Introduction to Linux_by_Amit & Jiban

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Information about Introduction to Linux_by_Amit & Jiban

Published on March 10, 2014

Author: amitknath1



A basic introduction to Linux: The history

LINUXLINUX INTRODUCTIINTRODUCTI ONONPresenter: Amit Kumar Nath & Jiban Krishna Adhikary

PHASE 01: LINUX BASICS Introduction To Linux

OVERVIEWOVERVIEW  What is Unix/Linux?  History of Linux  Features Supported Under Linux  The future of Linux

BEFORE LINUXBEFORE LINUX  In 80’s, Microsoft’s DOS was the dominated OS for PC  Apple MAC was better, but expensive  The history of Linux began with Unix in 1969  Unix was created at Bell Labs with the goals: Simplicity Recyclable code Written in C as opposed to assembly  UNIX was much better, but much, much more expensive. Only for minicomputer for commercial applications  People was looking for a UNIX based system, which is cheaper and can run on PC  Both DOS, MAC and UNIX were proprietary, i.e., the source code of their kernel is protected  No modification is possible without paying high license fees

GNU PROJECTGNU PROJECT  Established in 1984 by Richard Stallman, who believes that software should be free from restrictions against copying or modification in order to make better and efficient computer programs GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not Unix” Aim at developing a complete Unix-like operating system which is free for copying and modification Companies make their money by maintaining and distributing the software, e.g. optimally packaging the software with different tools (Redhat, Slackware, Mandrake, SuSE, etc) Stallman built the first free GNU C Compiler in 1991. But still, an OS was yet to be developed

BEGINNING OF LINUXBEGINNING OF LINUX  A famous professor Andrew Tanenbaum developed Minix, a simplified version of UNIX that runs on PC  Minix is for class teaching only. No intention for commercial use  In Sept 1991, Linus Torvalds, a second year student of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki, developed the preliminary kernel of Linux, known as Linux version 0.0.1

Message from Professor Andrew Tanenbaum " I still maintain the point that designing a monolithic kernel in 1991 is a fundamental error. Be thankful you are not my student. You would not get a high grade for such a design :-)“ (Andrew Tanenbaum to Linus Torvalds) Soon more than a hundred people joined the Linux camp. Then thousands. Then hundreds of thousands It was licensed under GNU General Public License, thus ensuring that the source codes will be free for all to copy, study and to change.

LINUX TODAYLINUX TODAY  Linux has been used for many computing platforms – PC, PDA, Supercomputer,…  Not only character user interface but graphical user interface is available  Commercial vendors moved in Linux itself to provide freely distributed code. They make their money by compiling up various software and gathering them in a distributable format – Red Hat, Slackware, etc

In order to encourage wide dissemination of his OS, Linus made the source code open to public. At the end of 1992 there were about a hundred Linux developers. Next year there were 1000. And the numbers multiplied every year. Recent estimates say about 29 million people use Linux worldwide. The effects of the dot-com bust, IT slowdown and global economic recession can be clearly seen. Source: The Linux Counter Linux: No of Users GROWING AND GROWING…GROWING AND GROWING…

WHY A PENGUIN?  Penguin as logo/mascot for Linux was discussed first in early 1996 by several people in the linux-kernel mailing list. The idea of such mascot came from Alan Cox first.  The first person called the penguin “Tux” was James Hughes who said that it stood for “(T)orvalds (U)ni(X)”  From the letter of Linus Torvalds: ‘Now, when you think about penguins, first take a deep calming breath, and then think “cuddly”. Take another breath, and think “cute”. Go back to “cuddly” for a while (and go on breathing), then think “contented”…. But the simple, single penguin would be the logo, and the others would just be that cuddly penguin being used as an actor in some tableau.’

