  One diplex to combine Rx/Tx signal  One diplex to split signal to different ASC/TMA  Check the antenna dB isolation (minimum 30 dB isolation) to avoid inter-modulation Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 92

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 New antenna supporting both old technology and LTE frequencies  At least 30 dB isolation antenna between LTE and other technology Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 94

IMS/IP Networks S4 S8 HSS PDN-GW S6a S5 S6 d MME S11 SGW S2a S3 SGSN S4 S1-UP S1-MME GSM WCDMA CDMA Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) eNodeB 2/4/2014 Non 3GPP technologies 95

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Aligned functionality EPC Testing in operator environment Transport OSS LTE RAN terminals 2/4/2014 Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 97

• Long Term Evolution is the 3GPP workgroup focused on developing the Evolved - UTRAN to bring it to next generation standards. • System Architecture Evolution is the corresponding workgroup to develop the Evolved Packet Core. EPS E-UTRAN 2/4/2014 EPC Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 98

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GERAN Core Network External Networks (CS) CS Domain UTRAN IMS Domain External Networks (PS) Enhanced PS Domain Packet Core E-UTRAN 2/4/2014 LTE/SAECTO, BDTele(BigData In (3GPP) workgroups Mustafa Golam, Telecom) 100

Core Network, CS and PS domains GGSN MSC-S MGW SGSN RNC UTRAN NodeB NodeB Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 101

GGSN MSC-S MGW SGSN  Only the PS domain is defined RNC  RNC functions moved to E-Node B NodeB NodeB Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 102

 Interface with external networks  IRAT Handover  Charging P-GW  Interface with SGSN  IP PoP MME S-GW  Idle mode mobility management  Terminates UP packets  Switching of UP for mobility reasons All RRM including:  Bearer Control S1  Admission Control  Connected mode Mobility mgmt  UL/DL scheduling  Typically arranged in pools E-NodeB E-NodeB X2 Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 103

Indoor eNodeB  Minimal Footprint –400x600 mm (16x24 in)  Reduced Height –1435 mm (57 in)    Central Redundant Fans 12 Radio Units 6 sectors with 2x2 MIMO or 3 sectors dual band and 2x2 MIMO 2/4/2014 Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 104

Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 105

Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 106

The LTE/SAE transport study is a cross DU/PA team activity within the LTE/SAE Network Level System project (BNET) that  delivers an educational overview of the current and future e2-e LTE transport network deployment scenarios in the different areas Access, Aggregation/Metro and Backbone: Typical deployment scenarios based on  Vendor view  Customer view of main customers  Different alternative/options, dependent on     technology geographical and subscriber aspects (rural, urban, …) legal / business aspects (cost of leased lines) legacy aspects (e.g. a lot of fiber connected sites already in place)  identifies issues, conclusions and additional requirements on the transport Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 solutions and products. Mustafa 107

Access Aggregation Metro Core LRAN Aggregation Cell Site HRAN Switching BSC eNB BTS 1*E1/T1 2*E1/T1 ... ADM Core Switching MSC -S Text Other Core sites Core 63*E1/T1 STM-1/OC-3c SDH/SONET network Site Text Router ADM ADM IP/MPLS Packet Switched Network MText MGw IP/MPLS Packet Switched Network ATM STM-1/OC-3c Node eNB B ATM/ IMA/ n*E1/T1 Router Text μW RNC Cell Site μW eNB BTS 1*E1/T1 2*E1/T1 ADM Node eNB B ATM/ IMA/ n*E1/T1 Backbone already realized as packet based transport  Mobile Backhaul often still TDM and ATM access and SDH/SONET based Metro  Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 108

Cost per bit needs to decrease rapidly 3.6 Mbps RBS RBS 14 Mbps RBS RBS 28 Mbps BSC RBS RNC RBS RBS SAE Gw 42 Mbps eNB eNB eNB eNB 80-160 Mbps RAN domain Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 Evolution from narrowband voice to bandwidth demanding data centric transport… 109

It is not possible to build profitable mass-market mobile data backhaul infrastructure based on leased lines and/or bundles of E1s/T1s. Operators therefore have different possibilities to tackle this problem:  Find a faster and cheaper way to get transport to cell sites using fiber.  Deploy self-built access to the cell-site (most likely microwave).  Look into converged architectures, e.g. using xDSL or GPON access where possible.  Agree on lower leased line tariffs based on long write off time for fiber and longer agreement periods Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 110

Mobile Backhaul dedicated 1) Microwave access 2) Fiber access & transport Mobile Backhaul using BBA infrastructure (incl FMC) 3) xDSL access 4) GPON access 5) P-t-P fiber access Switch Site Aggregation Hub 2 Aggregation Hub 1 Cell Site

