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Health & Medicine

Published on March 6, 2014

Author: maheswarijaikumar





HEALTH DEFINITION. “ A state of complete physical,mental,social & spiritual well-being not mearly the absence of disease or infirmity.-WHO (1978). “A dynamic state of being in which the developmental & Behavioural potential of an individual is realized to the fullest extent possible.”---ANA. (1980). MJ.

“ Actualization of inherent & acquired human potential through directed behaviour,competent self care & satisfying relationships with others,while adjustments are made as needed to maintain structural integrity & harmony with the environment,”--PENDER,PARSON.(2002). MJ.

HEALTH & WELLNESS CONCEPT WELLNESS. Is a state of well-being.Concepts of wellness include self responsibility,an ultimate goal, a dynamic growing process, daily decision making in the areas of nutrition,stress management,physical fitness,preventive health care,emotional health,most importantly the whole being of the individual. MJ.

COMPONENTS OF WELLBEING. Environ m-ental Social Emotion -al WELLNES S. Physica l ROSATO Occupati o-nal Intellectu al Spiritual MJ


PHYSICAL COMPONENT. Refers to the ability to carry out daily tasks,achieve fitness,maintain adequate nutrition,proper body fat,avoid abusing drugs & alcohol, generally to practice positive lifestyle habits. MJ

SOCIAL COMPONENT. Ability to interact successfully with people & within the environment to maintain intimacy with significant others & to develop respect & tolerance for those with different opinion & beliefs.

EMOTIONAL COMPONENT Ability to manage stress & manage appropriately. INTELLECTUAL The ability to learn & use information effectively for personal,family & career development.

SPIRITUAL COMPONENT. Belief in a higher power. OCCUPATIONAL. The ability to achieve a balance between work & leisure time.

ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENT. The ability to promote health measures that improve the standard of living & quality of life in the community.

HEALTH ILLNSS CONTIUA. The health illness continua is used to measure a person’s perceived level of wellness. The health & illness are viewed as opposite ends of the health continua. An individual moves back & forth within this continuum day by day. There is no distinct boundary across which people move on the continuum. The levels include wellness state, normal state, poor health,disability & death.

HEALTH ILLNES CONTINUM WELLNESS MODEL. Disability, Symp, Sign Awareness, Edn, Growth TREATMENT MODEL death NEUTRAL POINT wellnes s

EFFECT OF ILLNESS. Illness results in changes in the individual behaviour,changes in the family dynamics. The changes involve changes in role,body image,self concept & family dynamics. The following are the areas of change.


BEHAVIORAL & EMOTIONAL CHANGES . Individual react differently to illness or treatment. Individual behaviour & emotional reactions depend on the nature of illness. Short term / non life threatening illness evoke few Behavioural changes. Severe illness evoke extensive emotional & Behavioural changes such as anxiety,shock,denial,anger & withdrawal.

IMPACT ON BODY IMAGE. Body image is a subjective concept of physical appearance. Some illness results result in changes in physical appearance. The client & families react differently to these changes. The reaction depend on type of changes, loss of limb / organ & their adaptive capacity,& the nature of supportive services available

IMPACT ON SELF CONCEPT. Self concept is a mental self image of strengths & weakness of a person Self concept is important in relationships with the family members & significant others. Client undergoing self concept changes, sometimes may not be in a position to meet the family expectation. The health care professionals are to devise the health care appropriately

IMPACT ON FAMILY ROLES. Individuals have multiple roles such as wage earner,decision maker, professional,parent,child. Illness may limit the role of the individual. Illness may necessitate role changes. Changes may be short term or long term. Long term changes require prolonged adjustment process.

IMPACT ON FAMILY DYNAMICS. Family dynamics change due to illness of the individual. Therefore the health care professionals will have to design care for the entire family

VARIABLES INFLUENCING ILLNESS & ILLNESS BEHAVIOUR Health & illness are affected by internal & external variables. The influence of variables & the illness behaviour influence the likelihood of seeking health care & client’s compliance. There fore it is imperative that the health care professionals are aware of the variables so that they can design appropriate care.


INTERNAL VARIABLES. Include the following variables. Age, Sex, Personality, Internal homeostasis, Health seeking behaviour,perception, Intellectual background, Spiritual factors & Developmental stage.

EXTERNAL VARIABLES. Include the variables outside,They include…… Family, Social group, Customs, Cultural background, Economic variables, Accessibility of the health care system .

CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY HEALTH. COMMUNITY BASED HEALTH CARE (CBHC), is a primary health care system that provides health related services within the context of people’s daily lives ------- in homes,long term care residents,at work, in schools,ambulatory care settings & in hospital.

CRITERIA OF AN IDEAL CBHC Provide easy access to the system. Be flexible in responding to the care needs that individuals & families identify. Promote care between & among health care agencies through improved communication mechanisms. Provide appropriate support for family care givers. Be affordable.

CRITERIA OF AN IDEAL CBHC SYSTEM– PEW HEALTH PROFESSIONS’S COMMISION. THE FOLLOWING GOALS SHOULD BE ACCOMPLISHED. •Be more oriented to health & emphasis health promotion & disease prevention. •Focus on individual responsibility for health practices & behaviour. •Be population based & focus more attention on risk factors in the physical & social environment. •Use electronic information for client histories & research findings to support diagnostic decisions & treatment recommendations.

•Have s strong focus on consumers who would have increased information about their health care. •Base decisions on outcomes. •Prove effective care by integrated– coordinated teams to providers. •Balance technology with on technological interventions •Have a health care consumers with a high sense of accountability.

MODEL OF AN INTEGRATED HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM. Lab Insurance coy Primary care pract Ct Famil y Clinic Pharmacy Technician Specialist Extended care Hospital facility

COMMUNITY BASED NURSING. •Refers to nsg care directed towards specific individuals. •It involves varies practice settings. •It extends beyond institutional boundaries & involves a network of nursing services.( Nursing Wellness Centers,Ambulatory Care Settings, Acute Care Settings, •Long Term Care Settings, Telephone Advice, Home Health, Hospice services.)

ACTIVITIES OF A NURSE CASE MANAGER . •Making home visit & monitor the extended care. •Visiting a newly admitted client in care setting. •Consultative telephones.

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