!= Linux is Not WindowsLinux is Not Windows Problem #1: Linux isn't exactly the same as Windows. Problem #2: Linux is too different from Windows Problem #3: Culture shock Problem #5: The myth of "user-friendly"

WHY SHOULD YOU USE LINUX?  No threat of viruses  Linux systems are extremely stable  Linux is Free  Linux comes with most of the required software pre-installed  Update all your software with minimum fuss  Linux never gets slow  Linux does not need defragmentation  Linux can even run on oldest hardware  Adding more software is a matter of a few clicks  Most Windows-only apps have their either their native version or alternatives for Linux  With Linux, you get the highest degree of possible customizability

FORGET ABOUT VIRUSES!!  Security has always been the number one priority with Linux  Linux has a robust security system  There do not exist viruses for the Linux platform

IS YOUR SYSTEM UNSTABLE ?  Have you ever lost your precious work because Windows crashed? Have you ever gotten the "blue screen of death" or error messages telling you that the computer needs to be shut down for obscure reasons?  Crashes or freezes are not prevalent in Linux

LINUX IS FREE!!  Linux is free and always will be as compared to the very costly Windows and Mac OSX  Using pirated Windows is a bad thing

LINUX COMES WITH SOFTWARE BUILT-IN!!  When the system has installed, why would you still need to install stuff ?  Common software such as music player, web browser, video player, image editor, PDF reader, chat messenger, office apps

UPDATING IN A SINGLE CLICK!  Just like Windows’ Update tool, Linux has a more better alternative to it to update all your system in a few clicks

Linux Distributions: Red Hat Linux : One of the original Linux distribution. The commercial, nonfree version is Red Hat Enterprise Linux, which is aimed at big companies using Linux servers and desktops in a big way. (NJIT) Free version: Fedora Project. Debian GNU/Linux : A free software distribution. Popular for use on servers. However, Debian is not what many would consider a distribution for beginners, as it's not designed with ease of use in mind. SuSE Linux : SuSE was recently purchased by Novell. This distribution is primarily available for pay because it contains many commercial programs, although there's a stripped-down free version that you can download. Mandrake Linux : Mandrake is perhaps strongest on the desktop. Originally based off of Red Hat Linux. Gentoo Linux : Gentoo is a specialty distribution meant for programmers.

The right Linux desktop There are two major desktops in the Linux world: GNOME and KDE. What you're looking at in a default Fedora installation is a Red Hat-customized version of GNOME, called Bluecurve GNOME.

Default Fedora Desktop The default desktop has three distinct areas. From top to bottom, the areas are: The menu panel The desktop area The window list panel

THE MENU PANELTHE MENU PANEL  Applications - The Applications menu contains a variety of icons that start software applications. It is similar to the Microsoft Windows Start menu.  Places - The Places menu contains a customizable list of directories, mounted volumes, recent documents, and a Search function. Volumes that are mounted may be external USB drives (flash, hard disk, CD, etc.), directories shared across a network, or other media devices such as a portable music player.  System - The System menu contains a variety of items.

SYSTEMSYSTEM MENUMENU  Log Out  About  Help  Lock Screen  Preferences  System Settings: configuration tools that are for administrative purposes and usually require root access; that is, when those applications are started, the root password must be entered to continue.

OTHERS:  Mozilla Firefox web browser  Evolution mail client and personal information manager  Writer is a word processing program  Impress is for creating and giving presentations  Calc is a spreadsheet tool

THE DESKTOP AREATHE DESKTOP AREA  Computer - This contains all volumes (or disks) mounted on the computer. These are also listed in the Places menu. Computer is equivalent to My Computer on Microsoft Windows.  Home - This is where the logged-in user stores all files by default, such as music, movies, and documents. There is a different home directory for each user, and by default users cannot access each others' home directories. Home is equivalent to My Documents on Microsoft Windows.  Trash - Deleted files are moved to Trash. Empty Trash by right-clicking the icon and clicking Empty Trash. To permanently delete a file and bypass the file's move to Trash, hold down the [Shift] key when deleting the file. Right-clicking on the desktop presents a menu of actions related to the desktop area. For example, clicking on Change Desktop Background lets you choose a different image or photograph to display on the desktop. It is possible to choose not to have any desktop background.