Support for multiple technologies like PB/PBB, MPLS-TP. Routing function needed for IP/MPLS based transport. cell site Aggr . 1 Eth (Cu) eNB 3 PP Service Network Switching Aggr . 2 Other Core Sites μW μW μW Router Router SAE GGSN Gw MSPP MSPP eNB Core MSPP MSPP Switch SAE GGSN Gw Site Text Router resilient optical connection (ring or mesh) Router Text BB Text Router Cu Cu Eth (Cu ) eNB Cu DSLAM Switch Switch xDSL Switch resilient optical connection Rout. & Switch. & BRAS Passive Splitter Eth eNB ONT Switch OLT Switch MSPP Demarcation might be even on cell site L2/L3 demarcation variable Different geographical reach for different solutions !! PoP towards ‘Internet’ and/or ‘other operator’ Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 RAN evolves towards native IP/Ethernet 112

1x 3PP Service Network cell site Extreme Summit OMS 870 MINI-LINK Switching/ Core Aggr. MINI-LINK OMS 870 Other Core Sites Optical Eth Switch (Cu) eNB μW μW Fiber distribution point Optical SAE GGSN Gw 1 GE 5x cell Site Extreme Summit eNB Switch Switch 1 GE 1 GE Optical Extreme Summit Tier 2 HUB Fiber node IP/MPLS backbone Optical Site Text Router IP/MPLS backbone SE 400 No Metro/HRAN, reuse of IP/MPLS backbone for trial phase PoP towards ‘Internet’ and/or ‘other operator’ Partly in line with /// P-t-P Fiber and Microwave vision scenario but downsized/simplified Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 113

cell site 3 PP Service Network eNB SIU 01 ? Aggr . 1 MINI-LINK TN4.1 2pB Eth STN Cu) OMS 1410 -orSM 480 6-38 GHz μW BTS μW μW We need a gap filler since NG-SIU development is late. Currently under discussion, e.g. ‘T750’ Other Core Sites OMS 1410 -orSM 480 SAE GGSN Gw MSPP MSPP eNB OMS 1410 R1 Site Text Router OMS 1410 R1 SE400/800/1200 Switch Eth (Cu ) eNB Switch EDA 1200 products resilient optical connection SAE GGSN Gw MSPP MSPP STN Core MINI-LINK TN 4.1 6pD MINI-LINK TN 4.1 2pB 6-38 GHz Switching Aggr . 2 Router Text resilient optical connection (ring or mesh)SE400/800/1200 BB Text Router Switch ECN430/ EMN120 Rout. & Switch. & BRAS SE400/800/1200 PoP towards ‘Internet’ and/or ‘other operator’ Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 114

UTRAN SGSN HSS GERAN S3 S1-MME S6a MME PCRF S11 S10 LTE-Uu UE E-UTRAN S12 S4 Serving S5 Gateway S1-U Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) Mustafa Gx PDN SGi Gateway 2/4/2014 Rx Operator's IP Services (e.g. IMS, PSS etc.) 115

Security Domains and VPN Structure  Today – 3GDT sets GGSN and RNCs into one security Domain  SAE GW needs to connect to eNodeB, which has a different physical access security  IP connectivity to external networks In 2G/3G, DNS and Gn traffic connect only through Gp firewall and Security Domain Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 116

External Networks Mobile-PBN PRAN Mobile Backhaul or Mobile-PBN transport services, depending on SAE GW and MME sites IMS Module HSS S6a eNodeB eDNS (DIAMETER resolution) DNS iDNS (DIAMETER resolution) Serv. & Control Sig RNC IuPS-U, S12 DNS S1-U, S1-MME Gx, Rx, S9, S6a, DNS DNS PCRF S7, Gx, Rx, S9 IMS DMZ Gb IuPS-C IMS Firewall GRX/IPX S6a, S9, DNS, Gp, S8 DNS, Gx, Rx, S9, S6a IP Interconnect (Gp) S6a, S9 R2C (RAN) PRAN BSC Signal. (SS7) BSSAP Gb, IuPS-U, S101 GGSN DNS, Gp, S8, S9 Proxy (eDNS) IuPS-U IuPS-C, BSSAP, S6a, S6a, DNS DNS, S6a IP Interconnet (Gp) Firewall S1-MME S1-U S12 Gn, Gp SGSN/MME S101 DNS Gi DNS, Gp, S8 Media (Core) DNS.Gn, Gp, S3, S4, S10, S11 eDNS (APN resolution) Gx SAE-GW DNS S11, S4, S5, S8, S2a ISP Gi, SGi Internet Gi, SGi Gi, SGi Internet Access iDNS (APN resolution) S2a Gi Firewall SGi PDSN CDMA 2000 (not in Mobile-PBN scope) Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 RNC 201-08-001-01 117

 The new main nodes that implement the Evolved Packet Core are the MME and the SAE GW. Depending on the typical placement of these nodes, certain sites in the network will include SAE GW, MME, or both.  Based on the dimensioning done, there will be no SAE GW nodes in mobile access sites in the mid term. We will find SAE GWs in all core sites, including Mobile-PBN Primary and Secondary sites. Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 118

