Introduction to Lex

75 %
25 %
Information about Introduction to Lex

Published on November 30, 2007

Author: Chyou


Introduction to Lex:  Introduction to Lex Ying-Hung Jiang Outlines:  Outlines Review of scanner Introduction to flex Regular Expression Cooperate with Yacc Resources Review:  Review Parser -> scanner -> source code See teacher’s slide flex:  flex flex - fast lexical analyzer generator:  flex - fast lexical analyzer generator Flex is a tool for generating scanners. Flex source is a table of regular expressions and corresponding program fragments. Generates lex.yy.c which defines a routine yylex() Format of the Input File:  Format of the Input File The flex input file consists of three sections, separated by a line with just %% in it: definitions %% rules %% user code Definitions Section:  Definitions Section The definitions section contains declarations of simple name definitions to simplify the scanner specification. Name definitions have the form: name definition Example: DIGIT [0-9] ID [a-z][a-z0-9]* Rules Section:  Rules Section The rules section of the flex input contains a series of rules of the form: pattern action Example: {ID} printf( "An identifier: %s\n", yytext ); The yytext and yylength variable. If action is empty, the matched token is discarded. Action:  Action If the action contains a ‘{‘, the action spans till the balancing ‘}‘ is found, as in C. An action consisting only of a vertical bar ('|') means "same as the action for the next rule.“ The return statement, as in C. In case no rule matches: simply copy the input to the standard output (A default rule). Precedence Problem:  Precedence Problem For example: a “<“ can be matched by “<“ and “<=“. The one matching most text has higher precedence. If two or more have the same length, the rule listed first in the flex input has higher precedence. User Code Section:  User Code Section The user code section is simply copied to lex.yy.c verbatim. The presence of this section is optional; if it is missing, the second %% in the input file may be skipped. In the definitions and rules sections, any indented text or text enclosed in %{ and %} is copied verbatim to the output (with the %{}'s removed). A Simple Example:  A Simple Example %{ int num_lines = 0, num_chars = 0; %} %% \n ++num_lines; ++num_chars; . ++num_chars; %% main() { yylex(); printf( "# of lines = %d, # of chars = %d\n", num_lines, num_chars ); } Any Question So Far?:  Any Question So Far? Regular Expression:  Regular Expression Regular Expression (1/3):  Regular Expression (1/3) x match the character 'x' . any character (byte) except newline [xyz] a "character class"; in this case, the pattern matches either an 'x', a 'y', or a 'z' [abj-oZ] a "character class" with a range in it; matches an 'a', a 'b', any letter from 'j' through 'o', or a 'Z' [^A-Z] a "negated character class", i.e., any character but those in the class. In this case, any character EXCEPT an uppercase letter. [^A-Z\n] any character EXCEPT an uppercase letter or a newline Regular Expression (2/3):  Regular Expression (2/3) r* zero or more r's, where r is any regular expression r+ one or more r's r? zero or one r's (that is, "an optional r") r{2,5} anywhere from two to five r's r{2,} two or more r's r{4} exactly 4 r's {name} the expansion of the "name" definition (see above) "[xyz]\"foo“ the literal string: [xyz]"foo \X if X is an 'a', 'b', 'f', 'n', 'r', 't', or 'v', then the ANSI-C interpretation of \x. Otherwise, a literal 'X' (used to escape operators such as '*') Regular Expression (3/3):  Regular Expression (3/3) \0 a NUL character (ASCII code 0) \123 the character with octal value 123 \x2a the character with hexadecimal value 2a (r) match an r; parentheses are used to override precedence (see below) rs the regular expression r followed by the regular expression s; called "concatenation" r|s either an r or an s ^r an r, but only at the beginning of a line (i.e., which just starting to scan, or right after a newline has been scanned). r$ an r, but only at the end of a line (i.e., just before a newline). Equivalent to "r/\n". Cooperate with Yacc:  Cooperate with Yacc The file (generated by –d option). See pascal.l and pascal.y for example. Resources:  Resources Google directory of lexer and parser generators. Flex homepage: Lex/yacc Win32 port: Above links are available on course webpage. Flex(1) Any Question?:  Any Question?

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Introduction to Lex.DB | Lex's Blog

Thanks Lex, I’ve been looking the code, not be better try to use portable class library before compiler directive in code? I am very interest in this ...
Read more

An introduction to lex and yacc part 1 - CodeProject

A guide to using lex and yacc to create parsers in your projects; Author: Rob Manderson; Updated: 22 Mar 2003; Section: Algorithms & Recipes; Chapter ...
Read more

Lex Barker — Introduction

Lex Barker was an actor during Hollywood's golden years and still enjoys worldwide acclaim today. He has his place in movie history as Tarzan and Old ...
Read more

Introduction to Lex.DB · demigor/lex.db Wiki · GitHub

lex.db - Lex DB ... Let’s start with simple example. We have a data class to store locally.
Read more

An Introduction to LEX and YACC - Carleton

CONTENTS CONTENTS Contents 1 General Structure 3 2 Lex - A lexical analyzer 4 3 Yacc - Yet another compiler compiler 10 4 Main Program 17 SYSC-3101 2 ...
Read more

Introduction to Lex -

FREE UNIVERSITY OF BOZEN–BOLZANO Faculty of Computer Science Introduction to Lex • General Description • Input file • Output file
Read more

Introduction to LEX - LEX - LDAP Explorer

LEX Online Manual / Reference Guide. LEX - The LDAP Explorer: A powerful LDAP client on Windows with rich features. For administrators of directories like ...
Read more

Introduction [Explicit] - Lex Topdollar: ...

Ihre Musikbibliothek MP3-Einkaufswagen. Sie haben die maximale Anzahl an zulässigen Titeln in Ihrem MP3-Einkaufswagen überschritten.
Read more

Lex & Yacc tutorial by Tom Niemann - ePaperPress

by Tom Niemann . . 2 ... Introduction ... This document explains how to construct a compiler using lex and yacc. Lex and yacc are tools
Read more

Introduction to yacc - YouTube

Want to watch this again later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. A gentle introduction to the yacc parser generator tool
Read more