OTHER SOFTWARE INSTALLEDOTHER SOFTWARE INSTALLED  Audio Player: The XMMS (X Multimedia System), which is used to play digital sound files  CD Player: The default CD player  Sound Juicer CD Ripper: Burn your own CDs  Messaging Client: GAIM supports AIM, MSN, ICQ, and many other popular IM networks  gFTP: Useful for grabbing files through FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

Terminal Window 4 MONITORS

Linux text-based interfaceLinux text-based interface command to show the content of current directory command to show the content of current directory with option -al The prompt $ shows that bash shell is using All LINUX commands start with the name of the command and can be followed by options and arguments.

LINUX SHELLLINUX SHELL  Shell interprets the command and request service from kernel  Similar to DOS but DOS has only one set of interface while Linux can select different shell  Bourne Again shell (Bash), TC shell (Tcsh), Z shell (Zsh) Kernel Bash, Tcsh, Zsh ls pwd whoami  Different shell has similar but different functionality  Bash is the default for Linux  Graphical user interface of Linux is in fact an application program work on the shell

Commands: / (root directory) /root – home directory of the user root pwd – you can see your home directory df – to see disk space available cd – to change to different directory or to go back to home dir .. - move to parent directory ls – list the contents of a directory; Options: -l (more info) -a (displays hidden files) -t (sort by time) -r (oldest first) Example: ls –ltr : display an long list of files that are sorted by time, display the oldest ones first Some of the basic commands you should learn are the ones that help you navigate the file system.

cp : copy one file to another rm : remove a file man : ask for the manual (or help) of a command e.g. man cd ask for the manual of the command cd cat : to show the content of a text file e.g. cat abc.txt show the content of abc.txt whoami : to show the username of the current user Directory is denoted by a / (slash) character Executable program by a * Hidden file preceded by a . (dot)

Names in blue are directories, indicated by a letter d at the beginning of the line The concept of simple file and directory is similar to DOS



BASICS OF LINUX SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION: WORKING AT THE CONSOLE  1. Before you begin You need a working Linux system that includes the bash shell, so you can practice the commands and techniques covered in this knowledge path. o 2. Get comfortable with the bash shell Roll up your sleeves and get your hands on Linux, starting with fundamentals of the bash shell's command line, including basic bash commands, environment variables, and system information; finding, listing, moving, copying, and archiving files. o 3. Search and edit text files Working in a command shell environment such as bash involves manipulating text: cutting and pasting, joining strings together, sorting, and concatenating. o 4. Take control of processes Managing processes is everyday work for Linux administrators and developers. Learn how to shuffle processes between foreground and background, find out what's running, kill processes, and keep processing running after you've left for the day. Also learn how to set and change process priorities.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  1. Select Install or Upgrade Fedora.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  2. Language Selection.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  3. Select appropriate Keyboard.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  4. Select Basic Storage device, if your hard drive is locally attached.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  5. Storage device Warning, Click Yes to discard any data.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  6. Set Hostname for your Fedora installation.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  7. Click on Configure Network button if you want to configure network during installation.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  8. Click Wired tab and click on Add button. Select Connect automatically, go to ipv4 settings tab and select Method and select Manual in drop down. Fill address box with IP Address, Netmask, Gateway and DNS.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  9. Select nearest city in your Time Zone.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  10. Set root password.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  11. Select appropriate Partition as per your requirement.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  12. Verify Filesystem partition here or you can edit filesystem if you want.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  13. Format Warning, click on Format if you are OK with it.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  14. If you are confirmed, then click on Write Change to Disk.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  15. File system Formatting.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  16. Install Boot Loader and if you want to set password for Boot Loader set it.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  17. Click on Customize now and select your software’s for installation and then click on Next.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  18. Select optional Packages and click on Next install it.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  19. Installation started, this may take several minutes as per selection of packages.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  20. Packages installation is in progress.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  21. Installation completed, Please remove CD/DVD and Reboot system.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  22. Screen of GRUB Boot Loader, use arrow keys to select Fedora Linux to boot.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  23. Post installation of Fedora, Welcome Screen.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  24. License Information.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  25. Create non-administrative user.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  26. Set Date and Time for the system.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  27. Hardware Profile Submitting to Fedora Project.

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  28. First Login Screen of Fedora!

PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  29. Fedora Desktop Screen.


REFERENCES  1. step-installation-guide-with-screenshots/  2. p/l-kp-command/  3.

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