 The MME mode of the SGSN will support considerably more subscribers than for 2G/3G access in an LTE only mode, the target is 3 M SAU, corresponding to 5000 connected eNodeB. The number of required MME nodes in the network will be lower than the amount of SAE GW nodes.  In conclusion, there will be two basic EPC site types for the core network, one including only SAE GW, and one including SAE GW and MME.  In addition to these site types, there will be dedicated central sites hosting the HSS and SAPC nodes. Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 119

 Node selection will involve enhanced DNS features compared to APN resolution in 2G/3G PS networks  MME Selection by an eNodeB  Mechanism under discussion  MME Selection at Inter eNodeB handover (with MME relocation)  NAPTR DNS query by the source MME  Answer as SRV or A/AAAA record  PDN GW (///->SAE GW) Selection  NAPTR query for APN name sent by MME  Serving GW Selection (///->SAE GW)  NAPTR query for tracking area sent by MME Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 120

 Same Principles as developed in Mobile-PBN SW 1 port0 Router PIU 1 port1 port0 Router PIU 2 SR 1 port1 port0 Router PIU 3 Router PIU 4 10 GE Interface 1 port1 port0 10 GE Interface 2 port1 SR 1 SAE GW MME SW 2 Legend 10 GE 1000 Base T 201-08-005-01 CN nodes Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 121

 Same Principles as developed in Mobile-PBN SR 1 port0 Router PIU 1  Design Options: Use combined router/switches and direct SGi connection port1 port0 Router PIU 2 port0 port1 be connected as in earlier Mobile-PBN releases 10 GE Interface 2 port0 port1 SAE GW MME  The SAPC and HSS nodes will End user Services and Internet Access port1 Router PIU 3 Router PIU 4 10 GE Interface 1 Legend SR 2 10 GE optical 1000 Base T 201-08-006-00 CN nodes Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 122

SW_1 SR_1 SAE GW CN VRF (10) GE LAG CN_GN_GSN_1 LAG IAC VRF (10) GE GI_IAC_1 (10) GE IAC VRF LAG LAG Core Context (10) GE GI_IAC_2 LAG (10) GE Internet APN context LAG CN_GSN_2 (10) GE CN VRF SR_2 SW_2 Logical Connectivity shown here for two networks only. Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 123

 Bandwidth  Traffic volume between Core sites might reach up to 20 Gbps  Capacity upgrade required  Site distribution  According to dimensioning, it is expected that SAE GW will be distributed to Core Sites only, without further spread-out towards access, at least not in the mid term Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 124

    Alignment with TIPI-2 study It assumed that PRAN will follow, too. Client nodes expected to be in line with default DSCP values defined in TIPI-2 study Client network classes will be mapped to a limited number of backbone classes defining queuing and scheduling behavior Traffic Type R6.1 BB/SI TIPI (R6.1 clients) Network Control CS6 NTP Network Control Telephony Realtime EF Signaling CS5 Signaling (SS7), Gb, high prio charging DNS Radius O&M Interactive O&M Background Streaming (Iu, Gn, Gi) Gi SN, Gi L2TP Interactive (Iu, Gn, Gi) CS2 CS1 Guaranteed Bandwidth AF31 AF21 Charging low prio CS1 Background (Iu,Gn,Gi) AF11 Internet Background Best Effort BE

 Mobile-PBN Reference Network of 11.5 Mio Subscribers  Two scenarios: 10% or 50% penetration  Traffic per subscriber: 463 kbit/sec (aggressive Traffic Model)  For scenario 1 (Western Europe, 10% penetration)  total number of 1,150,000 LTE subscribers with an aggregated throughput of 363 Gb/s  For scenario 2 (US, 50% penetration)  total number of 5.75 Million subscribers and an aggregated throughput of 1.8 Tb/s  SAE GW capacity of 256,000 subscribers and 100+ Gb/s throughput, and a total number of SAU in the MME of 3 Million   Scenario 1 : 5 SAE GW, 1 MME Scenario 2 : 23 SAE GW, 2 MME Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 126

Aspects to be considered:  Operational benefit of centralizing core nodes to a few central sites  Closeness of SAE GW to the Internet peering points and the possibility to get rid of high traffic volumes early by pushing out SAE GW nodes further out towards the access. Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 127

EPC in Details Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 128

 Up to 300 Mbit/s DL & 75 Mbit/s UL  Possible to use LTE in many different frequency bands, both FDD and TDD schemes  Coexist with other systems like GSM, WCDMA and even none 3GPP such as CDMA2000  100% IP based core Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 129

 System Architecture Evolution (SAE) is the core network architecture of 3GPP's future LTE wireless communication standard.  SAE is the evolution of the GPRS Core Network, with simplified architecture, all IP networks, and support for different access technologies.  The main component of the SAE architecture is the Evolved Packet Core (EPC), also known as SAE Core. The EPC will serve as equivalent of GPRS networks. Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 130

Major Vendors have implement LTE network across the Continant. Huawei implemented the first commercial LTE network in Norway ZTE implemented the LTE network in HK LTE implementation is on going rapidly across the globe.. Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 131

Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 133

WCDMA / GPRS MPG/ CPG EPC HSS MME S-GW P-GW EPC Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 134

 Functionality Compare   MME        Attach and detach of UE Authentication procedure with assistance of the HSS Choosing SGW and PGW for the UE Manage PDN connections and EPS bearers Mobility Procedures UE tracking Paging SGSN – – – – – – Attach and detach of MS Authentication procedure with assistance of the HLR establishment of the connection for MS via the GGSN Session management Mobility management Subscriber data management Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 135

 Hardware  Based on WPP platform, upgrade from SGSN, called SGSN-MME in new products.  Only control plane  Only IP (v4 and v6)  Protocol stacks: S1AP, NAS, DIAMETER,GTPV1 and GTPV2  MME in pool supported Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 136

 Functionality in S-GW & P-GW  S-GW   Packet routing and forwarding Local mobility anchor for the user plane during intereNodeB handovers  Charging  P-GW     Provides IP connectivity towards external PDNs Policy and admission control Packet filtering per user Service based online and offline charging Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 137

 Hardware      New product in E/// Based on SmartEdge 1200 platform Redback SmartEdge OS 6.1.3 Fully meshed slot to slot Protocol stacks: DIAMETER, GTPv1 and GTPv2 Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 138

 Hardware  Based on Juniper M120 platform, upgrade from GGSN  Functionality enabled through GGSN software upgrade.  Multi access support for GSM, WCDMA and LTE networks.  Mobility provided between all 3GPP access networks. Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 139

 The HSS contains the database holding subscription information for UE subscribing to the EPS network.  HSS can also be used in various systems, such as IMS Communication System, EPS and any type of wireless access.  Functionality in EPS  Subscription Management , Subscription Profile Configuration , Authentication Support  Operator Determined Barring, User Profile Management and Service Authorization  Mobility management, Roaming restrictions Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 140

 Hardware      Based on TSP platform, a new platform Multi access support for EPS, WLAN and wireless access networks. Dicos, Linux OS VIP concepts for traffic and transport Protocol stacks: Diameter, MAP, SigTRAN, Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 141

 Functionality  Subscriber, device, and access-aware handling  policy control decisions  Flow-based charging Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 142

 Hardware      Based on TSP platform Used both in WCDMA and EPS systems Dicos, Linux OS VIP concepts for traffic and transport Protocol stacks: Diameter, SigTRAN Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 143

Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 144

› The EPS architecture is made up of a EPC (Packet Core Network) and a eUTRAN Radio Access Network › The CN provides access to external packet IP networks and perform a number of CN related functions (e.g. QoS, security, mobility and terminal context management) for idle and active terminals › The RAN performs all radio interface related functions for terminals in active mode Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 145

Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 146

Packet Data Networks (Internet) Gi Control Interface User Data Interface GGSN/SAE GW GGSN Gn SGSN/MME SGSN Gb Iu up/S12 BSC RNC Iub BTS GERAN Node B Iu/Gn-UP (Rel-7 One Tunnel) S1-C › 3GPP Rel-7 specifies the feature called “3G Direct Tunnel” where the user plane goes direct between RNC and GGSN › 3GPP Rel-8 specifies a SAE GW and a MME. SW upgrade of the GGSN gives SAE GW functionality and MME functionality in the SGSN › LTE capable eNode Bs are introduced S1-U eNode B Mustafa UTRAN Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) LTE 2/4/2014 147

added CS networks 2G Core Network Circuit Core 3G User mgmt IMS domain eUTRAN EPC Non-3GPP ”IP networks” New System for packet data transmission over broadband radio access. Evolution from 3GPP 2G and 3G. Standarization ongoing in In Telecom) release 8. 3GPP 2/4/2014 Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData 148

3GPP terms:  EPS = Evolved Packet system. 3GPP Global name for the whole system, including eUtran, EPC and user equipment.  eUTRAN = Evolved UTRAN. Access part of the system.  EPC = Evolved Packet Core. Core part of the system Industrial terms:  LTE = Long term evolution. Group all new e-nodeBs providing broadband radio access to end users.  SAE = System Architecture Evolution. Core part evolved to meet requirements of the LTE.  SAE/LTE = Evolved Packet System Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 149

 Ensuring that 3GPP is attractive in comparison with competing technologies (WiFi, WiMax, Flarion, …)  As ”simple” as competing technologies (fewer nodes)  A flat optimized 2-node architecture for user plane     (OPEX and CAPEX) Reduce cost per bit Secure investments made by our customers Higher speeds than any of the competitors Interfaces towards all 3GPP and non-3GPP access technologies for interconnection with SAE. Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 150

 High data rates – – – Downlink: >100 Mbps Uplink: >50 Mbps Cell-edge data rates 2-3 x HSPA Rel. 6 (@ 2006)  Low delay/latency – – User plane RTT: Less than 10 ms ( RAN RTT ) Channel set-up: Less than 100 ms ( idle-to-active )  High spectral efficiency – Targeting 3 X HSPA Rel. 6 (@ 2006 )  Spectrum flexibility – – – Operation in a wide-range of spectrum allocations Wide range of Bandwidth (from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz) Support for FDD and TDD Modes  Cost-effective migration from current/future 3G systems Focus on Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 domain ! services from the packet-switched 151

Doctor/mechanic Messaging TV watching Music PC/Laptop symbol M-commerce Gaming Video Conferencing More people at the same time,BDTele(BigDatafaster and with even better quality Mustafa Golam, CTO, doing it In Telecom) 2/4/2014 152

Internet, Operator Service etc. EPC EPC - Evolved Packet Core eUTRAN eUTRAN - Evolved UTRAN EPS – Evolved Packet System Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 153

 3G Direct Tunnel: capacity IP networks improvement, bypassing the SGSN node, Charging reduces CAPEX.  All-ip transport: Reduces costs and improves escalability.  SGSN pool: network resilience and HLR GGSN reduces signalling.  HSPA: Higher throughput in the radio SGSN access improves user perception. GSM Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) WCDMA /eHSPA 2/4/2014 154

 Fair mobile broadband usage IP networks  Bandwidth management  Policy implementation Charging SASN PCRF  Deep packet inspection  End-to-end Quality of Service control  Service-aware charging HLR GGSN SGSN GSM Mustafa Golam, CTO, in GGSN Note: SASN could be standalone or integratedBDTele(BigData In Telecom) WCDMA /eHSPA 2/4/2014 155

 EPC achievable by straightforward software upgrades – – GGSN upgrade to Mobile Packet Gateway (in a later phase) IP networks Charging SASN SAPC SGSN upgrade to triple-access  Multi-access (access agnostic) UM PGW  Flat architecture: 2 nodes for user traffic (based on 3GDT idea)  IP transport infrastructure allowing pooling for SAE GWs, and MME, sharing the eNodeBs NON-3GPP WLAN MME SGSN GSM Mustafa Golam, CTO, in PGW Note: SASN could be standalone or integratedBDTele(BigData In Telecom) WCDMA /eHSPA 2/4/2014 LTE 156

 LTE = Long Term Evolution (of 3GPP family)  Evolution path for GSM/EDGE, WCDMA/HSPA, HSPA+  LTE is being specified in 3GPP Release 8  Now also known as eUTRAN  Designed primarily for mobile broadband  packet data  simple architecture  Flexible design to allow deployment in new and re- farmed spectrum  Takes radio performance to the next level LTE is the next step in radio for mobile broadband Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 157

 Downlink: Multi-layered FDMA OFDMA   Uplink: Single Carrier- Channel-dependent scheduling and link adaptation in time and frequency domain  Higher uplink system throughput  Improved coverage and celledge performance  Lower terminal cost and improved battery life Uplink Downlink User 1 User 2 User 3 frequency frequency Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 158

IP networks Full reuse of user Management HSS and IMS enhacements 3GPP R7 Policy Control and Charging – enhancements of 3GPP R7 SAE GW P-GW S-GW 2G/3G MME Optimized UP path for LTE User traffic and signaling separation in core network Signaling User traffic Other access Interconnection of other access technologies using Mobile IP eNodeB LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) MME = ”Mobility Management Entity” 2/4/2014 eNodeB = the LTE base station 159

IP networks Gx HSS PCRF SGi HLR S6a SAE GW Gr PDN GW S5 S4 Serv GW S11 SGSN MME S3 S10 Gb S12 Iu-C S1-C 2G 3G S1-U LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) • Common GW for all accesses • Core network pooling for LTE access • Policy control also supporting LTE • Diameter for LTE user management • Smooth interworking 2G/3G – LTE • 3G Direct Tunnel for HSPA 2/4/2014 160

IP networks IP networks SGi SGi SAE GW Home PLMN Visited PLMN SAE GW PDN GW PDN GW S8 SGi IP networks SAE GW Serv GW 2G/3G LTE Other accesses 2G/3G S7 hPCRF S9 S8 PD N SAE GW GW GW Serv LTE S7 vPCRF Other accesses • Basic case: home tunnelling • Advanced case: both home tunnelling and local • Smooth upgrade to support LTE and breakout possible other accesses • Roaming controlled by home network policies • Support for 3 operator model • PCRF-to-PCRF roaming interface • GTP and MIP options for roaming • GTP and MIP options for roaming Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 Note: HSS and AAA excluded for simplicity 161

IP networks Gx PCRF SGi HSS PDN GW HLR S6a S8 Gr HPLMN VPLMN S4 Serv GW S11 SGSN S3 MME S10 Gb S12 Iu-C S1-C 2G 3G S1-U LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 162

H-PCRF HSS HLR S9 HPLMN VPLMN V-PCRF S6a Gr Gx PDN GW SGi S5 S4 Serv GW S11 SGSN IP networks S3 MME S10 Gb S12 Iu-C S1-C 2G 3G S1-U LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 163

IMS domain I-CSCF S-CSCF P-CSCF IP networks Rx+  The Packet core evolution is transparent to IMS services. SIP PCRF S7 SGi SAE GW Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 164

 S1 Interface  S1 UP, eNodeB<->P/S-GW  S1 CP, eNodeB<- >MME  X2 Interface  eNodeB<- > eNodeB  S11 Interface  MME<->P/S-GW  S3 Interface  SGSN<->MME  S4 Interface  SGSN<->P/S-GW Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 165

MME/GW S1 S1 Evolved Packet Core S1 Evolved UTRAN X2 eNode B X2 eNode B eNode B Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 166

 S1 Interface  The interface between eNodeB and SAE (MME and S-GW)  In the user plane, based on GTP User Data Tunnelling (GTP-U) (similar to today’s Iu and Gn interface)  In the control plane, more similar to Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP), with some simplifications and changes  Split into S1-CP (control) and S1-UP (user plane). MME/GW  Signalling transport on S1-CP will be based on SCTP S1  Payload transport on S1-UP will be based on GTP-U X2  S1 is a many-to-many interface.Telecom) Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In eNode B 2/4/2014 S1 eNode B S1 X2 eNode B 167

 X2 Interface  The interface between eNodeB  Mainly used to support active mode UE mobility  May also be used for multi-cell Radio Resource Management (RRM) functions  X2-CP interface will consist of a signalling protocol called X2-AP on top of SCTP  The X2-UP interface is based on GTP-U  The X2-UP interface will be used to MME/GW support loss-less mobility (packet forwarding). S1 S1 S1  The X2 interface is a many-to-many interface. X2 Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) eNode B 2/4/2014 X2 eNode B eNode B 168

S3 Interface IP networks •enables user and bearer information exchange for inter 3GPP access network mobility in idle and/or active state. Gx HSS •Based on Gn reference point as defined between SGSNs. SGi HLR •Protocol: GTP-C PCRF Gr S6a SAE GW PDN GW S5 S4 Serv GW S11 SGSN MME S3 S10 Gb Iu-C S12 S1-C 2G 3G S1-U LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 169

S4 Interface IP networks • Provides related control and mobility support between GPRS Core and the 3GPP Anchor function of Serving GW Gx HSS • Is based on Gn reference point as defined between SGSN and GGSN. PCRF SGi HLR S6a SAE GW Gr • In addition, if Direct Tunnel is not established, it provides the user plane tunnelling. PDN GW S5 S4 Serv GW S11 • Protocol: GTP-C / -U SGSN MME S3 S10 Gb Iu-C S12 S1-C 2G 3G S1-U LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 170

IP networks Gx HSS PCRF SGi HLR S6a SAE GW Gr PDN GW S5 S4 Serv GW S11 SGSN MME S3 S10 Gb S12 Iu-C S1-C 2G 3G S1-U LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) S5 Interface • Provides user plane tunnelling and tunnel management between Serving GW and PDN GW. • Used for Serving GW relocation due to UE mobility and if the Serving GW needs to connect to a non-collocated PDN GW for the required PDN connectivity. • Protocol: GTP (or PMIPv6) 2/4/2014 171

IP networks S6a Interface Gx • Enables transfer of subscription and authentication data for authenticating/authorizing user access to the evolved system (AAA interface) between MME and HSS. HSS PCRF SGi HLR S6a SAE GW Gr PDN GW • Protocol: Diameter. S5 S4 Serv GW S11 SGSN MME S3 S10 Gb Iu-C S12 S1-C 2G 3G S1-U LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 172

IP networks Gx HSS PCRF SGi HLR S6a SAE GW Gr PDN GW S5 S4 Serv GW S11 SGSN MME S3 S10 Gb S1-C 2G 3G • provides transfer of (QoS) policy and charging rules from PCRF to Policy and Charging Enforcement Function (PCEF) in the PDN GW. • Protocol: DIAMETER S12 Iu-C Gx Interface S1-U LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 173

IP networks Gx HSS PCRF SGi HLR S6a SAE GW Gr PDN GW S5 S4 Serv GW S11 SGSN MME S3 • Reference point between MMEs for MME relocation and MME to MME information transfer. S10 Gb • Protocol: GTP-C S12 Iu-C S1-C 2G 3G S10 Interface S1-U LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 174

IP networks Gx HSS PCRF SGi HLR S6a SAE GW Gr PDN GW S5 S4 Serv GW S11 SGSN MME S3 • Reference point between MME and Serving GW. S10 Gb • Protocol: GTP-C S12 Iu-C S1-C 2G S11 Interface 3G S1-U LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 175

IP networks Gx HSS PCRF SGi HLR S6a SAE GW Gr PDN GW S5 S4 Serv GW S11 SGSN MME S3 • Reference point between UTRAN and Serving GW for user plane tunnelling when Direct Tunnel is established. S10 Gb S12 Iu-C S1-C 2G 3G S12 Interface S1-U • Protocol: based on the Iu-u/Gn-u reference point using the GTP-U protocol as defined between SGSN and UTRAN LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 176

IP networks Gx HSS SGi SGi Interface HLR S6a SAE GW Gr PDN GW S5 S4 Serv GW S11 SGSN MME S3 • Packet data network may be an operator external public or private packet data network or an intra operator packet data network, e.g. for provision of IMS services. S12 Iu-C S1-C 2G • Reference point between the PDN GW and the packet data network. • This reference point corresponds to Gi and Wi functionalities and supports any 3GPP and non-3GPP access systems S10 Gb PCRF 3G S1-U LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 177

Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 178

IP networks PCRF HSS ”Legacy” 3GPP2 access networks ”Legacy” 3GPP access networks LTE AAA SAE GW PDN GW S5 Serv GW ePDG • Common GW for all accesses • Generic support for any non-3GPP access (e.g. WLAN, Fixed) • Session Mobility using Mobile IP. • Policy control supported for non-3GPP Non-trusted accesses • Access authentication for non-3GPP accesses using AAA mechanisms • Security support for non-trusted accesses Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 Trusted 179

 Non 3GPP access control to SAE supported via the following interfaces:  STa, SWa, SWm, SWx, S6b towards 3GPP AAA:  User Authentication  Subscriber profile management  PDN-GW selection support  Roaming restriction  Network access control Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) SWx = 3GPP AAA interface STa / SWa = legacy AAA interface to 3GPP AAA SWm = AAA to ePDG 2/4/2014 180

S2c Interface • Reference point between PDN-GW and the UE. Used to provide client-based session mobility. •Protocol : DSMIPv6 SWn Interface This reference point is used for forced forwarding of UE-initiated tunnelled packets towards the ePDG •Protocol : Locally agreed, e.g. routing based S2b Interface S2a Interface • Reference point for the control plane and user-plane between PDN-GW and Trusted non-3GPP networks. •Protocol : PMIPv6, GRE • Reference point between PDN-GW and the ePDG. Used to provide SAE Core Network access and session mobility for untrusted access networks such as fixed and WLAN deployments •Protocol : PMIPv6 Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 181

Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 182

IP networks Gx PCRF Gxc Gxb SWx HSS Gxa AAA SWm S6a HLR S9 SGi Gr S2a S6b PDN GW S4 S2c Serv GW S11 SGSN S2b S5/S8 MME S3 S103 S101/102 S10 ePDG Gb S12 Iu-C S1-C 2G 3G S1-U LTE Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) SWn Non-3GPP Non-trusted 2/4/2014 SWa STa Non-3GPP Trusted Eg cdma 183

 EPC Supported via S6a Interface (DIAMETER) to MME:      Attach / Detach Authentication Location Update Purge Reset  EPC <-> 2G/3G mobility supported via intruduction of HSS layered architecture (HLR FE, HSS FE and CUDB)  Non 3GPP mobility supported via STa, SWa, SWm, SWx, S6b:      User Authentication Subscriber profile management PDN-GW selection support Roaming restriction Network access control Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) SWx = 3GPP AAA interface STa / SWa = legacy AAA interface to 3GPP AAA SWm = AAA to ePDG 2/4/2014 184

2007-2008 2009 IP networks IP networks IP networks CU DB EMA EMA HSS 2010-2011 HLR /AuC HSS-S CU DB IHSS EMA HLR-S LTE LTE WLAN WLAN IMS 2G/2.5G/3G IMS 2G/2.5G/3G IMS 2G/2.5G/3G Fixed Broadband • Emerging markets: subscriber growth • Mature markets: new features Packet Cable CDMA2000 • Data Centralization • Cost reduction by User Data Consolidation (UDC) Fixed Broadband CDMA2000 • Simplification with all accesses through I-HSS • I-HSS incl. support for System Architecture Evolution (SAE) Smooth and step-wise evolution with business needs Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 185

CUDB Classic Server OAM DB FE data profiles PROVISIONING LOGIC Front-End Server DB OAM Monolithic Node LOGIC PROTOCOLS SW Upgrade OAM Signalling & application logic FE server LOGIC PROTOCOLS  Modified network architecture from monolithic towards layered (Simple Upgrade)  Subscriber data is moved from subscription nodes to the Centralized User Database, CUDB (data migration service)  Simplified management with direct Provisioning towards CUDB (one subscription profile)  Improved network scalability when Front-End Server converted to data- and stateless machine Separation of subscription CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) improved OPEX & CAPEX and traffic scalability for 2/4/2014 Mustafa Golam, 186

 Node belonging to the SACC solution  Main task: control of authorized services per user and QoS control per bearer (PDP context).  SAPC allows SACC subscriber differentiation and flexibility by means of policy evaluation. Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 187

Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 188

Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 189

1. VoIP based on MMTel over LTE 2. CS Fallback in EPS Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 190

 One of the possible solutions for voice continuity in the SAE network is the usage of MMTEL IMS application, this is Voice over IP.  Handover of voice calls from LTE to 2G/3G CS possible : Initiated by HO signaling between the MME and the Inter Working Function (IWF) part of the MSC Server. Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 191

 Key feature to enable co-existence of CS voice on 2G/3G with LTE.  Feature allows a mobile using LTE to temporarily switch to 2G/3G CS when initiating or receiving a voice call.  After the call is terminated, the mobile switches back to LTE again.  The exact solution for this is still under discussion in 3GPP. Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 192

Detach, Attach Reject, TAU reject, EUTRAN interface switched off due to Non-3GPP handover, All bearers deactivated, EMM -DEREGISTERED EMM -REGISTERED EMM-REGISTERED: Attach accept, TAU accept EMM-DEREGISTERED: • UE can receive services requiring registration in EPS EMM state model in UE •EMM Context in MME holds no valid location or routing info for UE •UE location known to MME to Tracking Area granularity • Context data can still be stored in UE. •UE has at least 1 active PDN context Detach, Attach Reject, •UE sets up EPS security context TAU reject All bearers deactivated EMM -DEREGISTERED EMM -REGISTERED Attach accept, TAU accept EMM state model in MME Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 193

RRC connection released ECM-IDLE: ECM-CONNECTED ECM-IDLE •RRC connection not established. RRC connection established •UE location known at Tracking area level. ECM-CONNECTED: •RRC connection UEeNodeB ECM state model in UE •UE location known to MME to cell level. •UE performs Tracking Area Updates. •Tracking Area Updates at change of MME (mobility or load balancing) •MME does paging to locate the UE. •Performs service request procedure to send data uplink S1 connection released ECM-CONNECTED ECM-IDLE S1 connection established ECM state model in MME Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 194

Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 195

HSS UE 1. Atta ch initi ate/ esta blish 2. User data request . 3. User data: GW ID, Default APN. MME 4. Inform UE on PDNGW.eNodeB 5. Establish user plane connectio n (default bearer) Associated MME/S-GWs PDN-GW PDN-GW PDN-GW Note: As opposed to 3GPP 2G/3G:    Default user APN is configured in the HSS, not in the UE. Default context bearer is always established on attach. Mobile gets an IP on attach. Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 196

HSS 1. APN request. UE 3. User 2. User data: GW data ID, APN, request roaming MME . info and IP addr. (for 5. non-3GPP 4. Inform handover). Establish UE on user plane PDNGW.eNodeB connectio n (bearer) Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 Associated MME/ SGWs PDN-GW PDN-GW PDN-GW 197

UE SA1 1. APN request. UE SA2 3. Establish user plane eNodeB connectio n (bearer) 2. Inform eNodeB on S-GW, MME based on UE TA within SA1 eNodeB Configured MME/S-GWs S-GW S-GW S-GW Connects UE to “best” S-GW based on residing Service Area (SA) 198 Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014

MME  Two main modes for mobility for Intra LTE  X2 Mobility MME   MME With or without S-GW relocation S1 Mobility      With or without packet forwarding Direct or indirect packet forwarding With MME relocation With S-GW relocation Combined relocation SA S-GW S-GW SA eNB eNB eNB eNB eNB TA group Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) 2/4/2014 199

PDN-GW  Initiated by UE cell change S5/S8 Unchanged or relocated S-GW S5/S8 S-GW  Optimized mobility HSS S11 S11  Different modes S6a  Unchanged MME MME  unchanged or relocated SAE-GW S1-U S1-U S1-MME  X2 transfers traffic during handover, meanwhile relocation from target to source eNB and potentially relocation of S-GW Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) eNB X2 eNB Data forwarding 2/4/2014 200

PDN-GW  Initiated by UE cell change Unchanged or relocated S5/S8 S5/S8 Packet forwarding S-GW S-GW  Triggered when no X2 for handover exists HSS S11 S11 S6a  May relocate the MME; this MME procedure may also relocate both the MME and the Serving GW S10 MME S1-U S1-U S1-MME  Packet forwarding during handover and any relocation procedures  Additional RAN – EPC signaling compared to X2 mobility Mustafa Golam, CTO, BDTele(BigData In Telecom) eNB 2/4/2014 (X2) eNB 201

    No specific network support, complete overlay The terminal has support for both LTE and 2G/3G At power on, the terminal attaches to either LTE or 2G/3G packet depending on coverage and preferences Common subscription data need to be accessible from both HLR and HSS     HSS SGi Packet GW GGSN S11 Gn Idle mode behaviour is terimnal implementation dependent In Connected mode, access NW change is triggered by loss of connection S6a Gr SGSN Gb/Iu MME S1-MME S1-U GGSN is used as anchor when 2G/3G is used, PGW is used as anchor when LTE used   HLR Gi At loss of coverage, the terminal need to attach to the other network through some

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